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Wireless Sensor Network Security: The State of the Art

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Wireless Sensor Network Security: The State of the Art ASCI Springschool on Wireless Sensor Networks Yee Wei Law The University of Melbourne Prelude In the beginning ... – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: Wireless Sensor Network Security: The State of the Art


1
Wireless Sensor Network SecurityThe State of
the Art
  • ASCI Springschool on Wireless Sensor Networks

Yee Wei Law The University of Melbourne
2
Prelude
  • In the beginning, security objective for civilian
    applications is unclear
  • But communication with the industry confirms our
    suspicion about the security requirements
  • Endless challenges, every component of WSNs has
    its corresponding security issues

3
Roadmap
  • Primer to cryptography andWSNs
  • Secure data aggregation
  • Key management
  • Other areas
  • secure remote reprogramming
  • secure localization
  • energy-efficient jamming attacks

Information Assurance
Protection
Detection
Reaction
4
Part Zero
  • Primer to cryptography and WSNs

5
Introduction to security
  • Security threats either somebody wants to steal
    something from you or sabotage you
  • Information assurance (IA) is a set of measures
    that protect and defend information and
    information systems by ensuring their
    availability, integrity, authentication,
    confidentiality, and non-repudiation. These
    measures include providing for restoration of
    information systems by incorporating protection,
    detection, and re-action capabilities.

Information assurance
Information security
Operation security
6
Primitives
  • Security objectives
  • Confidentiality
  • Integrity
  • Authentication
  • Non-repudiation
  • Encryption / decryption
  • Symmetric-key E(K, M) / D(K, M)
  • Asymmetric-key E(PK, M) / D(SK, M)
  • Signature / verification
  • Symmetric-key message authentication code (MAC),
    denotedMAC(K, M)
  • Asymmetric-key digital signature,
    denotedSign(SK, M), Ver(PK, M)

Notation Public key PK Private key SK
7
Common usage
Diff keys for encryption and authentication
  • E(K1, M) MAC(K2, E(K1, M))
  • E(K1, M) Sign(SK, h(E(K1, M)))

Integrity, authentication
Confidentiality
Signing on hash is more efficient
Confidentiality
Integrity, authentication, non-repudiation
8
Birthday threshold
23 people (q)
birthdays (n)
  • Collision probability C(N,q)
  • Birthday attack on CBC-MAC Bellare et al. 00

number of queries
running time
9
Security notions (PKC)
  • Semantic security indistinguishabilityCiphertex
    t doesnt reveal anything about the plaintext
    except the length
  • Non-malleabilityNew ciphertexts cannot be
    created based on known ciphertexts
  • Satisfies a security notion, if an attacker loses
    to a game, e.g., the chosen plaintext attack
    (CPA) game

10
Challenges in WSNs
Constraints
Implications
Sensor node hardware, resource constraints
Algos must be energy- and storage-efficient
Nodes operate unattended
Adversary can compromise any node
Nodes not tamper-resistant
Adversary can compromise any nodes keys
No fixed infrastructure
Cannot assume any special-function node in
vicinity
No pre-configed topology
Nodes dont know neighbours in advance
Communicate in an open medium
Communications are world-readable and
world-writeable by default
11
Security design principles
  • Favour computation over communication
  • Communication 1000 times more energy-consuming
    than computation
  • Minimal public-key crypto
  • Tate pairing costs 5s (54mJ) on a Tmote Sky
    (fastest recorded by Szczechowiak et al. 08)
  • Favour resilience (tolerance) over absolute
    security
  • Strength in number

12
Part One
  • Secure data aggregation

13
Data aggregation
aggregate
aggregate
aggregate
  • Purposes
  • Save bandwidth (limited data rate)
  • Save energy (limited energy)

Reason why we put a processor on every node in
the first place
14
Phase 1 Query dissemination
Sample query SELECT AVERAGE(temperature) FROM
sensors WHERE floor 6 EPOCH DURATION 30s
15
Phase 2 Data aggregation
aggregate
aggregate
aggregate
Types of aggregation (1) basic aggregation, (2)
data compression, (3) parameter estimation
16
Phase 3 Result verification (optional)
Did you really report this?
Did you really report this?
Did you really report this?
Did you really report this?
Did you really report this?
Did you really report this?
17
Security goals of data aggregation
So the average is 251.5 Oh wait a minute
  • Robustness Byzantine corruption of data would
    not make aggregation result totally meaningless
  • Confidentiality To ensure that other than the
    sink and the sources, no intermediate node should
    have knowledge of the raw data or the aggregation
    result

perform averaging
1
1000
3
2
What the hell am I forwarding?
sink
What the hell am I aggregating?
sources
18
Securing data aggregation multipronged defence
4
1
2
3
19
Resilient aggregation
  • Objective To bound the effect of data corruption
  • Corruption can be arbitrary Byzantine
  • By convention, we denote the number of
    corruptions as k
  • Methods
  • Robust statistics (1-hop networks)
  • RANBAR (1-hop networks)
  • Quantiles aggregation (multi-hop networks)

20
Robust statistics
Say an aggregation function is actually an
estimator Say we are estimating a parameter T
and there are k rouge nodes An aggregation
function is (k,?)-resilient if
That is, the RMS error as a result of
k-corruption, must be bounded by a constant
factor of the original RMS error We win if we
can limit ? The attacker wins if he manages to
unbound ?
21
Examples of (k,?)-resilient aggregation functions
y
y?y?
Non-resilient, example Average
rms(y?)gt? rms(y)
AVG
AVG
x1
x1
x2
x3
x4
x2
x3
x44?
Resilient, examples
22
RANBAR
  • Based on RANdom SAmple Consensus, which
    originates in computer vision (hence the name
    RANBAR RANsac-Based AggRegation Buttyán et al.
    06)
  • Step1 Use as few samples as possible to
    determine a preliminary model
  • Step 2 Use the preliminary model to identify
    samples that are consistent with the model
  • Step 3 Refine the model with all the samples
    that are found to be consistent

23
Quantiles aggregation (extending resilient
aggregation to multihop)
4
6
Median
Median
10
2
2
Median
Median
Median
1
2
3
4
16
1
2
3
4
16
Actual median 3
This approach suggests that instead of taking a
median every hop on the way, we should compress
the data judiciously at each hop
24
Quantiles aggregation
count
tree nodes are numbered
Rules for deriving a q-digest Rule (A)
count(node) count(parent) count(siblings)
?n/k? 1 Rule (B) count(node) ?
?n/k? q-digest in this example
lt8,2gt,lt9,2gt,lt1,1gt
25
Quantiles aggregation
count
tree nodes are numbered
Derived median data value represented by node 9
3.5 Actual median 3
26
Resilient aggregation guidelines
  • Two approaches actually
  • estimate by minimizing effects of outliers
  • detect outliers and estimate without outliers

1-hop multihop
Data distribution known Robust statistics, RANBAR Quantiles aggregation
Data distribution unknown Robust statistics Quantiles aggregation
27
Progress so far
4
1
2
3
28
Voting
malicious
is mean 61.4 reasonable?
malicious
3
300
2
1
malicious
1
Alright, 61.4 is not reasonable!
No
Yes
No
No
Resource-intensive, only good for
mission-critical, small-scale networks
No
29
Progress so far
4
1
2
3
30
Result verification
  • The single-aggregator case
  • The multi-aggregator case
  • Chan et al.s hierarchical in-network aggregation
  • Yang et al.s SDAP

31
Interactive proof algo
  • By Przydatek et al. 2003, algo for proving
    probabilistically a given figure is indeed the
    median of the samples
  • Example for the sake of intuition

Prover must have the samples sorted first
1
1
2
3
4
5
6
Prover tells the verifier median is 3.5 and the
no. of samples is 6
2
Verifier asks for the 3rd sample, prover tells
the 3rd sample is 3 lt 3.5, verifier is happy but
still suspicious
3
Verifier asks for the 4th sample, prover tells
the 4th sample is 4 gt 3.5, verifier is happy but
still suspicious
4
Verifier asks for the 1st and 6th sample, prover
tells 1st is 1 lt 3.5 and 6th is 6 gt 3.5, verifier
says Alright, Ive sampled enough, median
should be 3.5 at high probability.
5
Relies on the trustworthiness of the samples, but
how do we make sure?
32
Result verification single aggregator
  • (a) The information S requires from A in the data
    aggregation phase
  • aggregation result f(x1xn)
  • the number of data samples n
  • a commitment of the data samples hA.

(b) Commitment tree based on Merkle hash tree
saves bandwidth
Previous slide shows these are necessary
Forces prover to commit to the sample values
33
Result verification single aggregator
A returns the following when interrogated by S M
MAC(KAS, M) where M q ID(1) x1
MAC1S ID(2) x2 MAC2S h1,1
Prevents source nodes from lying
34
Result verification multi-aggregator
  • Chan et al.s hierarchical in-network aggregation
  • Every sensor sends a message of the following
    format to its parentquery ID value
    complement count commitment MAC
  • Uses two primitives COMB and AGG
  • AGG(msg1, msg2)Let msg1 q v1 c1 and
    msg2 q v2 c2, then AGG(msg1, msg2) q
    f(v1, v2) c1c2.
  • COMB(msg1, msg2)Let msg1 q v1 c1 and
    msg2 q v2 c2, then COMB(msg1, msg2) q
    v1 c1 v2 c2.

35
Aggregation phase Chan et al.
  • Aggregate only trees of the same size to create
    balanced binary trees
  • The advantage of creating only balanced binary
    trees is that edge congestion (congestion on a
    link) is only O(log2n), where n is the number of
    samples

36
Verification phase Chan et al.
  • S broadcasts COMB(AGG(B2, H2), G1) to the
    network, for example, using µTESLA. Next, the
    following transmissions take place
  • A ? B H2 A ? E COMB(B2, G1) B ? C COMB(H2,
    D1) B ? D COMB(H2, C1) E ? G COMB(B2, G1) G
    ? H B2 H ? I COMB(B2, J1) H ? J COMB(B2, I1)
  • A source node that successfully reconstructs the
    commitment will send a confirmation message to
    the sink qnodeIDOK MAC(K, qnodeIDOK)
  • Problem is instead of at the sink, the commitment
    is reconstructed at the source nodes themselves
    an attacker can forge negative confirmations

37
Result verification SDAP
  • Better than previous approach, because commitment
    is re-constructed at the sink, not the source
    nodes
  • We divide the sub-network into groups, we only
    need to check the groups which look suspicious
  • A sensor decides whether it would become a group
    leader by checking whether h(qnodeID) lt Fg(c),
    where Fg(c) is a function that increases with the
    data count c
  • The role of a group leader is to set a boolean
    flag in a message to NAGG to indicate the message
    needs only be forwarded, not aggregated

38
SDAPs aggregation phase
  • S tests if h(qleaders nodeID) lt Fg(c). If
    false, S discards the group aggregate. Otherwise,
    S proceeds with the next test.
  • S tests if the group aggregate represents an
    outlier

39
SDAPs verification phase
  • S ? A G q qa
  • G ?? S qa G xG 3 MACGSH ?? S qa
    H xH 2 MACHSJ ?? S qa J xJ 1
    MACJSI ?? S qa I xI 1 MACIS
  • S performs the following checks
  • xG is correctly derived from f(xG, f(xJ, xI))
  • MACGS is correctly reconstructed in the following
    steps
  • MACIS MAC(KIS, q I xI 1)
  • MACJS MAC(KJS, q J xJ 1)
  • MACHS MAC(KHS, q H f(xJ, xI) 2
    MACIS ? MACJS)
  • MACGS MAC(KGS, q G f(xG, f(xJ, xI)) 3
    MACHS)

40
Progress so far
4
1
2
3
41
Privacy homomorphism (PH)
  • First proposed by Rivest et al. in 1978 to
    process encrypted data without decrypting the
    data first
  • A function is (?,?)-homomorphic if f(x) ? f
    (y) f (x ? y)where ? is an operator in the
    range and ? is an operator in the domain.
  • If f is an encryption function and the inverse
    function f-1 is the corresponding decryption
    function, then f is a PH.

42
Types of PHs
  • There are three main approaches to PHs in WSNs so
    far
  • PHs that are based on polynomial rings, e.g.,
    Domingo-Ferrers scheme
  • PHs that are based on one-time pads
  • homomorphic public-key cryptosystems

Insecure under known-plaintext attacks Attacks
involve only computation of gcd and linear
algebra Wagner 03
43
PHs based on one-time pads
One-time pad
  • Encryption
  • Decryption by sink
  • Drawbacks
  • Use of the addition operator in place of the XOR
    operator in the plaintext space is unproven in
    terms of security
  • Synchronization of keys causes scalability problem

m1m2m3k1 k2k3
m1 m2 k1 k2
m1m2m3m4k1 k2k3k4
m1 k1
m3 k3
sink
m4 k4
m2 k2
44
Security of homomorphic public-key cryptosystems
  • PHs are different from conventional ciphers in
    the sense that the highest attain-able security
    for PHs is semantic security under non-adaptive
    chosen-ciphertext attacks (IND-CCA1)
  • PHs are also by definition malleable, so they
    fail all the non-malleability notions
  • In practice, we only look for PHs that are
    semantically secure against chosen-plaintext
    attacks (IND-CPA)

45
Candidate cryptosystems
  • ElGamal on elliptic curves (EG-EC)
  • Semantic security depends on the discrete
    logarithm problem on elliptic curves
  • (,)-homomorphic
  • Okamoto-Uchiyama
  • Semantic security depends on the intractability
    of factoring p2q
  • (?,)-homomorphic

46
Guideline Mykletun et al. 06
EG-EC becomes increasing costly with larger
ciphertexts
EG-EC requires too much storage here
(real-time)
(intermediate nodes might want to decrypt the
intermediate values)
47
Part One Conclusion
  • Among the techniques introduced so far, voting,
    result verification and PH all require a lot of
    resources.
  • Only resilient aggregation is the most practical.
  • If all data are only aggregated once, then
    RANBAR, or a simple resilient aggregation
    function can be used.
  • For multi-aggregation scenarios, quantiles
    aggregation can be used at each aggregation
    point to compress the data.
  • Instead of PH, encrypted data are decrypted and
    then aggregated and re-encrypted no true
    end-to-end confidentiality.

48
Part Two
aggregate
aggregate
Key management
aggregate
In Secure Data Aggregation, we secure one-way
traffic.
generalized
In Key Management, we secure generic traffic.
49
Components
Protocol verification
1
Key management
Key establishment
2
Key refreshment
3
Key revocation
4
50
Protocol verification
  • Verification gives us indication and confidence
    of security
  • If we simulate unbounded sessions, verification
    of secrecy and authentication is undecidable
  • If we limit number of parallel sessions, we can
    use constraint solving for verification
  • Model strand space model
  • Tool CoProVe implements the strand space model
    using constraint solving (Prolog)

51
Strand space model
52
Node-to-node key establishment
  • A wants to establish a secure channel with B via
    a common trusted node S
  • A ? B NA AB ? S NA NB A B
    MAC(KBS, NA NB A B)S ? A E(KAS, KAB)
    MAC(KAS, NA B E(KAS, KAB))S ? B E(KBS,
    KAB) MAC(KBS, NB A E(KBS, KAB))A ? B
    Ack MAC(KAB, Ack)

53
Node-to-node key establishment
E(KBS, KAB) MAC(KBS, NB A )
NA NB A B MAC(KBS, )
E(KAS, KAB) MAC(KAS, NA B )
NA A
Ack MAC(KAB, Ack)
54
Verification using CoProVe
Strand space model
Role 1 send ? recv ?
Scenario Instantiate Role 1 Instantiate
Role n Instantiate Outcome
Bundle

Strands
Role n send ? recv ?
Outcome e.g., attacker learns key
has_to_finish(Outcome)
Security is disproved if there exists a bundle
that satisfies these constraints
55
Verification using CoProVe the code itself
  • initiator(A, S, B, Na, Ns, Ka, Kb, Kab, Ack,
  • recv(A, S, B),
  • send(Na, BKa),
  • recv(NsKb, Kab, Na, BKa),
  • send(A, NsKb),
  • recv(AckKab)
  • ).
  • server(A, B, Na, Ns, Nb, Ka, Kb, Kab,
  • recv(Na, BKa),
  • send(NsKb, Kab, Na, BKa),
  • recv(B, Nb, A, NsKb),
  • send(Kab, Nb, AKb)
  • ).
  • responder(A, B, Nb, Ns, Kb, Kab, Ack,
  • recv(A, NsKb),
  • send(B, Nb, A, NsKb),
  • recv(Kab, Nb, AKb),
  • send(AckKab)
  • ).
  • secrecy(N, recv(N)).
  • scenario(a, Init1, b, Resp1, s, Serv1,
    sec, Secr1) -
  • initiator(a, s, B, na, Ns, ka, Kb, Kab, ack,
    Init1),
  • server(a, b, Na, ns, Nb, ka, kb, kab, Serv1),
  • responder(A, b, nb, Ns1, kb, Kab1, ack,
    Resp1),
  • secrecy(kab, Secr1).
  • has_to_finish(sec).

56
Components
Protocol verification
1
Key management
Key establishment
2
Key refreshment
3
Key revocation
4
57
Key establishment
  • Definition a process or protocol whereby a
    shared secret key becomes available to two or
    more parties, for subsequent cryptographic use
  • Types

A key agreement protocol whereby the
resulting established keys are completely
determined a priori by initial keying material
58
Protocol design by communication modes
  • Global broadcasts
  • Authenticated broadcast using µTESLA
  • Local broadcasts
  • Passive participation
  • Unicast
  • Only consider neighbour-to-neighbour
  • Multihop can be secured hop by hop
  • Random key pre-distribution schemes
  • LEAP
  • EBS

59
Global broadcast µTESLA
  • Micro version of the Timed, Efficient,
    Streaming, Loss-tolerant Authentication Protocol
    Authenticated broadcast

keys are generated in reverse order
Ki-1 h(Ki)
K1
K2
K3
K4
Kn

keys are released in forward order
60
µTESLA example (1)
(3) Generate one-way reverse key chain on the
base station
(1) Generate one-way reverse key chain on the
base station
h()
K1
K2
K3
K4
(2) Give K1 to everybody
M
K2
MAC(K3, )
K1
K1
K1
K1
61
µTESLA example (2)
(5) Base station later sends K3 that can be used
to authenticate message M
(4) K2 is genuine because h(K2) K1 but packet
tagged with MAC(K3, MK2) still needs to be
authenticated
M2
K3
MAC(K4, )
M
MAC(K3, )
K2
Authentication steps (a) K3 is genuine because
K2 h(K3) (b) M is genuine because K3 is genuine
and K3 authenticates M
M
MAC(K3, )
K2
62
Local broadcast Passive participation
A is just transmitting a similar data to I have,
so I shall not transmit.
D
C
E
B
Passive participation nodes B, C, D, E suppress
their transmissions when they find A transmitting
about the same data To secure passive
participation, A uses a cluster key and a one-way
key chain to achieve encrypted and authenticated
local broadcast
A
63
Local broadcast Passive participation
D
  • If only the key chain is used, the keys in the
    key chain would have to be broadcast in the
    clear, and in the absence of time interval
    differentiation, a cluster-outsider would be able
    to forge messages using these keys
  • If only the cluster key is used, authentication
    of the sender cannot be achieved
  • But if used together, the cluster key can be used
    to encrypt messages as well as to hide the key
    chain keys from cluster-outsiders and at the
    same time, the key chain keys can be used for
    authentication

C
B
A
64
Securing unicast
  • Random key pre-distribution schemes
  • LEAP
  • EBS

65
Random key pre-distribution (RKP)
at random
Keying material
at random
Pool
Able to establish session key?
P pool size (4 in this example) K key ring
size (1 in this example)
66
Random key pre-distribution (RKP)
  • Different types

Type 1
Type 2
Type 3
Symmetric key Eschenauer Gligor 02
Symmetric bivariate polynomial Liu et al. 05
Part of a matrix Du et al. 05
67
Symmetric-key-based RKP
Ive got keys 1, 2, 3, 4
1
1
Ive got keys 1, 5, 6, 7
2
5
3
6
4
7
OK, so our session key can be derived from key 1
OK, so our session key can be derived from key 1
Although not all neighbouring pairs of nodes can
establish a session key (aka pairwise key), the
network will remain connected, with a suitable
choice of K and P. K key ring size (4 in this
example) P key pool size (7 in this example)
68
Symmetric-key-based RKP
Prconnectivity k vs k
K 4, P 15, RMSE 0.0427
K 4, P 30, RMSE 0.0436
Prconnectivity k
Expected connectivity
Derived from results of random geometric graphs
Law et al. 07
69
Polynomial-basedRKP
f1(x, y) 12y3y22xxy4xy2 3x24x2yx2y2
f2(x, y) 23y5y23x2xy7xy2 5x27x2y2x2y2
Ive got f1(), f2()
f3(x, y) 34y5y24x3xy6xy2 5x26x2y3x2y2
Ive got f2(), f3()
Node 1
Pool
f1(1, y) 67y8y2
Node 2
OK, so our session key can be derived from f2()
f2(2, y) 2835y27y2
f2(1, y) 1012y14y2
f3(2, y) 31 34y 29y2
OK, so our session key can be derived from f2()
In this example, t 2, K 2, P 3 The pairwise
key is f2(1,2) f2(2,1) 10 24 56 28 35
27 90 In reality, the value must of course
be as large as normal crypto keys Storage
requirement K(t 1) coefficients, where t is
the threshold
70
Matrix-basedRKP
N number of nodes number of columns
this seed can be used as an ID
Vandemonde-like generator matrix
Random symmetric matrices
D2
D3
D4
D1
M1(D1G)T
M2
M3
M4
71
Matrix-basedRKP
M1
M3
M2
M4
Ive got M1, M2
Pool
Ive got M2, M3
Node 1
Node 2
G(2)
M1(1)
G(1)
M3(2)
OK, so our session key can be derived from M2
OK, so our session key can be derived from M2
M2(1)
M2(2)
Heres G(1)
Heres G(2)
  • Pairwise key M2(1)G(2) M2(2)G(1)
  • Storage requirement K(t1)1 coefficients, where
    t is the threshold

72
Node-to-node key establishment
  • RKP schemes only good for keying two neighbouring
    nodes with common key(s) what about neighbours
    without any common key? Use common trusted node
  • A wants to establish a secure channel with B via
    a common trusted node S
  • A ? B NA AB ? S NA NB A B
    MAC(KBS, NA NB A B)S ? A E(KAS, KAB)
    MAC(KAS, NA B E(KAS, KAB))S ? B E(KBS,
    KAB) MAC(KBS, NB A E(KBS, KAB))A ? B
    Ack MAC(KAB, Ack)

73
LEAP
  • LEAP is a key pre-distribution scheme but not
    random
  • Every node is pre-distributed with Kin

Node B node key KB PRF(Kin, B) Kin already
deleted
A sets timer
0
Hello, Im A
1
Im B
2
Node A initial key Kin
A and B compute pairwise key PRF(PRF(Kin, B), A)
3
Timer fires, A deletes Kin
4
74
EBS (Exclusion Basis System)
Nodes
Keys
Pro Two nodes always share at least 2K-P
keys. Con When a node is compromised, more than
half of the keys in the key pool are compromised.
75
Components
Protocol verification
1
Key management
Key establishment
2
Key refreshment
3
Key revocation
4
76
Key refreshment
  • Why? The more a key is used, the more it is open
    to cryptanalytic attacks, birthday attacks etc.

Parallel re-keying
  • Lose the key K, then all past and future keys are
    exposed
  • Not suitable for WSNs

77
Key refreshment
Serial re-keying preferable because of forward
security
  • Only need to store this
  • Lose this, then all future keys are compromised
  • But past keys are intact

78
Abdalla et al. 2000
  • Without this scheme, birthday threshold O(2k/2)
  • With this scheme, a session key can be refreshed
    O(2k/3) times
  • Each time, a session key has a birthday threshold
    of O(2k/3)
  • The final birthday threshold is O(2k/3) ? O(2k/3)
    O(22k/3)

79
Components
Protocol verification
1
Key management
Key establishment
2
Key refreshment
3
Key revocation
4
80
Which keys to revoke?
Big picture
  • When A is compromised
  • Global broadcast keys B, C, D, E need to have
    their copies of KSglobal replaced
  • Local broadcast keys B, C, D, E need to purge
    KAcluster and KAchain B needs to re-gen and
    re-distribute KBcluster and KBchain similarly
    for C, D, E

81
Strategy
Gateway
82
Re-keying unicast keys
Big picture
  • If using polynomial-based or matrix-based RKP or
    LEAP, do nothing
  • If using symmetric key-based RKP, re-keying is
    desirable but can be done without
  • If using EBS, re-keying is a must

83
Re-keying local broadcast keys
84
Re-keying global broadcast keys
  • New global key is propagated from the base
    station in two stages
  • The hash of the key is propagated
  • Then the key itself
  • Over each hop, the key is protected by a cluster
    key and a cluster key chain

85
Part Two Conclusion
  • Securing local broadcasts is generally too
    expensive for current generation of nodes
  • The priority is to secure query broadcasts, data
    convergecasts and neighbour-to-neighbour unicasts
    This means a node should minimally store
  • a unique key shared with the base station
  • a µTESLA commitment distributed by the base
    station
  • a global key
  • a set of pairwise keys, each of which is shared
    with a different neighbour
  • Periodic key refreshment should be made a
    standard practice
  • global key is used most often
  • Always verify protocols

86
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