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Missouri University of Science and Technology Environmental Health and Safety Radiation Safety Training

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Radiation Exposure for a Minor For purposes of radiation protection, 10 CFR 20.1003 defines a Minor as an individual less than 18 years of age . – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: Missouri University of Science and Technology Environmental Health and Safety Radiation Safety Training


1
Missouri University of Science and
TechnologyEnvironmental Health and Safety
Radiation Safety Training
2
Materials License
  • The Missouri University of Science and
    Technology (Missouri ST) campus is regulated
    under a Materials License. The U.S. Nuclear
    Regulatory Commission grants the Materials
    License. The Curators of the University of
    Missouri are specified as the licensee for
    Missouri ST. The Missouri ST Materials License
    can be viewed at the department of Environmental
    Health and Safety in 108 Campus Support Facility.

3
Radiation Safety Officer
  • The Radiation Safety Program is a part of the
    department of Environmental Health and Safety.
    The Radiation Safety Program consists of a
    Radiation Safety Officer (RSO), a Health
    Physicist and one Health Physics Technician. The
    current RSO is Ray Bono.
  • The name of the Radiation Safety Officer is
    specified in paragraph 11 of the Missouri ST
    Materials License. Paragraph 11 states
  • 11. The Radiation Safety Officer for this
    license is G. Raymond Bono.

4
Sealed Source Leak Tests
Paragraphs 14 A. and 14 B. of the Missouri ST
Materials License specify the frequency at which
sealed sources containing gt 100 microcuries
beta/gamma emitting material or gt 10 microcuries
of alpha emitting material must be leak tested.
Paragraphs 14 A and 14 B state 14 A. Sealed
sources and detector cells shall be tested for
leakage and/or contamination at intervals not to
exceed 6 months or at such other intervals as
specified by the certificate of registration,
referred to in 10 CFR 32.210. B.
Notwithstanding Paragraph A of this condition,
sealed sources designed to emit alpha particles
shall be tested for leakage and/or contamination
at intervals not to exceed 3 months.
5
Missouri ST Handbook of Radiological Operations
  • The Missouri ST Handbook of Radiological
    Operations is the official guide in all matters
    relating to radiation protection and the control
    of radioactive materials at the Missouri
    University of Science and Technology. The
    Handbook supports the regulations set forth by
    the Materials and Reactor licenses. The Handbook
    was prepared by the Radiation Safety Office, with
    approval from the Radiation Safety Committee.
    The Handbook is available online at
  • http//ehs.mst.edu/labsafety/radiationsafety/UMR_
    handbook_rad_operations.html

6
Tritium Bioassays
  • The Missouri ST Handbook of Radiological
    Operations (Section 2.2.4) contains requirements
    for tritium bioassays.
  • When tritium is used in uncontained form, a
    bioassay of a urine specimen is required for each
    person involved with handling the material in the
    following amounts
  • 1. For tritium in uncontained form, of
    quantities greater than 10 millicurie processed
    in an open room, a bioassay shall be performed
    within one week for a single contact or a
    bioassay shall be performed weekly for
    continuous contact.
  • 2. For tritium in uncontained form of quantities
    greater than 100 millicurie, processed in an
    approved, operating fume hood, a bioassay shall
    be performed within one week for a single contact
    or a bioassay shall be performed weekly for
    continuous contact.
  • 3. For tritium when there may have been
    absorption, ingestion, injection or other
    accidental deposition in the body of any activity
    greater than 250 microcuries, a bioassay shall
    be performed.

7
Code of Federal Regulations
  • The Missouri ST Radiation Safety Program
    predominantly uses two parts of Title 10,
    Chapter I Code of Federal Regulations.
  • Part 19 (10 CFR 19) establishes requirements for
    notices, instructions, and reports by licensees
    to individuals participating in licensed
    activities and options available to these
    individuals.
  • Part 20 (10 CFR 20) contains regulations
    establishing standards for protection against
    ionizing radiation resulting from activities
    conducted under licenses issued by the NRC.

8
Workers Training
  • 10 CFR 19.12 requires workers who are working in
    or frequenting any portion of a restricted area
    to be instructed of/in storage, transfer, health
    protection problems/precautions, regulations, and
    responsibilities in regard to minimizing
    exposure.

9
ALARA Concept
  • The ALARA concept is based on the assumption
    that every radiation exposure and release of
    radioactive materials should be kept to a level
    As Low As Reasonably Achievable. Time, distance,
    and shielding are integral in maintaining
    radiation exposures as low as reasonably
    achievable.

Time radiation is directly related to the
amount of time exposed. Less exposure time means
less dose. Distance by maintaining distance
between yourself and the source, the dose is
reduced significantly. The relationship between
radiation exposure (dose) and distance follows
the inverse square law. If a dose rate from a
source at 1 foot is 1 millirem, the dose rate at
2 feet is reduced to 0.25 millirem (i.e. 1/(22)
0.25). Shielding by utilizing appropriate
shielding, the radiation exposure (dose) can be
reduced significantly.
10
Radiation Exposure for a Minor
  • For purposes of radiation protection, 10 CFR
    20.1003 defines a Minor as an individual less
    than 18 years of age.
  • According to 10 CFR 20.1207, the maximum dose a
    minor can receive is 10 of the limits specified
    in 10 CFR 20.1201.

11
Radiation Exposure to the Public
  • 10 CFR 20.1301 has licensee requirements
    established to protect individual members of the
    public from radiation exposure.
  • 20.1301 Dose limits for individual members of
    the public.
  • (a) Each licensee shall conduct operations so
    that
  • (1) The total effective dose equivalent to
    individual members of the public from the
    licensed operation does not exceed 0.1 rem (1
    mSv) in a year, exclusive of the dose
    contributions from background radiation, from
    any administration the individual has received,
    from exposure to individuals administered
    radioactive material and released under 35.75,
    from voluntary participation in medical research
    programs, and from the licensees disposal of
    radioactive material into sanitary sewerage in
    accordance with 20.2003, and
  • (2) The dose in any unrestricted area from
    external sources, exclusive of the dose
    contributions from patients administered
    radioactive material and released in accordance
    with 35.75, does not exceed 0.002 rem (0.02
    millisievert) in any one hour.

12
Radiation Signs
  • The standard Radiation symbol and the
    appropriate colors are found in 10 CFR 20.1901.
  • 20.1901 Caution signs.
  • (a) Standard radiation symbol. Unless otherwise
    authorized by the Commission, the symbol
    prescribed by this part shall use the colors
    magenta, or purple, or black on yellow
    background. The symbol prescribed by this part is
    the three-bladed design

(1) Cross-hatched area is to be magenta, or
purple, or black, and (2) The background is to
be yellow. (b) Exception to color requirements
for standard radiation symbol. Notwithstanding
the requirements of paragraph (a) of this
section, licensees are authorized to label
sources, source holders, or device components
containing sources of licensed materials that
are subjected to high temperatures, with
conspicuously etched or stamped radiation
caution symbols and without a color
requirement. (c) Additional information on signs
and labels. In addition to the contents of signs
and labels prescribed in this part, the licensee
may provide, on or near the required signs and
labels, additional information, as appropriate,
to make individuals aware of potential radiation
exposures and to minimize the exposures.
13
Determination of Prior Accumulated Dose
  • 10 CFR 20.2104 has requirements for determining
    a workers prior accumulated dose. Specifically,
    10 CFR 20.2104(e) states
  • (e) If the licensee is unable to obtain a
    complete record of an individual's current and
    previously accumulated occupational dose, the
    licensee shall assume--
  • (1) In establishing administrative controls
    under 20.1201(f) for the current year, that
    the allowable dose limit for the individual is
    reduced by 1.25 rems (12.5 mSv) for each quarter
    for which records were unavailable and the
    individual was engaged in activities that could
    have resulted in occupational radiation
    exposure and
  • (2) That the individual is not available for
    planned special exposures.

14
Posting Requirements
  • Signs should be posted in accordance with 10 CFR
    20.1902. A Caution, High Radiation Area should
    be posted in a high radiation area, a Caution,
    Radiation Area should be posted in a radiation
    area, etc. Some examples of area definitions, as
    defined in 10 CFR 20.1003, are
  • High radiation area means an area, accessible to
    individuals, in which radiation levels from
    radiation sources external to the body could
    result in an individual receiving a dose
    equivalent in excess of 0.1 rem (1 mSv) in 1 hour
    at 30 centimeters from the radiation source or 30
    centimeters from any surface that the radiation
    penetrates.
  • Radiation area means an area, accessible to
    individuals, in which radiation levels could
    result in an individual receiving a dose
    equivalent in excess of 0.005 rem (0.05 mSv) in 1
    hour at 30 centimeters from the radiation source
    or from any surface that the radiation
    penetrates.

15
Posting Requirements
  • According to 10 CFR 20.1902, a Danger,
    Radioactive Materials or Caution, Radioactive
    Materials sign should be posted when an area or
    room uses or stores an amount of licensed
    material exceeding 10 times the quantity
    specified in Appendix C to part 20.

16
Waste Disposal
  • Environmental Health and Safety (EHS) disposes
    of all waste (radioactive and chemical) at
    Missouri ST. Radioactive waste and sources are
    specifically turned over to Radiation
    Safety/Health Physics in the department of EHS.

17
Contamination
  • Significant contamination at Missouri ST is
    defined as 100 picocuries (pCi) per 100 square
    centimeters. More information on Health Physics
    levels of action can be found on the EHS website
    at
  • http//ehs.mst.edu/labsafety/radiationsafety/radi
    ological_information_health.html
  • 1 pCi 2.22 disintegrations per minute (dpm)

18
Minor Spills
  • The procedure for cleaning up minor radioactive
    spills is located on the EHS website at
  • http//ehs.mst.edu/labsafety/radiationsafety/radi
    ological_information_health.htmlSpills
  • This policy applies to spills that are
    microcurie activities and the contamination is
    only in a single room. If more than microcurie
    activities are involved in a spill or if the
    contamination extends beyond a single room,
    Health Physics must be contacted immediately to
    supervise the decontamination effort.

19
Radionuclide Inventory Control
  • One of the records to be maintained by the
    campus Radiation Safety Office is the quantity of
    radioactive material currently authorized. The
    Radiation Safety Officer maintains a listing of
    the quantities of each radionuclide which has
    been authorized by the Radiation Safety Committee
    for use by individual investigators. What the
    individual investigator must do is keep a record
    of the receipt, use, storage, and disposal of
    radioactive materials so that at any time, the
    amount on hand can be calculated. More
    information on radionuclide inventory control can
    be found at
  • http//ehs.mst.edu/labsafety/radiationsafety/UMR_h
    andbook_rad_operations.htmlmaintained

20
Occupational Dose Limits
  • Occupational Dose Limits for adults can be found
    in 10 CFR 20.1201.
  • 20.1201 Occupational dose limits for adults.
  • (a) The licensee shall control the occupational
    dose to individual adults, except for planned
    special exposures under 20.1206, to the
    following dose limits.
  • (1) An annual limit, which is the more limiting
    of--
  • (i) The total effective dose equivalent being
    equal to 5 rems (0.05 Sv) or
  • (ii) The sum of the deep-dose equivalent and
    the committed dose equivalent to any individual
    organ or tissue other than the lens of the eye
    being equal to 50 rems (0.5 Sv).
  • (2) The annual limits to the lens of the eye, to
    the skin of the whole body, and to the skin of
    the extremities, which are
  • (i) A lens dose equivalent of 15 rems (0.15
    Sv), and
  • (ii) A shallow-dose equivalent of 50 rem (0.5
    Sv) to the skin of the whole body or to the skin
    of any extremity.

21
Average Radiation Exposure
  • A member of the public receives an average
    radiation exposure of 0.2 rem/year or 200
    millirem/year. Some sources of radiation
    exposure include medical x-rays, cosmic
    radiation, and radon gas.

22
Radiation Monitoring Devices
A Luxel dosimeter is used to measure an
individual's radiation dose. It can detect x- and
gamma radiation above 1 mrem and high-energy beta
radiation above 10 mrem. It can not detect
radiation emitted from low-energy beta emitters
such as H-3, C-14, or S-35. A Luxel dosimeter is
required if you routinely handle high-energy beta
emitters. For those individuals who require a
neutron exposure monitor, a special type of Luxel
dosimeter is issued. A ring dosimeter is used
to measure an individuals extremity dose. It
can detect x- and gamma radiation above 30 mrem
and high energy beta radiation above 40 mrem. A
ring dosimeter is required if you routinely
handle high energy beta emitters. Pocket
dosimeters are used primarily at the UMR Reactor.
Pocket dosimeters are often used for temporary,
short monitoring times (i.e. minutes,
hours). Dosimeters are available at Radiation
Safety/Health Physics in the department of
Environmental Health and Safety. A Request for
Dosimeter Service form is located on the Forms
page of the EHS website.
23
Radiation Effects
  • The scientific community generally assumes that
    any exposure to ionizing radiation can cause
    biological effects that may be harmful to the
    exposed person and that the magnitude or
    probability of these effects is directly
    proportional to the dose. These effects may be
    classified into three categories
  • Somatic Effects Physical effects occurring in
    the exposed person. These may be prompt
    effects which are observable after a large or
    acute dose (e.g., 100 rems (1 Sv) or more to the
    whole body in a few hours) or they may be
    delayed effects such as cancer that may occur
    years after exposure to radiation.
  • Genetic Effects Abnormalities that may occur in
    the future children of exposed individuals and in
    subsequent generations.
  • Teratongenic Effects Effects such as cancer or
    congenital malformation that may be observed in
    children who were exposed during the fetal and
    embryonic stages of development.
  • NRC Regulatory Guide 8.29 Instruction
    Concerning Risks From Occupational Radiation
    Exposure contains more information on the risks
    of occupational radiation exposure.

24
Prenatal Radiation Exposure
  • NRC Regulatory Guide 8.13 Instruction
    Concerning Prenatal Radiation Exposure contains
    instructions for employers and employees dealing
    with an employees pregnancy.
  • It is the employees responsibility and choice
    to declare a pregnancy. The employee is
    responsible for taking all action required to
    declare a pregnancy. NRC Regulatory Guide 8.13
    explains how to declare a pregnancy, and
    describes the responsibilities of the employee
    and employer. As stated in NRC Regulatory Guide
    8.13, once the employee declares a pregnancy, the
    employer must ensure that the dose to the
    embryo/fetus during the entire pregnancy, due to
    occupational exposure, does not exceed 0.5 rem (5
    mSv).

25
Questions?
  • If you have any questions or concerns, please
    contact the Radiation Safety Officer.
  • Ray Bono, Radiation Safety Officer
  • Environmental Health and Safety
  • 108 Campus Support Facility
  • 341-4305
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