MEAT - PowerPoint PPT Presentation

About This Presentation



MEAT Structure Meat is the flesh of animals reared for food. E.g. cows, goats, pigs. Meat is composed of bundles of muscle fibres joined by strong connective tissues ... – PowerPoint PPT presentation

Number of Views:58
Avg rating:3.0/5.0
Slides: 21
Provided by: MOES2
Tags: meat | vitamins


Transcript and Presenter's Notes

Title: MEAT

  • Meat is the flesh of animals reared for food.
    E.g. cows, goats, pigs.
  • Meat is composed of bundles of muscle fibres
    joined by strong connective tissues with fat
    scattered between.
  • The main protein in muscles is myosin and actin.
  • Connective tissues contain the protein collagen
    and elastin.

Types of Meat
  • Beef Cow, cattle
  • Mutton Goat, sheep
  • Pork Pig
  • Veal Calf
  • Venison Deer

  • edible internal organs of animals
  • E.g. brain, kidney, heart, liver, tripe, tongue
  • Very good source of
  • iron and vitamin B12 (liver and kidney)
  • Vitamin A (liver)
  • Glycogen (liver)

Nutritive Value
  • Protein Myosin, globulin collagen (in connective
  • Fats particularly lamb, pork and beef, gives
    flavour, moisture and texture. Some fats are
    found between muscle fibre of lean parts of meat.
    This is known as marbling.
  • Vitamins a good amount of B group vitamins
  • Minerals A good amount of iron and phosphorus.
  • Cholesterol
  • Water - 60

Factors to consider when choosing meat
  • Good characteristic colour
  • No unpleasant smell
  • Firm and elastic to touch, moist but not wet.
  • Grain should be fine and even.
  • Avoid too much bone, gristle or fat

What makes meat tough or tender?
  • 1. Age
  • In young animals, the muscle fibres are short and
    finer. Meat is tender.
  • As the animal matures, the muscle fibre thickens
    and there is more connective tissues. Thus the
    meat from the older animals is tougher than the
    meat from young animals.
  • There is also more fat in older animals.

What makes meat tough or tender?
  • 2. Part of the animal
  • Meat from the leg is usually tougher than meat
    from the ribs because the leg muscles work
  • The more the animal works the muscle, and the
    tougher it will be.

What makes meat tough or tender?
  • 3. Fat distribution
  • When fat is evenly distributed throughout
    the muscle, the meat is usually more tender and
    of a better flavour than meat that has
    concentrated visible deposits of fats.

What makes meat tough or tender?
  • 3. Fat distribution

Methods used to tenderize meat
  • Mincing or grinding
  • Cubing, slicing - Cut meat across the grains.
  • Pounding with a meat pounder or the blunt edge of
    a cleaver
  • Sprinkling with commercial tenderizer e.g. papain
  • Marinating e.g. Soya sauce, acids (lemon juice,
    vinegar, tomato) yoghurt, wine.
  • Cooking slowly with water e.g. stewing, boiling.
    (Collagen in the connective tissue changes into
    gelatin which dissolves in the water. This causes
    the meat to come apart easily.)

Reasons for cooking meat
  • To kill any harmful bacteria
  • To make it tender and more digestible
  • To make it look, taste and smell more appetizing
  • To preserve food for later use
  • To develop extractives for flavour

Effect of heat
  • Dry heat
  • Protein starts to coagulate at 60C
  • Red meat changes to brown
  • Fats melts and goes crisp making meat juicy
  • Meat shrinks as protein coagulates and shortens.
  • - If meat is overcooked, juices are
    squeezed out onto surface, which might then dry
  • Connective tissues (containing collagen) becomes

Effect of heat
  • Dry heat cooking (roasting, baking,
    grilling) is best for tender meat which has
    little or no collagen and elastin. The elastin
    will contract during cooking, squeezing out the
    meat juices causing the meat to be dry.

Effect of heat
  • Moist Heat
  • Protein starts to coagulates at 60C when outer
    layer is sealed lightly.
  • Red meat changes to grayish brown.
  • Fat melts partly and seeps into the gravy.
  • Meat shrinks a little. The longer the cooking,
    the greater the shrinkage. Juices tend to come
    out of the meat into the gravy, developing a rich
    flavour in the gravy, with slight loss of flavour
    of meat.
  • Collagen in connective tissue is converted to
    gelatin. Overcooking results in the meat falling

Effect of heat
  • Moist heat method (boiling, stewing,
    frying) is recommended for cooking tough meat as
    it is a slow process.

Which is more difficult to digest?
  • Meat
  • Or
  • Fish

Meat is more difficult to digest than fish.
  • Fish has no elastin (the wall of muscle fibre,
    very tough, cannot be changed by cooking but can
    be broken down mechanically or removed)
  • Fish consists of short, fine fibres, bound
    together by a small amount of fine connective

Ways to reduce fat content in meat
  • Use more poultry, reduce consumption of red meat
  • Avoid frying. Grill or bake instead
  • Remove fat before cooking

Marbling of fats in beef
Write a Comment
User Comments (0)