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The Colonial Era: The Colonies are Settled and Growth of Colonial Society

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The Colonial Era: The Colonies are Settled and Growth of Colonial Society SSUSH1 The student will describe European settlement in North America during the 17th century. – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: The Colonial Era: The Colonies are Settled and Growth of Colonial Society


1
The Colonial EraThe Colonies are Settledand
Growth of Colonial Society
2
SSUSH1 The student will describe European
settlement in North America during the 17th
century. a. Explain Virginias development
include the Virginia Company, tobacco
cultivation, relationships with Native Americans
such as Powhatan, development of the House of
Burgesses, Bacons Rebellion, and the development
of slavery. b. Describe the settlement of New
England include religious reasons, relations
with Native Americans (e.g., King Phillips War),
the establishment of town meetings and
development of a legislature, religious tensions
that led to colonies such as Rhode Island, the
half-way covenant, Salem Witch Trials, and the
loss of the Massachusetts charter. c. Explain
the development of the mid-Atlantic colonies
include the Dutch settlement of New Amsterdam and
subsequent English takeover, and the settlement
of Pennsylvania. d. Explain the reasons for
French settlement of Quebec. SSUSH2 The student
will trace the ways that the economy and society
of British North America developed. a. Explain
the development of mercantilism and the
trans-Atlantic trade. b. Describe the Middle
Passage, growth of the African population, and
African-American culture. c. Identify Benjamin
Franklin as a symbol of social mobility and
individualism. d. Explain the significance of
the Great Awakening.
3
Essential Questions How did New England, the
Mid-Atlantic colonies, Virginia, and Quebec
develop as settlements in North America? How
did the economy and society of British North
America develop?
4
Key Questions
  • How did mercantilism affect the settlement of
    North America?
  • Where are the Spanish, English, French, Dutch
    settlements?
  • How did Jamestown, Plymouth, Massachusetts Bay,
    New Amsterdam and Quebec develop as settlements?
  • What conflicts arose as a result of colonies
    being settled?
  • How did the colonies support themselves
    economically?
  • What characterized the colonists relations with
    the Native Americans?
  • What were the beginnings of government in the
    colonies?
  • How did the New England colonists develop
    politically?
  • How did the colonists change the lands of North
    and South America?
  • What were the religious tensions of the colonies?
  • How did the Columbian exchange, Triangular trade
    and Middle Passage affect the economies of the
    colonies?
  • How did the new ideas in the colonies affect the
    development of the colonies?
  • How is Ben Franklin a symbol of social mobility
    and individualism in the U.S.?

5
Vocabulary to Know
  • Virginia Company, Massachusetts Company,
    Mayflower, Middle Passage, Jamestown, Plymouth,
    Quebec, John Smith, New Amsterdam, Transatlantic
    trade (triangular trade),
  • Colonization, Physical migration, Powhaten , New
    Amsterdam, Massachusetts Charter, House of
    Burgesses, Legislature, New England town
    meetings,

6
More Vocabulary to Know
  • types of colonies royal, proprietary, religious,
    tobacco economics. Bacons rebellion, Peter
    Stuyvesant, King Phillips war, Pocahontas,
    Squanto, Puritans, French and Indian War, 1763
    Treaty of Paris,
  • American Revolution, Rhode Island, half way
    covenant, Salem Witch trials, Great Awakening,
    John Edwards, Ben Franklin, William Penn,
    Puritans, Dissenters, Roger Williams, Anne
    Hutchinson,

7
Mercantilism
  • The reason for colonies is the theory that if
    ones countrys wealth increased, some other
    countrys wealth would decrease because there was
    only a finite or certain amount of wealth in the
    world.
  • You better get all you could before it ran out!
  • To protect their gold and silver, countries had
    to increase their trade, armies and navies.
  • Colonies were a way to increase trade, resources,
    gold and silver

8
Physical Migration
  • Another reason for colonies is that humans
    migrate or move, if they can, to better their
    situation
  • The first aliens to the Americas were the
    Native Americans
  • Next were all of the different peoples of Europe
  • Most African Americans did not migrate to the
    U.S. because they were forced to come here
    through slavery
  • Today who is migrating to the U.S.?
    ___________________

9
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10
Earliest colonies to survive
  • Spain-St. Augustine, Florida
  • English-Jamestown, Virginia
  • English-Plymouth, Massachusetts
  • English-Massachusetts Bay Colony, Boston, Mass.
  • Dutch-New Amsterdam, New York
  • English-Philadelphia, Pennsylvania
  • France-Quebec, Canada

11
13 Original
12
Types of Colonies
  • Royal- Land given by the King to become a colony
    such as Jamestown and to be ruled as if the King
    were the head of it
  • Proprietary-Land given by the king to become a
    colony but one or more of the private land owners
    retain rights that are usually privileges of the
    state. Such as Pennsylvania
  • Religious-people fleeing religious persecution
    and searching for a place to worship God as they
    saw fit set up a colony. The social and legal
    systems of the colony were thus closely tied to
    their religious beliefs. Such as Plymouth and the
    Massachusetts Bay Company

13
Spain and St Augustine
  • Ponce de Leon, Fountain of Youth, Florida
  • Missions important
  • Cortez, Pizarro- Conquest
  • Coronado- exploration
  • Established Large
  • haciendas
  • or plantations with
  • enslaved workers
  • usually Native
  • Americans
  • Was not part of the
  • original 13 colonies


14
England and Jamestown( a Southern colony)
  • The Virginia Company is given a Charter from
  • English King to set up a colony in North
    America
  • The Va. Company finances their venture by
  • becoming a joint stock company
  • They were originally looking for gold
  • Poor location and High death toll
  • The leader, John Smith, made friends
  • with Powhatan, an Algonquin chief,
  • and traded with him for corn that kept the
    colonists
  • alive the first winter.

15
How did Jamestown survive?
  • Powhaten,
  • John Rolfe,
  • Pocahontas,
  • and tobacco

16
Why and How did Jamestown change?
  • Original labor force were Indentured servants-
    people who could pay off their passage to the New
    World by working for a landowner for 7 years in
    Jamestown.
  • Native Americans way of life ending due to
    changes in the land and disease. Increased wars
    with the remnant
  • Bacons Rebellion- army of indentured servants
    and slaves led by Nathaniel Bacon that attacked
    Native Americans on their lands because they
    wanted that land to grow tobacco. Bacon then
    turned on the landowners in Jamestown. Bacon lost
    but landowners no longer trust the indentured
    servants
  • Heres an idea! Slavery- less chance of a
    rebellion because they have no hope of getting
    their own land

17
Development of government and rule of law in
Jamestown
  • House of Burgesses
  • first elected
  • legislative
  • assembly
  • in the New World
  • Established in the
  • Colony of Virginia
  • in 1619.

18
England and Massachusetts
19
English Pilgrims establish New England
  • Separatists who left England because they
    believed their church should be organized
    separate from the trappings, traditions and
    organization of the official Church of England
  • 1620-Pilgrims settle in Plymouth, Mass (Cape Cod)
  • Pilgrims wrote the Mayflower Compact- a set of
    laws they all agreed to be governed by. This is
    the first known example of law by the governed in
    the world.
  • In 1621 they celebrated their first Thanksgiving
    Day together to thank God for their survival.
    About half survived the first year.

20
The Embarkation of the Pilgrims (Weir)
21
The Puritans

  • Established the

  • Massachusetts Bay

  • Colony.
  • This colony passed Plymouth in population and
    wealth because of the good harbor at Boston.
  • They were Dissenters or people who disagreed with
    the Church of Englands worship style and were
    seeking "purity" of worship and doctrine in the
    new world

22
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23
How did the Puritans and Pilgrims survive?
  • Native Americans such as Squanto helped the
    Pilgrims with food and taught them how to use the
    lands resources
  • Malaria minimal due to healthy climate.
  • Fishing was excellent
  • Great natural resources like trees and the
    ocean-shipping became important
  • Puritan work ethic
  • Establish rum trade with Britain
  • Establish town meetings and a legislature

24
Religious Tensions in New England
  • Roger Williams and Anne Hutchinson start what
    becomes Rhode Island (and the most free of all
    colonies) because they are persecuted for
    believing differently from the Puritans in
    matters of worship
  • Half-way covenant or the allowance of a Puritan
    to only do half of what the Puritan church says
    and still go to Heaven develops because Puritans
    are becoming more worldly and materialistic and
    the church elders do not want to lose church
    members ( sort of fooling with the Devil)

25
Salem Witch Trials
  • Spring, 1692
  • 3 teenage girls start to act funny.
  • The town believes they are possessed by the
    devil.
  • They accuse one slave and two women of shady
    reputations of being their tormentors.
  • 19 people are accused and hung.
  • George Jacobs- 72 year old man accused of
    wizardry.
  • Finally comes to an end when the governors wife
    is accused.
  • Increase Mather, former judge, calls for
    moderation and tolerance.

26
Relations with Native Americans deteriorating
  • King Philips War- Native Americans fight back as
    they lose land and people
  • Nearly one in twenty persons overall among
    Indians and English were wounded or killed.
  • King Philip's war was one of the bloodiest and
    most costly in the history of America.
  • Weakened by disease the Native Americans are
    unable to regain their lands and win the war
  • Considered to be the beginning of the development
    of a greater American identity, because the
    trials and tribulations suffered by the colonists
    made them into a group distinct from their
    English counterparts.

King Philip fighting the Puritans
27
The Middle Colonies-New
York and Philadelphia
  • Henry Hudson discovers the Hudson River for
    the Dutch (present day Holland)
  • Dutch call their colony New Netherlands
  • Dutch settle the city of New Amsterdam at the
    mouth of the Hudson on a small island (Manhattan)
  • Peter Stuyvesant, is last Governor and builder of
    Wall Street
  • England seizes New Amsterdam without a fight and
    changes name to New York
  • Later, part of it is given to the English Kings
    friends and called New Jersey

28
The City of Brotherly Love
  • William Penn, a Quaker, settles Philadelphia in
    Pennsylvania. They make a peace treaty with
    Native Americans
  • Quakers are against weapons, slavery, and war
  • Prosperous because Philadelphia and New York both
    become the bread basket of the colonies

29
Quebec (where the Desaulniers family went
looking for their fortunes)
  • France establishes a large French controlled area
    centered around the city of Quebec in present day
    Canada.
  • Originally focused on missions.
  • Fur trade
  • becomes main
  • economic focus
  • not agricultural
  • Minimal problems
  • with the Indians

30
Some other southern colonies
  • City of Charleston in South Carolina- named after
    King Charles II of England and his wife
  • Savannah- settled by Oglethorpe in Georgia and
    called a buffer colony. A place to help the
    little man do well and be debt free
  • Maryland settled by English Catholics looking for
  • freedom from
  • religious
  • persecution
  • All are
  • mainly agricultural

31
Charleston-largest port city in the Southern
colonies
32
children required to read to understand Bible
large families, six to nine children or more
men working as artisans or small farmers some in
fishing, trade, and business small farms that
could be managed by large families religious
tensions, witchcraft trials, belief in moral life
widespread rural areas with few towns or schools
education only for children of the wealthy, not
of the poor conflicts between freed
indentured servants, wealthy, and Indians for
property immigrants mostly indentured servants,
men and boys climate that bred disease, many
deaths, small families slave class created by
forbidding freedom, education large plantations
that required many hands gave rise to slavery
Life in the New England Colonies
arrived in colonies looking for better life
sought religious freedom many farmers
Life in the Southern Colonies
33
How did the colonists (inadvertently) change the
land area of the Americas and aid their own
survival?
  • Earthworms
  • Honey bees
  • Feral pigs
  • New crops and cultivation
  • methods
  • The Columbian exchange
  • Disease-small pox, malaria
  • Pollution
  • Native Species begin to decline
  • Less Native Americans

34
The most significant exchange of anything after
1492 and before now
35
The First Great Migration
  • Migration of people from England to what is
    now the Northeastern and Southeastern United
    States, the Chesapeake Bay, and the Caribbean
    during the 1630s

36
How did all the separate colonies begin to become
one big colony?
  • Trade with other colonies and England
  • Triangular trade especially profitable

England and Europe
B
Africa
C
A
The Americas (the Colonies and the Caribbean
then called the West Indies)
37
Europe
Colonies
Africa
38
The Middle Passage
  • Refers to the forced transportation of African
    people from Africa to the New World as part of
    the Atlantic slave trade
  • It was called the Middle Passage because
  • the slave trade
  • was the middle
  • portion
  • of the triangular
  • trade.

39
New Ideas in the Colonies
  • When you throw different people, different
    climates, different economies, different
    resources together, things start to heat up!
  • Change is in the air!!!!

40
The Enlightenment
  • Philosophical Movement in Europe with some new
    ideas that shed light on the old dark ways of
    doing things
  • Human reason is the way to improve things in
    society
  • Divine right of kings is old school
  • Freedom matters
  • Man matters

41
Two Enlightenment philosophers who deeply
affect the colonies (also Thomas Jefferson who
writes the Declaration of Independence)
  • Montesquieu- Believed in separation of powers(
    executive, legislative, judicial) in a government
    if it was to be democratic
  • John Locke- all people are equal and independent
    and have a right to life, liberty, property . In
    some cases, where peoples rights are being
    abused, revolution is a right also.

42
Benjamin Franklin
  • Symbol of the NEW and ideal colonist
  • Makes himself a successful business man by using
    his brains and working hard
  • Author, political theorist, politician, printer,
    scientist, inventor, civic activist, and diplomat
  • A renaissance man who Invents swim fins, the
    lightening rod, and bifocals
  • His own man- an individual who answers only to
    himself and his God

43
The Great Awakening
  • Jonathan Edwards and George Whitefield preached a
    great Christian revival in the Americas that led
    to many new (and perhaps dangerous?) ideas
  • Freedom to chose ones own religion led to
    freedom to chose ones politics and government
  • 2. Free will is numero uno and that means
    democracy is the best form of government.
    Mercantilism is not the best form of economics.
  • 3. Your choices determine what kind of person
    you are and your destiny

44
Theres a storm a coming, mark my words, mi-lady!
45
The End by Miz D
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