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713 311 PRINCIPLES OF VETERINARY PHARMACOLOGY

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Topic 1 Basic Knowledge of Veterinary Pharmacology 713 311 PRINCIPLES OF VETERINARY PHARMACOLOGY Dr. Korawuth Punareewattana * Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, Khon ... – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: 713 311 PRINCIPLES OF VETERINARY PHARMACOLOGY


1
Basic Knowledge of Veterinary Pharmacology
Topic 1
  • 713 311 PRINCIPLES OF VETERINARY PHARMACOLOGY
  • Dr. Korawuth Punareewattana

Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, Khon Kaen
University
2
Topic Contents
  • Terms and Definitions
  • Scope of Subjects
  • Sources of Drugs
  • Routes of Drug administration
  • Drug standards and Pharmacopoeia
  • Pharmacology Textbooks
  • Drug nomenclature
  • Drug classifications
  • Drug development

3
What is pharmacology?
Definition
  • Greek words of Pharmacology
  • pharmakon - drug or poison
  • Logos - study of
  • The science that deals with
  • the fate of drugs in the body and
  • (pharmacokinetics)
  • their actions on the body
  • (pharmacodynamics)

4
What is drug ?
  • A drug is
  • any substances differ from a normal constituent
    of the body or one that is required for normal
    bodily function (e.g. food, water, oxygen) that
  • when applied to or introduced into a living
    organism has the effect of altering body
    functions.
  • These alterations may
  • prove useful in the treatment of disease
    (therapeutic application) or
  • it may cause disease (toxicity).

5
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  • ?????? ?????????????????????????????????? ?????
    ?????? ????? ???? ?????????? ...
  • ?????? ?????????????? ???? ??????????????????????
    ?????
  • ??????????? ?????????? (pharmacopoeia)
  • ????????????????? ????
  • ??????????????

6
Scope of Pharmacology
  • 3 major aspects of Pharmacology
  • Pharmacy
  • Pharmaceutical sciences
  • Study on drug making
  • Pharmacology
  • Study on drug disposition and action
  • Toxicology
  • Study on poison and drug toxicity

7
Sub-discipline of Pharmacology
  • General or Basic Pharmacology
  • Basic principles
  • Systemic Pharmacology
  • Study of drug groups based on body systems
  • Regulatory Pharmacology
  • Drug regulations and Laws
  • Pharmacognosy
  • Study of sources of drugs

8
Sub-discipline of Pharmacology
  • Pharmacotherapeutics
  • Focus on using drugs to treat diseases
  • Molecular Pharmacology
  • Study of pharmacology at molecular level
  • Clinical Pharmacology
  • Study of pharmacology in patients
  • Metrology
  • the science of measurement

9
Sub-discipline of Pharmacology
  • Posology
  • Study on drug dosage
  • Pharmacokinetics
  • Study on drug movement in the body
  • Pharmacodynamics
  • Study on drug action in the body
  • Pharmacogenetics
  • Study on genetic factors
  • Comparative Pharmacology
  • Comparative study in different species

10
Sources of Drugs
  • Natural sources
  • Carbohydrates
  • Glycosides (sugar aglycone)
  • Lipids
  • Proteins
  • Alkaloids
  • Volatile oils
  • Plant exudates
  • Antibiotics, Hormones, Growth factors, Cytokines,
    Vitamins, Toxins
  • Synthetic sources
  • Natural mimicking
  • Natural modification
  • Laboratory synthetics

11
Route of administrationthe path by which a drug
is taken into the body
  • Classification
  • Desired effect
  • Topical route
  • Applied onto the skin or mucous membrane
  • Enteral route
  • Given into GI tract
  • Desired effect is systemic
  • Parenteral route
  • Usually involve injection
  • Desired effect is systemic
  • Local effet
  • Usually by topical route
  • Systemic effect
  • Usually by enteral and parenteral

12
Route of administration
Topical route Local effect Systemic effect
Epicutaneous /
Transdermal /
Transmucosal /
Nasal /
Inhalational / /
Eye drops /
Ear drops /
Intravaginal /
Intramammary /
13
Route of administration
Enteral route Local effect Systemic effect

Oral /
Sublingual /
Buccal /
Rectal /
14
Route of administration
Parenteral route Local effect Systemic effect

Subcutaneous /
Intramuscular /
Intravenous /
Intraarterial /
Intraosseous /
Intraperitoneal /
Intrathecal /
15
Route of administration
Local injection Local effect Systemic effect
Miscellaneous routes intend for local effect
Epidural /
Subconjunctival /
Intra-articular /
Intravitreal /
Intravesicular /
etc
16
Drug Standard
  • Pharmacopoeias
  • a book containing directions for the
    identification of samples and the preparation of
    compound medicines, and published by the
    authority of a government or a medical or
    pharmaceutical society
  • a reference work for pharmaceutical drug
    specifications

17
Pharmacopoeias in England
  • British Pharmacopoeia (B.P.)
  • British Pharmacopoeia (Veterinary)
  • British Pharmaceutical Codex (B.P.C.)
  • British Veterinary Codex (B.Vet.C.)

18
Pharmacopoeias in USA
  • United States Pharmacopoeias (U.S.P.)
  • National Formulary (N.F.)
  • New and Non-official Drugs (N.N.D)

19
Other Pharmacopoeias
  • Codex Francais
  • International Pharmacopoeia

20
Pharmacopoeias in Thailand?????????????????
????????????????????????? ?.?. 2544
  • ?????????????????? ??????? 1, 2
  • (Thai Pharmacopoeia)
  • ???????????????????? ??????? 1, 2
  • (Thai Herbal Pharmacopoeia)
  • British Pharmacopoeia (B.P.)
  • British Pharmacopoeia (Veterinary)
  • United States Pharmacopoeias (U.S.P.)
  • International Pharmacopoeia

21
?????????????? ????????????????????????? ?.?.
2544
  • ??????????????????????????????????
  • ???????????????????????? ???????? ???? 1 ??? ????
    2
  • ?????????????????????????????????????????????
    ???? 1 ???? 2??? ???? 3
  • ???????????????????????? ???? 1 ???? 2 ??? ???? 3

22
Pharmacological Textbooks
  • Medical Pharmacology Textbooks
  • Goodman and Gilman's the Pharmacological Basis of
    Therapeutics, 12th ed.
  • Principles of Medical Pharmacology
  • Pharmacology Principles and Practice
  • Modern Pharmacology with Clinical applications

23
Pharmacological Textbooks
  • Veterinary Pharmacology Textbooks
  • Veterinary Pharmacology and Therapeutics. 9th ed
  • Small animal clinical pharmacology and
    therapeutics, 2nd ed by Boothe
  • Small animal clinical pharmacology, 2nd ed by
    Maddison
  • Plumb, D.C. Veterinary Drug Handbook. 6th ed.

24
Drug Nomenclature
  • Chemical name
  • Non-proprietary or Generic name
  • Approved name
  • Name not yet in Pharmacopoeias
  • Official name
  • Drug name in Pharmacopoeias
  • Aspirin (U.S.P.), Aspirin (B.P.)
  • Common name
  • Usually the same as generic name
  • Proprietary or Trade or Brand name
  • examples
  • Rimadyl
  • Zeniquin

25
Carprofen (Rimadyl?)
  • Chemical name
  • 6-chloro-a-methyl-9H-carbazole-2-acetic acid
  • Generic name
  • Carprofen
  • Trade name
  • Rimadyl

26
Marbofloxacin (Zeniquin?)
  • Chemical name
  • 9-fluoro-2,3-dihydro-3- methyl-10-(4-methyl-1-pipe
    razinyl)-7-oxo-7H-pyrido3,2,1-ij4,1,2
    benzoxadiazine- 6-carboxylic acid
  • Generic name
  • Marbofloxacin
  • Trade name
  • Zeniquin

27
Drug Classification
  • Classifications based on Origin
  • Natural preparations or Galenicals
  • Pure compounds
  • Semi-synthetic substances
  • Purely synthetic compounds

Galen
28
Classifications based on Use
  • Classify drugs according to the organ system upon
    which they exert their most prominent actions
  • Anesthetic drugs
  • Anti-convulsants
  • CNS stimulants
  • ANS drugs
  • Cardiovascular drugs
  • Anti-hypertensive agents
  • Diuretics
  • Muscle relaxants
  • Analgesics
  • Anti-inflammatory drugs
  • Antihistamine

29
Evaluation of New Drugs (Drug development)
  • Objectives Effective and safe
  • Testing in 2 aspects
  • Pharmacological profile
  • To see if it is effective
  • Toxicological profile
  • To see if it is not harmful

30
Evaluation Processes
  • I. Screening Test
  • II. Preclinical Test
  • III. Clinical Test

31
Screening Test
  • Thousands of chemicals are screened in laboratory
  • Most tests are focused on Pharmacological profile
  • Very few chemicals may passed as potential
    candidates

32
Preclinical Test
  • This step involves mostly with testing in
    laboratory animals
  • Testing
  • Pharmacological tests
  • Toxicological tests

33
Preclinical Test
  • Pharmacological tests
  • Pharmacy
  • To find a suitable preparations
  • Pharmacokinetics
  • To find the right dosage
  • Pharmacodynamics
  • To understand the mechanism of action

34
Preclinical Test
  • Toxicological tests
  • Acute toxicity test
  • Subacute toxicity test
  • Subchronic toxicity test
  • Chronic toxicity test
  • Reproductive toxicity test
  • Carcinogenicity test
  • Genotoxicity test

35
Clinical Test
  • This step will be done in targeted populations
  • Phase I
  • Study in normal people
  • Phase II
  • Study in small group of sick people
  • Phase III
  • Study in large group of sick people
  • Phase IV
  • Post-marketing evaluation
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