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Non Ionizing Radiation Safety and Chemical Safety

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Non Ionizing Radiation Safety and Chemical Safety SK Dua, Ph. D., CHP, CLSO Bill Youngblut, MS, CIH, CSP Environmental Health & Safety Florida International University – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: Non Ionizing Radiation Safety and Chemical Safety


1
Non Ionizing Radiation Safety and Chemical Safety
  • SK Dua, Ph. D., CHP, CLSO
  • Bill Youngblut, MS, CIH, CSP
  • Environmental Health Safety
  • Florida International University

2
Conceptualization
  • Get EHS, and engineering professionals involved
    as early as possible.
  • Before submitting grant proposal or budget.
  • Help identify and correct potential problems.
  • Time line issues for local, state, and federal
    safety environmental permits.
  • Avoid budget over runs
  • Avoid construction delays
  • Avoid process startup delays
  • Avoid fines

3
Conceptualization
  • EHS professionals involved should include
  • Safety Engineer
  • Fire Safety
  • Environmental (Air, Water Waste)
  • Radiation Laser Safety Officer
  • Industrial Hygienist

4
Disposal Recycle
  • Environmental impact of battery and printed
    circuit board manufacturer and disposal.
  • Heavy Metals (Lead, Silver, Gold, Platinum,
    Mercury, Copper)
  • Solders, Flux Solder Flux residues
  • Rinse water residue
  • Airborne concentration levels in manufacturing
  • Contain metals, resin
  • Consult manufacturer or MSDS for more information
  • Batteries Acids, lead
  • Circuit board substrate Beryllium

5
ORGANIZATION CHART MANAGEMENT IONIZING AND
NON-IONIZING RADIATION PROGRAM
Senior Management Vice President of Research
Alternate
Director, EHS Chairperson Radiation/Laser Safety
Committee
6
Ionizing vs. Non-ionizing Radiation
  • Ionizing Radiation
  • Higher energy electromagnetic waves (X- gamma) or
    particles (alpha beta)
  • High enough energy to pull electron from orbit
  • Non-ionizing Radiation
  • Lower energy EM waves (laser, radio TV
    broadcasting, cell phone, pagers, satellite,
    Microwave ovens, Power lines, Physical therapy-
    RF Diathermy
  • Not enough energy to pull electron from orbit,
    but can excite the electron

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11
Laser Components
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13
Laser Devices
  • The laser is a device, which produces a very
    intense and very narrow (collimated) beam of
    electromagnetic radiation in the wavelength range
    180 nm to 1 mm.
  • Laser devices are ranked by class (1, 2, 3a, 3b
    and 4) according to their energy or power, and
    hence, their potential to cause injury.
  • Laser radiation exposure can cause injury to
  • Eye and skin

14
Laser Warning Signs and Symbols
American National Standards Institute
International Electro Chemical Society
15
Posting Warning Signs
  • The entrance door shall have laser label with
    warning sign and laser class.
  • The entrance door shall have hazard
    identification chart.
  • The entrance door to the laser lab shall have
    lighted sign, Laser in Use whenever laser is
    turned on. Work Management can arrange to install
    the signage. Expenses will be borne by the
    Department/PI. Whenever laser is in use visual or
    audible warning devices should be turned on.

16
Laser Safety- Controls
  • Engineering Controls
  • Administrative and Procedural
  • Protective Equipment

17
Engineering Controls
  • Protective Housings (All Classes). 
  • Interlocks on Removable Protective Housings (All
    Classes)
  • Key Control (Class 3b or Class 4)
  • Viewing Windows, Display Screens, and Collecting
    Optics
  • Remote Interlock Connector (Class 3b or Class 4)
  • Beam Stop or Attenuator (Class 3b or Class 4)
  • Warning Signs

18
Administrative and Procedural Controls
  • Post laser warning signs.
  • Standard Operating Procedures (Class 3b or Class
    4). SOPs for class 4 shall be developed,
    documented, reviewed and approved by Laser Safety
    Officer
  • Output Emission Limitations
  • Education and Training (Class 3b, or Class 4).
  • The laser shall have emergency shut off. It is
    preferred to have shut off both near the laser
    device and at a remote console

19
Administrative and Procedural Controls Laser
Beams
  • Laser beams, direct/diffused shall be properly
    shielded to prevent inadvertent exposure of eyes
    or skin.
  • All beam alignments shall be performed at low
    power (class 1).
  • When the lab door is opened the laser should
    either be shut off or reduced in power or should
    be adequately shielded to prevent injury.
  • Laser beams should not be at eye level- while
    standing or seated.

20
Procedures
  • On-line Laser Safety Training
  • Laser Purchasing Procedure
  • Laser Registration with the State
  • Laser Laboratory Inspection
  • Laser Research Proposal Review
  • Eye Examination
  • Beam Alignment
  • Laser Operation

21
Protective Equipment
  • Suitable personal protective equipment, e.g., eye
    protection glasses suitable for the laser
    power/energy and wavelength, will be used.
  • Beam shutters/shields shall be available where
    required.

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23
Bioeffects
24
Photochemical vs. Thermal Limits
  • Shorter wavelengths in the visible (400 to 600
    nm) can produce chemical changes in retinal
    tissue destroying its functionality. These
    changes can occur for longer exposures and at
    lower levels than thermal burns. Photochemical
    sensitivity decreases with increasing wavelength.
    Both limits must be evaluated in classifying a
    product in the photochemical wavelength range.

25
Laboratory Accidents
  • 60 of laser accidents in the research setting
    happen during laser alignment, beam manipulation
  • Almost all without the user wearing laser
    protective eyewear
  • Why?
  • Open beams
  • - During alignment
  • - Flexibility in calibration procedures
  • - Experimental set up changes

26
Some famous quotes from the laser users who do
not comply with the safety measures
  • Dont insult my intelligence.
  • Ill get it the work done one way or the
    other.
  • That cant happen to me.
  • 15 years working with lasers and I havent had
    an accident yet.
  • Nothing bad will happen.
  • Hey I have two eyes
  • Trust me
  • I know where the beam is
  • All incidents should be investigated to enhance
    the environment, safety, health and quality,
    prevent recurrence, and reduce the possibility of
    severe trends

27
Laser Safety- Non-beam Hazards
  • Electrical Laser Generated Air Contaminants
    (LGAC)
  • Collateral and Plasma Radiation
  • Optical Radiation
  • Fire
  • Explosion
  • Compressed Gases
  • Laser Dyes
  • All non-beam hazards shall be identified and
    prevented.

28
Electrical Hazard
  • Many laser systems use high voltage and high
    current electrical power. Reports of electrical
    shock, both fatal and non-fatal can be found for
    research, medical, and industrial settings.
  • Preventative measures
  • No Fluids used or placed near the laser system
  • Label the laser system with the electrical
    rating, frequency and watts
  • Proper grounding for metal parts of the laser
    system
  • Assume all floors are conductive when working
    with high voltage

29
Electrical Hazard-Preventative measures
  • Provide such safety devices- rubber gloves and
    insulating mats
  • Combustible components of the electrical circuit
    are short circuit tested
  • Avoid Contact with electrical components.
    Capacitors that can contain electrical charge
    even after the laser is powered off. Discharge,
    short and ground each capacitor before accessing
    the capacitor area
  • Inspect capacitor containers for deformities or
    leaks
  • Avoid wearing rings, metallic watchbands and
    other metallic objects when working near high
    voltage environment
  • Prevent explosions in filament lamps and high
    pressure arc lamps

30
Electrical Hazard-Preventative measures
  • Include in regular inspection verification of the
    integrity of electrical cords, plugs, and foot
    pedals
  • Only qualified persons authorized to perform
    service activities access lasers internal
    components
  • Do not work alone
  • When possible, only use one hand when working on
    a circuit
  • Develop and implement lockout/tagout procedures

31
Laser Generated Airborne Contaminants (LGAC)
  • High power lasers (beam irradiance of hundreds of
    W/cm2) upon interaction with substrates may
    generate aerosols, gases and vapors, called LGAC.
    These contaminants may adversely affect health,
    environment and materials, and must be
    controlled.
  • LGAC are controlled by using proper air
    filtration systems. Local exhaust ventilation
    systems can effectively capture the air
    contaminants in close proximity to an emission
    source. General ventilation is used to reduce the
    concentration of the air contaminants not removed
    by the LEV.

32
Collateral and Plasma Radiation
  • X-radiation may be generated from electronic
    components of the laser system, e.g., high
    voltage vacuum tubes (gt 15 kV) and laser-metal
    interactions.
  • Plasma emission created during laser-material
    interaction may contain sufficient UV and blue
    light.

33
Optical Radiation Hazard
  • There are several sources of optical radiation
    emissions which can cause eye injury and skin
    burn
  • Ultraviolet light from discharge tubes
  • Visible / infrared light from pumping lamps
  • Blue light and UV emissions from interactions
    between high power laser beam and target material
  • Intense bright light and thermal emissions from
    laser welding
  • Preventative measures
  • Shield the optical radiation by proper enclosure.
  • Wear suitable personal protective equipment to
    protect eyes and skin.

34
Fire Hazard
  • A fire can occur when a laser beam (direct or
    reflected) strikes a combustible material such as
    paper products, plastic, rubber, human tissues,
    human hair and skin treated with acetone and
    alcohol-based preparations. The risk of fire is
    much greater in oxygen-rich atmospheres.
  • The three components required for a fire to start
    are
  • 1) a combustible material
  • 2) an oxidizing agent
  • 3) a source of ignition
  • Keep these components physically separated from
    each other.

35
Explosion Hazards
  • Sources
  • High pressure arc lamps, filament lamps and
    capacitor banks in laser equipment
  • - Enclose in housing
  • Metal dust collected in ventilation systems
  • - Maintain properly

36
Compressed Gases
  • Hazardous gases (Cl2, F, HCl HF) are used in
    laser applications. Develop SOP for safe
    handling.
  • Safety problems with compressed gases
  • Free standing cylinders not isolated from
    personnel
  • No remote shut off valve
  • Incorrect labeling of cylinders gas lines
  • Gases of different categories not stored
    separately
  • No leak testing - Loose gas line fittings

37
Laser Dyes and Solvents
  • These complex fluorescent organic compounds in
    solution with solvents form a lasing medium.
  • Concerns
  • Dye Powders
  • Carcinogens (benzo(a)pyrene)
  • Toxic
  • Little or no toxicity data
  • Before mixing with solvent, concentrated dye
    powder inhalation or skin contact hazard
  • Dye Solvents chemical and physical hazards
  • Transport dissolved substances through the skin
  • Flammable (Chlorobenzene, Cyclohexane, Methanol)
  • Toxic (Benzonitrile, Dioxane, Dimethylformaldehyde
    )
  • Carcinogenic (Chloroform, Dichloroethane,
    Tetrahydrofuran)

38
Caution
39
Radiofrequency Energy
40
Electromagnetic Fields
  • Whenever there is electricity, there are
    electric and magnetic fields, these are invisible
    lines of force created by the electric charges.
  • Electric field (unit V/m) exists near an
    appliance that is plugged into and electrical
    outlet (even if it is turned off). Increases in
    strength with voltage.
  • Magnetic field (unit A/m, Gauss or Tesla) results
    from the flow of current through wires or
    electrical devices and increases as the strength
    of current increases.

41
Electromagnetic Fields
  • Electric field can be easily shielded or weakened
    by conducting objects
  • Magnetic fields are not weakened and pass through
    most materials and are most difficult to shield.
  • Both fields weaken with distance from the source.
  • Line sources of magnetic Field 1/d2
  • Point sources of magnetic Field 1/d3

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Maximum Permissible Exposure Limits
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Power line magnetic lines are ELF rage of
spectrum
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