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HUMAN RESOURCE MANAGEMENT: FROM HRM CONTENT TO EMPLOYEE PERCEPTIONS

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HUMAN RESOURCE MANAGEMENT: FROM HRM CONTENT TO EMPLOYEE PERCEPTIONS Prof. Karin Sanders Organizational Psychology University Twente; the Netherlands – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: HUMAN RESOURCE MANAGEMENT: FROM HRM CONTENT TO EMPLOYEE PERCEPTIONS


1
HUMAN RESOURCE MANAGEMENT FROM HRM CONTENT TO
EMPLOYEE PERCEPTIONS
  • Prof. Karin Sanders Organizational Psychology
    University Twente the Netherlands

2
Human Resource Management From content to
perceptions
  • Management HRM so far emphasis on content
  • From content to perceptions
  • Technical organizations in the Netherlands
    Germany Technology Investment (2010)
  • Introduction Strength of HRM system (Bowen
    Ostroff, 2004)
  • Hospitals in the Netherlands Personnel Review,
    2008
  • Hotels in China, IJ of HRM, 2010

3
Human Resource Management From content to
perceptions
  • HRM so far emphasis on content
  • From content to perceptions
  • Technical organizational in the Netherlands
    Germany
  • Introduction Strength of HRM system (Bowen
    Ostroff, 2004)
  • Hospitals in the Netherlands
  • Hotels in China

Feel free to ask any question
4
Management approaches (background)
  • Wish that employees put as much energy and time
    in the job as possible (core problem within
    organizations)
  • Control model versus commitment model
  • Khatri, N., Baveja, A., Boren, S.A., Mammo, A.
    (2004) Medical errors and Quality of care From
    Control to Commitment. California Management
    Review.
  • Employee-organization relationship (EOR)
  • Tsui Wang (2002) Tsui, Pearce, Porter
    Tripoli (1997) Zhang, Tsui, Song, Li Jia
    (2008)

5
Management approaches (background)
  • Control model versus commitment model
  • Control human beings are not capable of self
    discipline are lazy so money is important
    incentives (Taylor)
  • Commitment human beings capable of self
    discipline can be committed, trust (Human
    relations model)
  • Employee-organization relationship (EOR)
  • The formal and informal, the economic, social and
    psychological connection between an employee and
    his or her employer mutual investment, quasi
    spot contract

6
In sum, important of employers!
  • Yet who is the employer supervisor leader
  • Matrix structure more supervisors
  • More levels
  • Dean, Director of the research institute
    Director of psychology program, Head HRM, Board
    of the University, Ministry ..
  • Conflicts between different supervisors
  • Who is the other party in the EOR?
  • Whats the idea/perception of the employees?

7
Human Resource Management
  • What is Human Resource Management?
  • Total of all activities within an organization
    related to the management of work and people
    (Boxall Purcell, 2008)
  • (Recruitment selection, Pay for Performance,
    Performance Appraisal, Training)
  • Personnel Organizations HR HRM HRD
  • More than the HRM department only
  • Supervisors (devolution transfer-to-line)
  • Assumption HRM is instrumental in Management /
    EOR approaches (HR Practices)


8
Management - HRM - Employees
Senior Management / EOR
HRM Supervisors (HR Practices)
Employees
9
Human Resource Management content
  • Three HRM approaches (Delery Doty, 1996)
  • Universalistic best practices
  • Contingency aligned with strategy of the
    organization
  • Configurational aligned with internal and
    external circumstances of the organization

10
HRM Best practices
  • High Commitment / High involvement HRM
  • High commitment HRM
  • Focus on commitment of employees
  • High involvement HRM
  • Focus on participation / involvement of employees
  • Research so far positive effects but ..
    conflicts of interests (employer employee)
    difficulties in keeping the balance (expensive)


11
Contingency and configurational approach content
  • Baron Kreps, (1999)
  • Five factor model
  • 1. environment,
  • 2. employees,
  • 3. strategy,
  • 4. culture,
  • 5. organization of processes
  • Alignment of HRM

12
Human Resource Management content
Environment

Strategy
Performance

Characteristics within organization
Prof. dr. Karin April 2009
13
Human Resource Management

Strategy
Performance
attitude behavior employees
Prof. dr. Karin April 2009
14
Human Resource Management

Strategy
Performance HRM
attitude behavior
employees
Prof. dr. Karin April 2009
15
Human Resource Management

Strategy
Performance HRM
attitude behavior
employees
linemanagers
Prof. dr. Karin April 2009
16
Alignment
  • HRM practices should be aligned with the
    environment, and characteristics of the
    organization (employees, culture, strategy, and
    organization of processes)
  • How?
  • Research so far
  • Not clear, difficulties causality cross
    sectional research, a lot of mediating effects, a
    great number of organizations needed ..
    Management perspective!!

17
Employees?
  • Completely neglected?
  • From content to perception and satisfaction of
    employees
  • Psychology
  • people perceive the same environment differently
  • perception drives behavior
  • more attention should be paid to perception

18
How to support Innovative Behavior?
  • Sanders, K., Moorkamp, M., Torka, N., Groeneveld,
    S, Groeneveld, C. (2010) How to support
    Innovative Behaviour. The Role of LMX and
    Satisfaction with HR Practices. Technology and
    Investment, 1, 41-50.
  • Importance of innovative behavior (idea
    generation, idea promotion, idea realization)
  • Leader-Member- Exchange (LMX)
  • Satisfaction with HR Practices
  • Hypotheses LMX (H1) and Satisfaction with HR
    Practices (H2) positively related with innovative
    behavior
  • Combined effect?

19
LMX, Satisfaction Innovative behavior
  • Model 1
  • Model 2

Satisfaction HR
Innovative behavior
LMX
Satisfaction HR
LMX
Innovative behavior
20
Data
  • 272 employees from four Dutch German technical
    organizations (42 to 66 response rate)
  • 220 are men (74)
  • 52 between 25 and 35 years of age
  • higher educated employees (professionals)
  • Surveys and interviews

21
Method
  • Valid measurements
  • LMX (Liden Maslyn)
  • My supervisor would come to my defense if I
    were attacked by others
  • Satisfaction with HR practices influence, flow
    (selection, career), primary rewards, secondary
    rewards, work content (overall satisfaction)
  • Innovative behavior (Janssen et al)
  • Controls organization, sex, tenure, age,
    education

22
Satisfaction HRM Practices
HR Practices 1-5
Influence 3.20
Work flow 3.38
Primary Rewards 2.79
Secondary Rewards 2.78
Content 3.71
23
LMX, Satisfaction innovative behavior results

Satisfaction HR Influence Work content
Innovative behavior
LMX
24
Innovative behavior LMX and HR Practices
  • Conclusions Implications
  • Both LMX and Satisfaction with HR positively
    related with innovative behavior
  • Satisfaction with HR mediates the relationship
    between LMX and innovative behavior
  • HR Practices part of LMX
  • Cross sectional research causality
  • Importance of perceptions of employees

Karin Sanders Xiaobei Li, May 7 2009
25
From satisfaction to interpretation the
attribution theory
  • Bowen, D. E., Ostroff, C. (2004). Understanding
    HRM-Firm Performance Linkages the Role of the
    'Strength' of the HRM System. Academy of
    Management Review, 29(2), 203-221.
  • Sanders, K., Dorenbosch, L., Reuver, R. (2008).
    The impact of individual and shared employee
    perceptions of HRM on affective commitment
    Considering climate strength. Personal Review,
    37(4), 412-415.
  • Li, X., Frenkel, S., Sanders, K. How do
    Perceptions of HR Systems and Processes affect
    worker well-being? A multi-level study of Chinese
    Hotel workers International Journal of HRM (RR)

Karin Sanders Xiaobei Li, May 7 2009
26
Bowen Ostroff (2004)
  • HRM business performance link
  • Instead of the content of HRM
  • Focus on the process of HRM
  • Viewing HRM as communication from employer to
    employees (signals)
  • Introducing strength of an HRM system
  • Attribution theory (Kelley, 1967 1973)
  • Sense making cause and effect
  • Distinctiveness Consistency Consensus

Karin Sanders Xiaobei Li, May 7 2009
27
Bowen Ostroff (AoMR, 2004)
  • Distinctiveness
  • relevance of HRM acceptance visibility
    legitimacy of authority of HRM
  • Consistency
  • internal alignment of HR practices, and over time
  • Consensus
  • agreement among policy makers

Karin Sanders Xiaobei Li, May 7 2009
28
Bowen Ostroff theory
  • Strength of HRM (Distinctiveness, Consistency,
    and Consensus) influences Organizational Climate
  • Organizational Climate shared perceptions of
    what is expected, and rewarded
  • Employee Performance
  • Business Performance

Karin Sanders Xiaobei Li, May 7 2009
29
Bowen Ostroff theory
  • Distinctiveness Consensus
  • Consistency
  • Organizational
    climate
  • Organizational
    performance

Karin Sanders Xiaobei Li, May 7 2009
30
Bowen Ostroff theory
  • Distinctiveness Consensus
  • Consistency
  • Organizational
    climate
  • Affective
    commitment
  • Research question Can the HRM - Affective
    Commitment linkage be explained by the strength
    of HRM system and the organizational climate?

Karin Sanders Xiaobei Li, May 7 2009
31
From theory to an empirical model
  • Attribution theory (Kelley, 1967 1973)
  • Covariation framework
  • Distinctiveness extent to which employee
    interprets that the goals of HR practices differ
    from the goals of other organizational practices
  • Consensus among policy makers or among
    employees
  • Organizational Climate
  • Organizational Climate Level mean
  • Organizational Climate Strength shared
    perceptions
  • Mediating effect or a moderator

Karin Sanders Xiaobei Li, May 7 2009
32
Bowen Ostroff method (1)
  • Four hospitals in the Netherlands
  • within each hospital 18 units
  • clinical out patients support staff
    paramedical
  • Questionnaires / interviews
  • 32 HRM consultants (100 response)
  • 67 line-managers (98 response)
  • 671 employees (66 response)

Karin Sanders Xiaobei Li, May 7 2009
33
Bowen Ostroff method (2)
  • Affective Commitment (Allen Meyer, 1990)
  • HR practices (Delery Doty, 1996) /
    Organizational Focus (mutual investment model
    Tsui Wang, 2002)
  • career opportunities In this organization
    employees have clear career paths,
  • training and education In this organization
    employees have multiple possibilities for
    training and education,
  • appraisal performance () employee appraisals
    are based on objective, quantifiable results
  • clarity of job description () job description
    contain all tasks that need to be performed by
    employees

Karin Sanders Xiaobei Li, May 7 2009
34
Bowen Ostroff method (3)
  • Distinctiveness
  • Relevance seven items Legitimacy of Authority
    Strategic Partner / Change Agent
  • Consistency within respondents (ipsative scores)
  • Inversed standard deviation
  • Consensus between line- and HR managers
  • Inversed deviance scores
  • Organizational Climate
  • Inversed standard deviation within a subunit
  • High Commitment HRM as a control
  • Multi level analyses

Karin Sanders Xiaobei Li, May 7 2009
35
Bowen Ostroff results
  • Distinctiveness Consensus
  • Consistency
  • Organizational
  • climate
  • Affective Commitment

Karin Sanders Xiaobei Li, May 7 2009
36
Bowen Ostroff results


Karin Sanders Xiaobei Li, May 7 2009
37
Bowen Ostroff and beyond?
  • Confirmation
  • Distinctiveness Consistency
  • Organizational Climate moderator
  • No confirmation / limitations
  • Consensus (multi actor data)
  • Affective Commitment instead of BP

Karin Sanders Xiaobei Li, May 7 2009
38
The Bowen Ostroff model Chinese
hotels Xiaobei Li, Steve Frenkel, Karin
Sanders
39
Bowen Ostroff replication
study (1)
  • Three urban 5 star hotels in China
  • Within each hotel, several service departments,
    such as catering, guestrooms
  • Within each department, several units. For
    example, catering has bars, several restaurants,
    banquet and room service as units.
  • The dataset
  • 810 employees
  • 64 units in 20 departments (90 response)
  • High-performance HR practices as a control
  • Work satisfaction, Intention to quite, Vigor as
    DVs

Karin Sanders Xiaobei Li, May 7 2009
40
Bowen Ostroff replication study (2)
  • Distinctiveness
  • A five-item scale (Frenkel Gollan, 2008)
  • Consistency within respondents (ipsative scores)
  • Sign-reversed average deviation
  • Consensus
  • an employee perceptual measure rather than a
    multi-actor one
  • A four-item scale (Delmotte et al., 2007)
  • Organizational Climate
  • Sign-reversed standard deviation within a unit
  • Multi-level analyses

Karin Sanders Xiaobei Li, May 7 2009
41
Bowen Ostroff theory
  • Distinctiveness Consensus
  • Consistency

  • Organizational climate
  • Work
    satisfaction, vigor,
  • intention
    to quit

Karin Sanders Xiaobei Li, May 7 2009
42
Bowen Ostroff results
  • Distinctiveness Consensus
  • Consistency
  • Organizational
  • climate
  • Work
    satisfaction

Karin Sanders Xiaobei Li, May 7 2009
43
Bowen Ostroff results


Karin Sanders Xiaobei Li, May 7 2009
44
Bowen Ostroff results
  • Distinctiveness Consensus
  • Consistency
  • Organizational
  • climate

  • Vigor

Karin Sanders Xiaobei Li, May 7 2009
45
Bowen Ostroff results
  • Distinctiveness Consensus
  • Consistency
  • Organizational
  • climate

  • Intention to quit

Karin Sanders Xiaobei Li, May 7 2009
46
Bowen Ostroff results



Karin Sanders Xiaobei Li, May 7 2009
47
Bowen Ostroff results
  • More or less same conclusions
  • No mediating effects
  • Moderating effect mixed results
  • Main effects
  • Distinctiveness
  • Consistency consensus not always effective

Karin Sanders Xiaobei Li, May 7 2009
48
Bowen Ostroff cultural relevance?
  • Main effects
  • Distinctiveness effective for both cultures
  • Consistency related to Hofstedes uncertainty
    avoidance?
  • score for Netherlands (53) score for
    China (29)
  • Moderating effects of climate on
    consensus-wellbeing
  • - Consensus related to Hofstedes
    collectivism?
  • score for Netherlands (20) score for
    China (75)

Karin Sanders Xiaobei Li, May 7 2009
49
Bowen Ostroff and beyond?
  • Limitations
  • Level of analysis
  • organizational climate vs. unit-level climate
    strength
  • No objective performance measures
  • both employee-, unit -level
  • Cross-sectional design
  • Longitudinal study
  • Generalizability
  • more industries
  • more cultures

Karin Sanders Xiaobei Li, May 7 2009
50
Human Resource Management From content to
perceptions
  • Management HRM so far emphasis on content
  • From content to perceptions
  • Technical organizations in the Netherlands
    Germany Technology Investment (2010)
  • Introduction Strength of HRM system (Bowen
    Ostroff, 2004)
  • Hospitals in the Netherlands Personnel Review,
    2008
  • Hotels in China, IJ of HRM, 2010

51
In sum Human Resource Management Content versus
Process
  • Management approaches HRM research
  • Effects of HR Practices (content)
  • Roles of Ulrich
  • From content to process Bowen Ostroff (2004)
  • Hospitals in the Netherlands
  • Hotels in China

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