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PLANE BEARING DESIGN AND MATERIALS Where and When to Use Plastics As A Bearing presented by David Biering Technical Director

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Title: PLANE BEARING DESIGN AND MATERIALS Where and When to Use Plastics As A Bearing presented by David Biering Technical Director


1
PLANE BEARING DESIGN AND MATERIALSWhere
and When to Use Plastics As A Bearingpresented
by David Biering Technical Director
2
(No Transcript)
3
PLANE BEARING PRODUCTS
4
PLANE BEARING PRODUCTS
5
What is a Plane Bearing?
  • A plane bearing is any non-rolling element
  • Sleeve or flange bushings
  • Slide plates
  • Friction Bearings
  • Any situation where two surfaces rub together is
    a plane bearing

6
Plane bearings offer several advantages when
properly applied
  • SIMPLE COMPONENTS
  • SELF-LUBRICATING
  • WIDE RANGE OF ENVIRONMENTS SERVED
  • EASY INSTALLATION AND REMOVAL
  • LOWER COST

7
All plane bearing designs are material
selection problems!
  • All designs must include a review of the
    following
  • BEARING LOAD P
  • BEARING SPEED V
  • COMBINED P-V
  • TEMPERATURE
  • TEMPERATURE VARIATIONS
  • ENVIRONMENT

8
Bearing Loads are often the most difficult
attribute to define
  • PRESSURE (P) Load/Projected Area
  • PLBS/ID X LENGTH
  • P IS EXPRESSED IN PSI
  • Each material is rated for a maximum static
    load (P)?

9
The Relative Speed between the shaft and the
bearing is usually easier to define.
  • VELOCITY (V) Circumference x RPM
  • Circumference (C) TTD/12 in feet
  • V is expressed in Surface Feet per Minute
  • (SFPM)?
  • Every material is rated for a maximum velocity
    (V) at no load

10
Pressure (P) and Velocity (V) do not occur
independently and must always be dealt with in
tandem!
  • The combination of load and speed generates
    frictional heat
  • AS A RESULT WE MUST ALWAYS REVIEW P X V or PV
  • Every material has a maximum PV Rating

11
Material Rating Overview
  • Material Max. PV Max. P Max. V
  • Graphite PI 300,000 6,000 1000
  • Carbon/PTFE PEEK 100,000 6,000 600
  • Tri Steel PE (lubed) 100,000 40,000 2,000
  • Tri Steel PI 50,000 36,000 1000
  • Oilite Bronze 50,000 2,000 1200
  • Carbon PEEK 50,000 6,000 600
  • FCJ 20,000 20,000 500
  • Ultracomp UC200 20,000 54,500 15
  • Ultracomp UC300 20,000 45,000 30
  • Rulon 10,000 1,000 400
  • CJ 10,000 35,000 150
  • Delrin AF 3,000 1,000 100
  • Nylon 6/6 1,000 300 360
  • UHMW 1,000 800 50

12
Other Factors Can Affect The Ability of Plane
Bearing Systems to Handle the P, V and PV
  • AMBIENT TEMPERATURE - HIGHER AMBIENT
    TEMPERATURES REDUCE ALL CAPACITIES
  • INTERMITTENT OPERATION OSCILLATING AND
    RECIPROCATING MOTION ALLOW HIGHER P, V, AND PV
    VALUES
  • SHAFT MATERIALS MATERIALS THAT ARE GOOD
    THERMAL CONDUCTORS ALLOW INCREASED VALUES
  • SURFACE FINISH TOO SMOOTH A SURFACE FINISH WILL
    GENERATE HIGHER FRICTION, THUS MORE HEAT, AND
    WILL LOWER VALUES

13
MANY PLANE MATERIALS ARE PLASTIC OR PLASTIC LIKE
MATERIALS
  • THESE MATERIALS ARE AFFECTED BY HEAT AND ALL HAVE
    A MAXIMUM CONTINUOUS OPERATING TEMPERATURE

14
Maximum Operating Temperature of Plastics
  • MATERIAL MAX. OPERATING TEMPERATURE F
  • Graphite Polyimide 650
  • Rulon 550
  • TriSteel PI 500
  • Carbon/PTFE PEEK 480
  • Carbon PEEK 480
  • FCJ/CJ 320
  • Ultracomp 266
  • Nylon 6/6 210
  • Delrin 180
  • UHMW 180

15
Plane Bearing materials have coefficients of
thermal expansion that differ from surrounding
hardware!
  • As a result, bearings that operate at elevated or
    extreme low temperatures or function in hot/cold
    cyclic environments must be given special design
    attention.
  • Lack of attention to the thermal expansion rates
    of the bearing material will cause seizure or
    bearing drop out

16
Plane Bearing Coefficients of Thermal Expansion
  • MATERIALS EXPANSION IN/INF x 10E-6
  • Tri Steel PT 6.0
  • 1040 Carbon Steel 6.0
  • FCJ 7.0
  • CJ 7.0
  • Carbon Fiber PEEK 7.0
  • 660 Bronze 10.0
  • Aluminum 12.4
  • Carbon/PTFE PEEK 17.0
  • Graphite PI 27.0
  • Ultracomp 33.0
  • Rulon 35-49.0
  • Nylon 6/6 55.0
  • Delrin AF 63.0
  • UHMW 130.0

17
A major strength of plane bearings is their
ability to function in a wide range of
environments
  • Wet fresh, salt, DI, slurry
  • Dirty coal, quartz, sand, road ballast
  • Chemicals full pH range
  • Clean rooms minimal debris production
  • FDA/USDA/3A/NSF approvals
  • AND ALL THIS WITHOUT LUBRICATION!

18
How do self lubricating plastics bearings
lubricate?
  • There are two types of lubrication methods in
    plastic plane bearings
  • Smearing systems small amounts of lubricating
    additives such as PTFE, silicone, graphite or
    MOS2 are wiped into the microfinish
  • Debris systems small particles of the polymer
    are removed during normal operations and develop
    plastic ball bearings

19
Smearing Systems
  • Smearing systems are typical of PTFE and PTFE
    filled polymers
  • As the shaft makes initial contact with the
    mating contact surface, softer lubricating
    material is wiped into the microfinish of that
    surface building a thin film of lubricant
  • Lubricant remains in place and will not migrate
    out thus reducing the friction and wear on both
    the shaft and the bearing.

20
Smearing System Materials
  • Best know materials utilizing this type of self
    lubricating process
  • Rulon
  • Fluorosint
  • PTFE Blends
  • Delrin AF
  • Ertalyte TX
  • BG PEEK
  • Graphite PI
  • TriSteel PT/PI
  • Ultracomp

21
Debris Systems
  • Debris systems are found in harder thermoplastic
    or thermoset polymers that deposit particles of
    the actual resin between the shaft and bearing.
  • These types of materials tend to be less
    efficient since the debris remains on the surface
    area between the dynamic faces rather than
    embedding.
  • Over time the debris is cast off as residue
    and the wear process tends to be on a slow but
    continuous basis.

22
Debris Systems Materials
  • Nylon 6/6, 6/12
  • Acetal/Delrin 100/500
  • Cast Nylons
  • UHMW
  • It should be noted that debris materials have
    inherently low friction but not as low as
    smearing systems with migratory lubricants.
  • It should also be noted that debris materials
    tend to be lower cost than the smear materials
    but they also have lower P,V,PV ratings and
    limited temperature ranges.

23
Materials Review
  • By far, the largest family of self lubricating
    plane bearings are the filled PTFE materials.
  • The best known of these is Rulon, a family of
    blended PTFE materials designed for bearings,
    seals and structural components.
  • Fluorosint family of mica filled PTFE for low
    thermal expansion applications

24
Rulon Bearings
25
Rulon Bearings
  • Rulon is a product from Saint Gobain Performance
    Plastics Formerly Dixon-Furon
  • Family of products has over 300 blends
  • Tri Star Plastics is the Master Distributor for
    Rulon products in North America

26
Rulon Bearings
  • All Rulon materials have similar properties
  • Temp. Range - -400 to 550/600F
  • Inert to all chemistry
  • Zero moisture absorption
  • Self Lubricating
  • Variable thermal expansion properties
  • Outstanding wear life and strength

27
Most Common Rulon Bearing Materials
  • Rulon LR maroon color, ceramic fiber filled,
    excellent creep and wear resistance, low friction
    best used against 35RC hardness or better
  • Rulon J gold color, lowest friction of any
    plastic, non abrasive so will run against soft
    shaft materials
  • Rulon 641 white color, FDA grade for food
    processing and packaging applications
  • Rulon 142 blue/grey color bronze filled for
    extremely low deformation, excellent sliding
    bearing for machine tools, motor mounts, slide
    pads

28
Rulon Availability
  • All Rulon materials are available in standard
    sleeve, flange and thrust sizes to match bronze
    standards
  • Rulon is also available in rod, sheet, tape or
    tube for in house machining
  • Rulon is very easy to machine and Tri Star can
    assist with techniques.

29
Bearing Grade Composite Materials
  • The newest generation of self lubricating plane
    bearings are composites
  • Ultracomp family of very high load, low speed
    bearing materials for high impact and vibration
    applications on oscillating pin bushings
  • CJ filament wound rigid epoxy bearing for
    extreme loads in oscillating or rotary
    applications. PTFE/Nomex liner on ID for low
    friction and long wear life
  • FCJ filament wound rigid epoxy bearing for
    extreme loads in full rotary or linear
    applications. Alloyed PTFE liner for increased
    speed ratings. Lower load rating than CJ and
    Ultracomp

30
Ultracomp
  • Ultracomp is a made using synthetic fibers and
    impact resistant thermoset resins for extreme
    loads.
  • Ultracomp bearings have static load ratings of
    54,500 psi to break and 18,500 psi to yield.
  • Ultracomp is primarily a high load, low speed
    oscillating material.
  • All Ultracomp materials have less than 0.1 swell
    in water
  • All Ultracomp materials have migratory lubricants
    such as PTFE, graphite or MOS2

31
Ultracomp
32
Ultracomp
  • Ultracomp materials are used in construction,
    agriculture, material handling, railway, and
    general industries for pin bushings, slide pads,
    spherical inserts, trunnion support bearings,
    etc.
  • Ultracomp is easy to machine
  • Ultracomp is an excellent replacement material
    for lubricated steel or bronze bushings

33
CJ Bearings
  • CJ bearings are off the shelf replacement
    bearings to bronze standards
  • CJ bearings use filament winding techniques at
    different helix configurations to improve
    strength through the wall.
  • Nomex/TFE blended liner gives excellent wear life
    and lubricity
  • CJ bearings have very low swell in water and are
    thermally stable for tight tolerance designs

34
FCJ Bearings
  • FCJ bearing is similar to the CJ but the
    Nomex/TFE liner is substituted with a alloyed
    PTFE tape liner
  • Lower load limits than CJ but higher speed rating
    for full rotary applications without lubrication
  • Excellent wear and friction properties

35
TriSteel Metal Backed Bearings
  • TriSteel bearings are metal bearings with various
    self lubricating liner materials sintered into
    the substrate
  • Liner materials vary depending on loads and
    speeds
  • Liner materials include PTFE, Acetal, PEEK,
    PI/PTFE blends, PTFE/PVDF blends
  • All TriSteel bearings have very high P, V and PV
    ratings and have extremely low deformation

36
TriSteel Bearings
37
Tri Steel Bearings
  • Tri Steel bearings are available with tin or
    copper plated steel, 316 stainless or bronze.
  • Liner materials will vary in thickness from .002
    to .020
  • Wall thicknesses are .060 and .090 nominal

38
TriSteel Bearings
  • TriSteel bearings are capable of PV ratings up to
    80,000 without lubrication and 2 million with
    lubrication
  • Temperature ratings vary from -400F to 500F
  • PEEK/SS grade excellent substitute for rolling
    element bearings in chemical pumps and other
    rotary equipment

39
Tri Steel Bearings
40
High Performance Materials
  • An additional group of plane bearing materials
    are the HPM grades
  • PI polyimide with graphite additives can
    operate at 700F without lubrication and with
    extremely low wear. PV ratings as high as 300,000
    in some conditions without lube
  • Trade names - Meldin, Vespel, Duratron

41
High Performance Materials
42
High Performance Materials
  • High Performance Materials are catagorized as
    imidized materials and advanced hybrid polymers.
  • Imidized materials include
  • Celazole PBI
  • Polyimide Vespel, Meldin, Duratron
  • Polyamide-imide Torlon
  • Kapton polyimide film

43
High Performance Materials
  • PBI Highest temperature polymer on the market
  • HDT of over 800F with continuous service over
    750F and short term excursions to 1100F
  • Ionic impurities very low
  • Very strong material without any fillers
  • Lowest coefficient of thermal expansion of any
    unfilled plastic
  • Highest compressive strength of any unfilled
    plastic
  • Excellent thermal insulator
  • Inherently good wear properties without PTFE

44
High Performance Materials
  • Polyimides
  • True condensation polymer with excellent wear and
    thermal properties
  • Vespel best known trade name. Meldin family is 8
    different versions of polyimide
  • Compression, isostatic or injection moldable.
    Also available in thin cast films known as Kapton
  • Unfilled and filled versions available for
    different bearing or structural needs

45
High Performance Materials
  • Another family of HPM products is Torlon which
    is a PAI.
  • Excellent wear life at extreme speeds without
    lubrication
  • PV values up to 3 million with lube
  • Used as sleeve or thrust bearing in
    transmissions, gear boxes, final drives, etc.
  • Thermally stable, coefficient of thermal
    expansion close to steel

46
High Performance Materials
  • PEEK available with carbon fiber, graphite
    powder and PTFE fillers for outstanding high
    load, high speed rotary applications
  • Inert to most chemistry, able to work in steam or
    high temperature liquids
  • Very low thermal expansion, excellent wear life
    and low friction

47
Other Bearing Grade Materials
  • There are many more engineering grade plastics
    used in bearing applications
  • PET Ertalyte, Ertalyte TX
  • PBT - Hydex
  • PPS Ryton, Techtron Poor Mans PEEK
  • Cast Nylons (Nylatron)?

48
Final Comments
  • Tri Star Plastics specializes in material
    development, design and fabrication of self
    lubricating plastic bearings.
  • Our interest is in assisting customers with
    product selection, component development and
    successful production.
  • Our website www.tstar.com is interactive and you
    can use our online design assistance to determine
    potential materials for your application.

49
Final Comments
  • Tri Star looks forward to working with you as you
    investigate improved performance, longer life and
    more cost effective bearing systems for your
    equipment.
  • Remember No lube/No maintenance!

50
Supplier Recognition
  • Ultracomp Tri Star Plastics Hydex
    Ensinger/Hyde
  • TriSteel Tri Star Plastics Ertalyte - Quadrant
  • Delrin E.I. DuPont Ryton - Phillips
  • Celazole Quadrant Torlon Solvay Chemical
  • PEEK Victrex CJ/FCJ Saint Gobain EPP
  • Teflon E.I. Dupont Duratron - Quadrant
  • Rulon Saint Gobain EPP Techtron - Quadrant
  • Nylatron Quadrant Fluorosint - Quadrant
  • Nylon E.I. DuPont
  • Meldin Saint Gobain EPP
  • Vespel E.I. DuPont Some names are
    registered tradenames of
    various companies.
  • Values indicated are typical. Tri Star recommends
    testing in your particular application to insure
    performance expectations are met.
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