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Pandemic Influenza Preparedness

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Pandemic Influenza Preparedness Maria Natal-Gopin, Ph.D. student Walden University PUBH 8165-1 Dr. David Anderson Winter, 2011 Now let s move on to prevention and ... – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: Pandemic Influenza Preparedness


1
Pandemic Influenza Preparedness
Maria Natal-Gopin, Ph.D. student Walden
University PUBH 8165-1 Dr. David Anderson Winter,
2011
2
Pandemic Influenza Preparedness Agenda
  • Objectives
  • Influenza Pandemic definition
  • 20th Century Pandemics
  • Influenza Pandemic Knowledge Gained
  • Prevention and Control
  • H5N1 Influenza Virus
  • H5N1 Risk Reduction
  • Prevention
  • Control
  • Caring for the Ill
  • Conclusion
  • Additional Sources
  • References

3
Objectives
  • By the end of this presentation you will be able
    to
  • Describe what an influenza pandemic is and
    discuss the differences and similarities between
    the seasonal influenza and an influenza pandemic
  • Describe the actions being taken by various
    agencies to prepare for and prevent an influenza
    pandemic
  • State three things you can do to prevent or limit
    an influenza pandemic
  • Describe the potential environmental impact of an
    influenza pandemic
  • Verbalize three steps you can take to manage the
    symptoms
  • Name three resources in your community you can
    contact for additional information on influenza
    pandemics

4
What is an Influenza Pandemic?
  • A worldwide outbreak of a new influenza virus
  • Immunity is nonexistent or very limited
  • Similar characteristics to seasonal influenza
  • Infections across age groups
  • Illness is often self limiting
  • Different characteristics to seasonal influenza
  • Higher fatality rates among the young
  • Greater impact and severity
  • Not associated with a season
  • Often zoonotic in origin

World Health Organization (WHO). (2010, February
24). What is a pandemic? Retrieved January 14,
2011 from http//www.who.int/csr/disease/swineflu/
frequently_asked_questions/pandemic/en/index.html
5
Comparison
Seasonal and Pandemic Influenza
Seasonal Influenza
Identified influenza virus Previous exposure
likely Milder symptoms, less complications Young
and elderly at risk Modest societal, economic and
environmental impact
New influenza virus No previous exposure More
severe symptoms and complications Affects healthy
people across all ages Severe societal, economic
and environmental impact
Pandemic Influenza
6
20th Century Pandemics
  • Spanish Influenza- 1918
  • caused by an avian (bird) virus (H1N1)
  • antigenic subtypes of influenza A virus
  • affected mostly healthy adults (99 lt 65 years)
  • associated with the most fatalities (? pneumonia
    complications)
  • Asian Influenza- 1957
  • H2N2
  • descendant of the 1918 avian virus
  • antigenic subtypes of influenza A virus
  • Hong Kong Influenza- 1968
  • H3N2
  • descendant of the 1918 avian virus
  • antigenic subtypes of influenza A virus

Kilbourne, E. D. (2006). Influenza Pandemics of
the 20th Century. Emerging Infectious Diseases,
12(1), 9-14. Retrieved from Academic Search
complete database.
7
Influenza Pandemic Knowledge Gained
  • Communication Coordination
  • Surveillance
  • avian influenza viruses (AIVs)
  • Reassortment and virus mutations
  • Antigenic Drift
  • Antigenic Shift
  • Viral transmission

Permission obtained from EHA Consulting Group,
Inc.
Pappaioanou, M. Gramer, M. (2010). Lessons from
Pandemic H1N1 2009 to improve prevention,
detection, and response to influenza pandemics
from a One Health Perspective. Institute for
Laboratory Animal Research (ILAR) Journal, 52(2),
268- 280. Retrieved from http//dels
old.nas.edu/ilar_n/ilarjournal/51_3/pdfs/v5103Papp
aioanou.pdf
8
Prevention Control
  • Disease containment
  • Infection control
  • Vaccination
  • Flu Self- Assessment
  • Use of protective personal equipment
  • Sick leave
  • Basic hygiene practices
  • Hand hygiene
  • Cough etiquette
  • Ventilation
  • Bird proofing
  • Dont use untreated water
  • Filter water
  • Report dead birds to the USDA-Wildlife Services
    at 1-866-4-USDA-WS
  • Know the facts about the quality of the lakes
    where you fish and visit the New Jersey
    Department of Environmental Protection

Olsen, C. W. (2004). Influenza Pigs, people and
public health. Public health fact sheet, National
Pork Board, 2, 1-4. Retrieved January 16, 2012
from http//www.setma.com/pdffiles/influenza_pigs_
people_and_public_health.pdf
9
A New Influenza A Virus Threat
  • H5N1
  • highly pathogenic avian influenza (HPAI) virus
  • wild birds are the reservoir
  • several subtypes identified
  • transmission
  • fecal/oral
  • contaminated water
  • Outbreaks
  • Decontamination

H1N1- 1918
H2N2- 1957
H5N1
H1N1- 2009
H3N2- 1968
Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC).
(2010, November 21). Key facts about Avian
Influenza (Bird Flu) and highly pathogenic avian
influenza A (H5N1) virus. Retrieved from
http//www.cdc.gov/flu/avian/gen-info/facts.htm
10
H5N1 Cases in 2007
American Academy of Pediatrics (AAP) Trust for
America's Health (TFAH). (2007, October).
Pandemic Influenza Warning children at-risk.
Retrieved from http//healthyamericans.org/reports
/fluchildren/KidsPandemicFlu.pdf
11
H5N1 Risk Reduction
  • New Jersey Department of Environmental Protection
    Division of Fish and Wildlife
  • U. S. Department of Agriculture
  • banned the import of birds or poultry products
    from any country where H5N1 has been reported
    (NJDEP, 2007, para. 10)
  • Poultry and farm inspections

Fang, L., de Vlas, S. J., Liang, S., Looman, C.
W. N., Gong, P., Xu, B., Yan, L.,, Cao, W.
(2008, May). Environmental factors contributing
to the spread of H5N1 Avian Influenza in mainland
China. PLoS ONE, 3(5), e2268 e 2281. Retrieved
from http//www.plosone.org/article/infodoi2F10.
13712Fjournal.pone.0002268 New Jersey
Department of Environmental Protection, Division
of Birds and Wildlife. (2007, October 11). The
bird flu. Retrieved January 16, 2012 from
http//www.state.nj.us/dep/fgw/birdflu07.htm
12
H5N1 Prevention
  • When cleaning birds or gathering eggs
  • Use gloves
  • Dont touch your mouth or face or eat, smoke or
    drink
  • Wash hands with soap and water
  • Clean contaminated surfaces (including knives)
    with a 10 bleach solution
  • Cook birds to 165 F and use a minimum
    temperature of 325 F
  • Observe wildlife from a distance
  • Dont touch wildlife

New Jersey Department of Environmental
Protection, Division of Birds and Wildlife.
(2007, October 11). The bird flu. Retrieved
January 16, 2012 from http//www.state.nj.us/dep/f
gw/birdflu07.htm
13
In Advance
  • Be informed
  • Make a plan
  • Family Emergency Plan
  • Build a kit
  • Get involved
  • New Jersey State Citizen Corps Council
  • Medical Reserves Corps
  • Additional Resources
  • American Red Cross
  • Humane Society of the United States
  • Local fire and rescue professionals
  • State/ local public health professionals

Ready.gov. (n. d.). Prepare, plan, be informed.
Retrieved from http//www.ready.gov/
14
Control
  • National Influenza Pandemic Plan
  • State and local collaboration
  • New Jersey Statewide Pandemic Influenza Plan
  • Vaccines
  • Antiviral Medications

Permission obtained from CartoonStock Ltd.
15
Caring for the Ill
  • Social Distancing
  • Voluntary
  • isolation quarantine
  • Involuntary
  • Schools, daycares and business closings
  • Public gatherings cancelled
  • Strategic National Stockpile
  • Vaccines
  • Antiviral medications
  • Personal Protective Equipment
  • Face masks and N 95 respirators
  • Infection control
  • hand hygiene
  • cough etiquette
  • Discarding contaminated supplies
  • Medical attention

American Academy of Pediatrics (AAP) Trust for
America's Health (TFAH). (2007, October).
Pandemic Influenza Warning children at-risk.
Retrieved from http//healthyamericans.org/reports
/fluchildren/KidsPandemicFlu.pdf Trust for
Americas Health. (2007, July 30). Pandemic Flu
and the potential for an economic recession.
Retrieved from http//healthyamericans.org/reports
/flurecession/
16
Conclusion
Clipart from presentationpro.com
17
Additional Sources
  • Arinaminpathy, N, McLean, A.R. (2008, May 6).
    Antiviral treatment for the control of pandemic
    influenza some logistical constraints. Journal
    of the Royal Society, 5(22), 545553. doi
    10.1098/?rsif.2007.1152
  • Avian Influenza Page of the U.S. Department of
    Agriculture's Animal and Plant Health Inspection
    Service
  • Centers for Disease Control and Prevention,
    Influenza Page
  • Centers for Disease Control Prevention (CDC).
    (2006, October). Interim Guidance on Planning for
    the Use of Surgical Masks and Respirators in
    Healthcare Settings during an Influenza Pandemic.
    Retrieved from http//www.flu.gov/planning-prepare
    dness/hospital/maskguidancehc.html

18
Additional Sources
  • Gray, G. C., McCarthy, T., Capuano, A. W.,
    Setterquist, S. F., Olsen, C. W., Alavanja, M.
    C., Lynch, C. F. (2007). Swine workers and swine
    influenza virus infections. Emerging Infectious
    Diseases, 13, 1871-1878. Retrieved from
    http//www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC287673
    9/pdf/06-1323_finalR.pdf
  • National Research Council. (2005). Microbial
    threats to health The threat of pandemic
    influenza. Washington, DC The National Academies
    Press.
  • National Research Council. (2009). Sustaining
    global surveillance and response to emerging
    zoonotic diseases . Washington, DC The National
    Academies Press.
  • National Wildlife Health Center's Avian Influenza
    pages
  • New Jersey Department of Health and Senior
    Services, Avian Influenza Page
  • New Jersey Department of Agriculture, Avian
    Influenza Page
  • World Health Organization's avian influenza
    website

19
References
  • American Academy of Pediatrics (AAP) Trust for
    America's Health (TFAH). (2007, October).
    Pandemic Influenza Warning children at-risk.
    Retrieved from http//healthyamericans.org/reports
    /fluchildren/KidsPandemicFlu.pdf
  • Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC).
    (2010, November 21). Key Facts About Avian
    Influenza (Bird Flu) and Highly Pathogenic Avian
    Influenza A (H5N1) Virus. Retrieved from
    http//www.cdc.gov/flu/avian/gen-info/facts.htm
  • Fang, L., de Vlas, S. J., Liang, S., Looman, C.
    W. N., Gong, P., Xu, B., Yan, L.,, Cao, W.
    (2008, May). Environmental factors contributing
    to the spread of H5N1 Avian Influenza in mainland
    China. PLoS ONE, 3(5), e2268 e 2281. Retrieved
    from http//www.plosone.org/article/infodoi2F10.
    13712Fjournal.pone.0002268

20
References
  • Gray, G. C., McCarthy, T., Capuano, A. W.,
    Setterquist, S. F., Olsen, C. W., Alavanja, M.
    C., Lynch, C. F. (2007). Swine workers and swine
    influenza virus infections. Emerging Infectious
    Diseases, 13, 1871-1878. Retrieved from
    http//www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC287673
    9/pdf/06-1323_finalR.pdf
  • Johnson, N. P. Mueller, J. (2002, Spring).
    Updating the Accounts Global mortality of the
    1918-1920 "Spanish Influenza Pandemic. Bulletin
    of the History of Medicine, 76(1), 105-115. DOI
    10.1353/bhm.2002.0022
  • Kilbourne, E. D. (2006). Influenza pandemics of
    the 20th century. Emerging Infectious Diseases,
    12(1), 9-14. Retrieved from Academic Search
    complete database.
  • New Jersey Department of Environmental
    Protection, Division of Birds and Wildlife.
    (2007, October 11). The bird flu. Retrieved
    January 16, 2012 from http//www.state.nj.us/dep/f
    gw/birdflu07.htm

21
References
  • Olsen, C. W. (2004). Influenza Pigs, people and
    public health. Public health fact sheet, National
    Pork Board, 2, 1-4. Retrieved January 16, 2012
    from http//www.setma.com/pdffiles/influenza_pigs_
    people_and_public_health.pdf
  • Moeller, D. W. (2011). Environmental health (4th
    ed.). Cambridge, MA Harvard University Press.
  • Pappaioanou, M. Gramer, M. (2010). Lessons from
    Pandemic H1N1 2009 to improve prevention,
    detection, and response to influenza pandemics
    from a One Health Perspective. Institute for
    Laboratory Animal Research (ILAR) Journal, 52(2),
    268- 280. Retrieved from http//dels-old.nas.edu/i
    lar_n/ilarjournal/51_3/pdfs/v5103Pappaioanou.pdf
  • Rappaport, D. J. (n. d.). Avian Influenza and the
    environment An ecohealth perspective. Retrieved
    from http//www.unep.org/DEWA/products/publication
    s/2006/DRapport_AI_Final_180506_Edit3.doc.pdf

22
References
  • Ready.gov. (n. d.). Prepare, plan, be informed.
    Retrieved from http//www.ready.gov/
  • Singer, A. C., Colizza, V., Schmitt, H., Andrews,
    J., Balcan, D., Huang, W. E., Keller, V. D.J.,
    ...Williams, R. J. Assessing the ecotoxicologic
    hazards of a pandemic influenza medical response.
    Environmental Health Perspectives, 119(8), 1084 -
    1090. Retrieved from http//ehp03.niehs.nih.gov/ar
    ticle/fetchArticle.action?articleURIinfodoi/10.1
    289/ehp.1002757
  • State of New Jersey. (n. d.). Fast facts.
    Retrieved from http//www.nj.gov/nj/about/facts/fa
    cts/
  • Taubengerber, J. K. Morens, D. M. (2006,
    January). 1918 Influenza the mother of all
    pandemics. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 12(1),
    15-22. Retrieved from Academic Search Premier
    database.

23
References
  • Taubengerber, J. K. Morens, D. M. (2010).
    Influenza The once and future pandemic. Public
    Health Reports, 125(3), 16-26. Retrieved from
    http//www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC286233
    1/
  • Trust for Americas Health. (2007, July 30).
    Pandemic Flu and the potential for an economic
    recession. Retrieved from http//healthyamericans.
    org/reports/flurecession/
  • World Health Organization (WHO). (2012, January
    12). Cumulative number of confirmed human cases
    for avian influenza A(H5N1) reported to WHO,
    2003-2012. Retrieved from http//www.who.int/influ
    enza/human_animal_interface/EN_GIP_20120116Cumulat
    iveNumberH5N1cases.pdf

24
Contact Information
  • Maria Natal-Gopin
  • Mnatal-gopin_at_waldenuniversity.edu
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