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Basic Fire

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Basic Fire & Life Safety for Radiation Safety Professionals Robert Emery, DrPH, CHP, CIH, CSP, RBP, CHMM, CPP, ARM Vice President for Safety, Health, Environment ... – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: Basic Fire


1
Basic Fire Life Safetyfor Radiation Safety
Professionals
  • Robert Emery, DrPH, CHP, CIH, CSP, RBP, CHMM,
    CPP, ARM
  • Vice President for Safety, Health, Environment,
    Risk Management Quality Assurance
  • The University of Texas Health Science Center at
    Houston
  • Associate Professor of Occupational Health
  • The University of Texas School of Public Health

2
Why do we need fire and life safety codes?
  • According to the NFPA, in 2007 there were
  • 530,500 structure fires one every minute
  • 3,000 civilian deaths one every 2.5 hours
  • 15,350 civilian injuries one every 30 minutes
  • 10,600,000,000 in property damage
  • A fire department responded to a fire every 20
    seconds

3
Objectives
  • Introduce the codes that drive fire and life
    safety compliance
  • Overview of fire detection and suppression
  • Provide tools to conduct a basic fire and life
    safety assessment

4
Fire Regulations and Codes
NFPA
IBC
  • Safety and Health Regulations
  • OSHA (29 CFR 1910 1926)
  • Fire and Life Safety Codes
  • International Building Code (IBC)
  • National Fire Protection Association (NFPA)
  • Municipal Requirements

NIOSH
OSHA
5
Additional Requirements
  • All codes are minimum requirements
  • Insurance company requirements
  • Company policies
  • The Joint Commission
  • State and/or City requirements

6
How are These Codes Enforced
  • Codes are adopted by reference by ordinance.
  • Plans for remodeling or a new construction must
    be approved by the authority having jurisdiction
    (AHJ) prior to starting work.
  • State Fire Marshals Office
  • Local Fire Department or City Code Officials
  • Designated Local AHJ
  • Take Home Message Know what code(s) apply to
    your operation

7
Which do I follow?
  • Remodeling or new construction plans must be
    approved by authority having jurisdiction (AHJ)
    prior to starting work
  • State Fire Marshals Office
  • Local Fire Department or City Code Officials
  • Designated Local AHJ

8
Features of Building Fire and Life Safety
  • Smoke Control
  • Rated Stairwells
  • Fireproofing Requirements
  • Electrical Safety
  • Construction Combustibility
  • Fire and Smoke Dampers
  • Emergency Power
  • Roof Assemblies
  • Alarms
  • Sprinklers
  • Rated Corridors
  • Exit Access
  • Number of Required Exits
  • Egress Widths
  • Occupant Loads
  • Elevator Recall
  • Fire Rated Doors Frames

9
Fire Alarm Systems
  • Play an Essential Role in Protecting Property and
    Lives From Fire.
  • Protection Goals Governs System Selection
  • Building Occupant Safety
  • Satisfy Building Codes or AHJ Requirements
  • Property Protection
  • First Responder Safety
  • Environmental Protection
  • Combination

10
Fire Alarm Systems
  • IBC references NFPA 72 for installation and
    maintenance
  • NFPA 72 National Fire Alarm Code
  • Basic Components
  • Panel
  • Detection
  • Manual Alarm
  • Notification
  • Off-Premises Connection for Supervision

11
Fire Alarm Systems
  • Fire Alarm System Will Provide Three Types of
    Signals
  • Alarm
  • Trouble indicates a fault in a monitoring
    circuit or component of the fire alarm system
  • Bad smoke detector
  • Ground fault
  • Supervisory indicates a problem with other fire
    protection systems being monitored by the fire
    alarm system
  • Water valve to sprinkler system closed
  • Clean agent system problem

Alarm
Trouble
Supervisory
12
Off-Premises Connection for Supervision
13
Common Fire Detection
  • Smoke Detector
  • Ionization
  • Photoelectric
  • Heat Detectors
  • Fixed Temperature
  • Rate-of-Rise

14
Manual Pull Stations
  • Manual pull devices will be located on the wall
  • Activated by pulling on a handle
  • Sends signal to buildings fire alarm system
    which places the building into alarm

15
Notification Appliances
  • Audible alarms (How loud is loud enough?)
  • Public SPL must be 5 dB above any ambient noise
    that lasts 60 sec. or more, or 15 dB above the
    24-hr average, whichever is greater
  • Sleeping quarters Minimum of 75 dBA

16
Notification Appliances
  • Voice Communication
  • Better to have a larger number of lower SPL units
    vs. a few very loud units
  • Intelligibility can be a problem

17
Notification Appliances
  • Visual alarms
  • Primarily intended to augment audible alarms
  • Common Locations of Visual Alarms
  • Corridors
  • Meeting rooms
  • Restrooms
  • Enclosed elevator lobbies

18
Fire Alarm System Interfaces
  • Heating Ventilation and Air Conditioning
  • Duct detectors
  • AHU shut-down
  • Sprinkler water flow alarms
  • Magnetic lock release mechanisms
  • Door unlocking devices
  • Elevator recall
  • Stairwell pressurization

19
System Reliability
  • Based on Four Elements
  • Design
  • Equipment
  • Underwriters Laboratories
  • Factory Mutual Global
  • Installation
  • Maintenance
  • Inspection, Testing, and Maintenance are crucial
  • Unfortunately, some problems may be identified
    after the previous three have been completed

20
Fire Suppression
  • Water Based Suppression
  • Clean Agent Systems
  • Fire Extinguishers

21
Water Based Suppression
  • Wet-Pipe
  • System contains water under pressure at all times
  • Series of closed sprinkler heads
  • Heat activates sprinkler head
  • Water is discharged immediately
  • Not recommended if system could be exposed to
    temperatures below 40ºF

22
Wet-Pipe System
  1. Main valve
  2. Alarm check valve
  3. Fire department check valve
  4. Fire department connection
  5. Water motor alarm
  6. Sprinkler head
  7. Inspectors test valve

23
Wet-Pipe System
Sprinkler head
Water is released and deflected in a spray pattern
As temperature rises the bulb will shatter
  • Only the sprinkler heads heated by the fire
    activate
  • Fire sprinklers spray 18 gallons of water per
    minute

24
Sprinkler Color Codes and Ratings
Color Sprinkler Classification Temperature Rating
Red Ordinary 135-170
Yellow/Green Intermediate 175-225
Blue High 250-300
Purple Extra High 325-375
Black Ultra High 500-575
25
Field Method for Temporary Stoppage of Sprinkler
Head
26
Dry-Pipe System
  • System contains air under pressure
  • Compressor on system keeps pressure up
  • Sprinkler heads hold the pressure
  • A dry-pipe valve holds back the water supply
  • Valve opens when pressure falls below a
    predetermined level
  • Sprinkler head activation pressure drop valve
    opens water sent to all heads water
    discharged from activated sprinkler head(s)
  • Recommended for areas that could experience
    freezing temperatures

27
How do Dry-Pipe Systems Work?
  1. Heat Activated
  1. Pressure Drop
  1. Valve Opens
  1. Water sent to all sprinkler heads
  1. Water Discharges from activated head

28
Dry-Pipe System
  1. Supply check valve
  2. Main valve
  3. Dry pipe valve
  4. Fire department check valve
  5. Fire department connection
  6. Water motor alarm
  7. Sprinkler head
  8. Inspectors test valve

29
Pre-action System
  • System contains air under pressure
  • Compressor on system keeps pressure up
  • Water held back by pre-action valve
  • System equipped with supplemental detection
  • Operation of detection system allows pre-action
    valve to open and water fills the system
  • Water not discharged until fire has generated
    sufficient heat to activate a sprinkler head
  • Typically found in computer rooms and museums

30
How do Pre-Action Systems Work?
  1. Smoke Detected
  1. Valve Opens
  1. Water sent to all sprinkler heads
  1. Water Discharges from activated head

31
Pre-action System
  1. Supply check valve
  2. Main valve
  3. Water control or deluge valve
  4. Fire department check valve
  5. Fire department connection
  6. Water motor alarm
  7. Sprinkler head (closed)
  8. Detector
  9. Electrical bell
  10. Manual release station
  11. Control panel
  12. Inspectors test valve

32
Fire Pumps
  • Fire pumps are utilized when the hydraulic demand
    exceeds public supply capacity
  • Components
  • Pump and motor
  • Controllers
  • Jockey pump
  • Water tank

33
Water Supply
  • Standpipe System
  • Class I 2 ½ inch hose connection intended for
    fire department use
  • Class II 1 ½ inch hose connections intended for
    first-aid fire fighting
  • Class III Provided with both 2 ½ inch and 1 ½
    inch hose connections
  • Fire Department Connection

34
Suppression Without Water
  • Halon NFPA 12A
  • Being phased out per 1987 Montreal Protocol
  • Carbon Dioxide NFPA 12
  • Clean Agent NFPA 2001
  • Inert gas formulation
  • These systems are often not recognized as
    allowable substitute for water suppression

35
Fire Extinguishers
  • NFPA 10 standard for portable fire extinguishers
  • Select appropriate extinguisher for area
  • Class A, B, C, D, and K
  • Identify hazard occupancy
  • Light Hazard
  • Offices, schools, assembly halls
  • Ordinary Hazard
  • Mercantile storage, parking garages
  • High Hazard
  • Woodworking area, warehouses

36
Conducting a Basic Assessment
  • Determine Your Building Occupancy Type First
  • IBC Occupancy Classifications
  • Assembly Group A-1, A-2, A-3, A-4 and A-5
  • Business Group B
  • Educational Group E
  • Factory and Industrial Groups F-1 and F-2
  • High Hazard Groups H-1, H-2, H-3, H-4, and H-5
  • Institutional Group I-1, I-2, I-3 and I-4
  • Mercantile Group M
  • Residential Groups R-1, R-2, R-3 and R-4
  • Storage Groups S-1 and S-2
  • Utility and Miscellaneous Group U

37
Conducting a Basic Assessment
  • Additional Detailed Requirements Based on Use and
    Occupancy
  • Covered Mall Buildings
  • High-Rise Buildings
  • Atriums
  • Underground Buildings
  • Motor-Vehicle-Related Occupancies
  • Motion Picture Projection Rooms
  • Stages and Platforms
  • Special Amusement Buildings
  • Aircraft-Related Occupancies
  • Combustible Storage
  • Hazardous Materials
  • Drying Rooms

38
Know Your Building
  • Once occupancy is determined codes will give you
    guidance
  • What type of construction is required?
  • Is a sprinkler system required?
  • Is a fire alarm system required?
  • Exiting and egress?
  • Emergency power required?
  • Is a smoke control system required?
  • Is a standpipe system required?

39
Conclusion
  • Codes drive facility fire and life safety
    requirements
  • Know what codes apply to your operation
  • All codes are MINIMUM requirements
  • Who is your AHJ?
  • Many things can be left up to this individuals
    interpretation
  • Maintain systems in accordance with code
    requirements and manufacturers recommendations

40
References
  • International Building Code, International Code
    Council
  • www.iccsafe.org
  • National Fire Protection Association
  • www.nfpa.org
  • The Joint Commission
  • www.jointcommission.org

41
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