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Pest Management Update

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The Unlucky Side of Lucky Bamboo. Aka Belgian evergreen'; Host name : Dracaena sanderiana ... Unlucky Bamboo. Fungal pathogen Colletotrichum dracaenophilum ... – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: Pest Management Update


1
Pest Management Update
  • Anita Neal
  • UF/IFAS SLC Extension

2
A New Exotic Soft Scale Insect on Croton in South
Florida (Hemiptera CoccoideaCoccidae)
  • This is an undescribed species in an undescribed
    genus of unknown origin. Currently, efforts are
    being made to describe this new scale insect.

Adult and immatures of this new scale insect on
croton
3
Croton Scale
FLORIDA DISTRIBUTION Broward, Duval, Indian
River, Lee, Miami-Dade, Monroe, Orange, Palm
Beach, Pinellas, Putnam, and St. Lucie counties.
Male
Adult female, adult male and immatures of this
new scale insect on croton
4
Homeowner Controls
  • Bayer Advanced Garden Power Force Multi-Insect
    Killer Cyfluthrin
  • Bayer Advanced Garden 2-in-1 Systemic Azalea,
    Camellia Rhododendon Care Dysulfoton
  • Bayer Advanced Garden Tree Shrub Insect Control
    Imidacloprid
  • M-pede Safers Soap Potassium Salts
  • Spectracide Rose Flower Insect Spray -
    Pyrethroid

5
Redbay Ambrosia Beetle, Xyleborus glabratus
Eichhoff (ScolytinaeCurculionidae)
  • The redbay ambrosia beetle, Xyleborus glabratus
    Eichhoff, was first detected in Georgia 2002 and
    in Florida in 2005.
  • This ambrosia beetle introduces an unspecified
    vascular fungus (Ophiostoma sp.) into its host
    causing infected redbays to wilt and die within a
    few weeks or months.

Lateral view
String of compacted ambrosia beetle sawdust on
redbay
Dorsal view
6
Redbay Ambrosia Beetle
  • As the female redbay ambrosia beetle bores
    tunnels into the wood, she lays her eggs in
    galleries. These eggs hatch and the larvae feed
    on the fungus, pupate and change into adults. 
  • Only one female beetle is needed to establish a
    new population. Unmated females lay eggs that
    hatch as males, while mated females lay eggs that
    hatch as females. Multiple generations are
    produced per year.
  • Only the female beetles are able to fly and
    initiate attacks on a new host of trees
  • Do Not transport Firewood from Infested areas

7
Detected in Vero Beach on an Avocado tree
8
Redbay Ambrosia BeetleLaurel Wilt Fungus
  • Potential problem for avocados
  • Most ambrosia beetles attack trees and shrubs
    that are stressed, dying, or dead. Plant stress
    may be the result of drought, flooding, freezing
    temperature damage, wind damage, or very poor
    cultural practices. In contrast, some ambrosia
    beetles, the redbay ambrosia beetle included,
    attack healthy trees. More importantly, the
    laurel wilt fungus that accompanies this beetle
    often causes tree death.

A bore-hole from a redbay ambrosia beetle
surrounded by dried sap (white-crystal-like) from
an avocado stem and wilted leaves of
laurel-wilt-infected avocado tree
9
Laurel Wilt
  • Laurel wilt causes the leaves of affected trees
    to droop and take on a reddish or purplish
    discoloration. Wilted foliage may occur in only
    part of the crown at first, but typically the
    entire crown eventually wilts and reddens.
  • In redbay, the leaves eventually turn brown and
    remain on the tree for up to a year or more.
  • Limited experience with laurel wilt in avocado
    suggests that this host may drop its leaves
    relatively soon after wilting.
  • Removal of bark from wilted trees reveals a black
    to brown discoloration in the sapwood. This is
    the best diagnostic feature of laurel wilt in the
    field. The extent of this discoloration, which
    runs in streaks parallel to the grain of the
    wood, will vary depending on how long the tree
    has been infected

10
What You Can Do
  • Avoid long distance transport of firewood in
    general. A county-level distribution map is
    periodically updated on the following website
    http//www.fs.fed.us/r8/foresthealth/laurelwilt/di
    st_map.shtml
  • Whenever possible, leave dead and dying redbay
    wood (and wood from other laurel family hosts) on
    site instead of transporting it. If the wood must
    be transported, dispose of it as close to the
    source as possible
  • Urban and rural residents and commercial growers
    should be on the look-out for redbay and other
    host trees (including avocado) showing signs of
    rapid wilting and dark sapwood discoloration.
    Report new finds to the Florida Division of Plant
    Industry (http//www.doacs.state.fl.us/pi/) or
    Division of Forestry
  • Treat at the root flare with propiconazole
    (Alamo) Thiabendazole (Arbotect) as
    macroinfusion (innoculated) http//www.fs.fed.us/r
    8/foresthealth/laurelwilt/index.shtml

11
Emerald Ash Borer
  • Emerald Ash borer is an exotic beetle that was
    discovered in southeastern Michigan near Detroit
    in the summer of 2002. The adult beetles nibble
    on ash foliage but cause little damage. The
    larvae (the immature stage) feed on the inner
    bark of ash trees, disrupting the tree's ability
    to transport water and nutrients.
  • It only attacks Ash trees, Fraxinus sp.

12
Emerald Ash Borer
  • The adult beetles are metallic green and about
    1/2-inch long.
  • Adults leave a D-shaped exit hole in the back
    when they emerge in spring.
  • Woodpeckers like EAB larvae heavy woodpecker
    damage on ash trees may be a sign of infestation.
  • Firewood cannot be moved in many areas of
    Michigan, Ohio, Illinois, Indiana, Pennsylvania,
    West Virginia and Maryland because of the EAB
    quarantine
  • It probably came from Asia in wood packing
    material
  • More information http//www.emeraldashborer.info/

13
Potato Cyst Nematodes
  • Potato Cyst Nematode (PCN) is a serious pest of
    potatoes world-wide and is subject to stringent
    quarantine and/or regulatory procedures wherever
    it occurs. PCN can be a devastating pest of
    potatoes in temperate regions if not controlled.
  • It is in 65 countries, intro into US from WWI
    equipment returning from the war (NY).
  • Spread by tubers and soil residue
  • Potential into Florida through potato seeds
    (Minn., Maine and South Dakota)
  • Above ground symptoms
  • Chlorosis
  • Stunting of growth
  • Incipient wilting

14
Sabal Palm Decline
  • Texas Phoenix Palm Decline (TPPD)
  • Disease is caused by a phytoplasm
  • Noticed winter/spring 2008 Manatee Co.
  • The earliest symptom is a discoloration of the
    lower (oldest) leaves of the palms.
  • Discoloration begins at the tips of the leaflets.
  • Then reproductive parts of the plant will die,
    resulting in dropping of fruits and flowers
  • In Phoenix palms the spear leaf dies, in Sabals
    it may not.

15
Sabal Palm Decline
  • Red coloration on dead leaves
  • The bud will be loose
  • The insect vector, probably a planthopper or
    leafhopper is unknown. It could be the same
    leafhopper that vectors lethal yellow.
  • Homeowners who suspect TPPD should contact their
    local UF/IFAS County Extension Office.
  • The sampling process is at http//flrec.ifas.ufl.e
    du/pdfs/LY-TPPD-Trunk-Sampling.pdf
  • Samples can be sent to the Fort Lauderdale
    Research and Education Center

16
The Unlucky Side of Lucky Bamboo
  • Aka Belgian evergreen Host name Dracaena
    sanderiana
  • Extremely popular in Asian theme interior
    decorating
  • Plant is very hardy for interiorscaping
    applications
  • Large volume imported from China over last
    several years
  • Pathogen probably introduced in this time frame

17
Unlucky Bamboo
  • Fungal pathogen Colletotrichum dracaenophilum
  • Water-splashed conidial inoculum
  • Geographic range China, Bulgaria-2007 (PD
    92173), Dominican Republic and Florida-2008
  • Symptoms are relatively mild at first and
    apparently can remain static for some time. Look
    for slightly raised brown patches on the stem,
    surrounded by a maroon-colored border

18
Advanced Symptoms of C. dracaenophilum
19
Consequences - Significance
  • Another example of the international
    phytosanitary system being overwhelmed by volume
  • Commodity is treated much like a product for
    consumption a potted plant, not outplanted into
    environment much
  • What is host range of C. dracaenophilum?
  • Probably much too late for any meaningful
    regulatory response
  • Maintain vigilance to avoid any more
    introductions, stop further spread

20
Recent Thrips Records of Interest Submitted to
the Division of Plant Industry
  • Common name, the weeping fig thrips.
  • Primary host, Ficus benjamina.
  • Heavy infestations frequently reported. Rolls
    leaf edges into galls followed by leaf drop.
  • Predators Androthrips ramachandrai
    (Phlaeothripidae), Montandoniola moraguesi
    (Anthocoridae).

21
Holopothrips tabebuia Cabrera Segarra
  • Recently described, formerly referred to as
    Holopothrips cf. inquilinus (Bournier).
  • Primary host, Tabebuia spp.
  • Also makes leaf roll galls similar to
    Gynaikothrips spp.
  • Has same predators as Gynaikothrips spp.

22
Tabebuia Damage
Notice the severe leaflet curling and galling
caused by Holopothrips tabebuia
23
Holopothrips tabebuia
These make protective galls in which they lay
eggs where the larvae live and feed.
24
Liothrips spp.
  • Liothrips varicornis Hood
  • Hibiscus thrips
  • Liothrips floridensis (Watson)
  • Found on camphor
  • Large thrips with bright red larvae.

Echinothrips americanus Morgan
  • Seems more abundant than usual this year.
  • On a number of ornamentals including
    Dieffenbachia, Poinsettia, Spathoglottis, and
    Syngonium.

25
Selenothrips rubrocinctus (Giard)
  • Always one of the most frequently submitted
    thrips. Red-Banded Thrip
  • Has wide host range, including native plants.

26
Scirtothrips dorsalis Hood
  • Most frequently submitted thrips overall.
  • Distribution (27 counties) and host range
    continue to expand.
  • Significant new agricultural hosts
  • Strawberries (Jim Price)
  • Blueberries (Lance Osborne)

Frankliniella spp.
  • F. bispinosa (Morgan) continues to be the most
    frequently submitted flower thrips from a wide
    variety of hosts.
  • F. occidentalis (Pergande) is submitted about as
    frequently as F. bispinosa, also from a wide
    variety of hosts.
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