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Pile Fires Presentation

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Pile Fires * Reproduced with permission of the US Composting Council Fire Basics The Fire Triangle Oxygen Fuel Heat Self- Sustaining Fire * Reproduced with permission ... – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: Pile Fires Presentation


1
Unit XXVIII, page 129 Pile Fires
1
Reproduced with permission of the US
Composting Council
2
Fire Basics
Oxygen
The Fire Triangle
Self- Sustaining Fire
Fuel
Heat
2
Reproduced with permission of the US Composting
Council
3
Ignition temperature . . . the temperature at
which more heat is generated by combustion than
is lost to the surroundings, so that the
combustion process becomes self-sustaining
(Energy Technology Handbook, Considine).
The ignition temperature for most organic
materials is 205 to 400F (96 to 205C ).
3
Reproduced with permission of the US Composting
Council
4
Heat Sources in a Composting Pile
1. Biological respiration a) releases heat
during biological degradation that is b)
driven by compostable material (nutrients),
moisture, air and organisms.
2. Chemical oxidation a) begins at about
122F/50C, b) can be accelerated by heat
released during active composting, and c)
releases heat during chemical breakdown of
organic matter.
4
Reproduced with permission of the US Composting
Council
5
Reproduced with permission of the US Composting
Council
6
How does the fire triangle close in a pile of
combustible material . . . spontaneously?
Reproduced with permission of the US Composting
Council
7
Simulated Microbial Population Dynamics During
Composting
5
Log CFU's/g
A simulation based on Beffa, Blanc, Marilley,
Fischer, Lyon and Aragno Taxonomic and Metabolic
Diversity during Composting 1995 Jeong and Shin
Cellulosic Degradation in Bench-Scale Composting
of Food Waste and Paper Mixture 1997 Whitney
and Lynch The Importance of Lignocellulosic
Compound in Composting 1995.
7
Reproduced with permission of the US Composting
Council
8
High porosity in the pile allows an increased
supply of oxygen through accelerate convection
Self- Sustaining Fire
Oxygen
Combustible material - large high pile
(self- insulating) - decreasing pile moisture
percent - pile dry spots
Fuel
Heat
Vigorous bacterial activity drives chemical
oxidation accompanied by rising pile temperature
gt94C/200F
Reproduced with permission of the US Composting
Council
9
Piles of Compostable Material
Combustible
9
Reproduced with permission of the US Composting
Council
10
Feedstocks and Conditions Most Susceptible to
Pile Fires
  • Raw, green feedstocks that may have already
    begun decomposing, such as a large brush pile.
  • Bark chips if given enough moisture to start
    biological activity.
  • Large piles of coarse compost, feedstock and
    screened over-sized material (particle size
    4), such as bulking material, wood chips and
    mulch products.

10
Reproduced with permission of the US Composting
Council
11
Prevention of Fires
  • Allow pile heat dissipation by keeping pile
    height below 2 1/2-meters (8-9 feet)
  • Keep pile moisture above 40, and
  • Keep moisture uniformly distributed

11
Reproduced with permission of the US Composting
Council
12
Composting Process Control
5
Characteristic Continuum Curve - Temperature
Impact
80
75
70
65
60
55
Temperature, C
50
45
40
35
30
25
20
15

Reproduced with permission of the US Composting
Council
13
Sources of Heat
Spontaneous combustion Lightning strikes Cutting
torches, welding sparks vehicle sparks Grinding
sparks shovel sparks turning sparks
Cigarettes Wildfires Arson
Reproduced with permission of the US Composting
Council
14
Sources of Fuel
Feedstocks and product Compost Curing piles Woody
bulking material piles Piles of screened
Overs Methane Dust Lubricants and fuels Refuse
and debris piles Paper-bag packaging
materials Office supplies
Reproduced with permission of the US Composting
Council
15
Pile Fires
Oxygen
Self- Sustaining Fire
Fuel
Heat
To Extinguish Pile Fires
  • Reduce pile height to one foot to allow water
    to get in pile, then
  • Wet down to remove heat

15
Reproduced with permission of the US Composting
Council
16
Question When a pile fire develops, and the
Fire Department is called and arrives on the
scene, who is in charge?
Answer The law says the Fire Department is in
charge of dealing with fires.
16
Reproduced with permission of the US Composting
Council
17
Conclusion Facility owner/operators should
insure Fire Department personnel understand how
to deal with pile fires at your facility and
firefighters are trained in advance.
17
Reproduced with permission of the US Composting
Council
18
Fires Site Design Implications
  • Provide enough space to avoid exceeding the
    fire-safe height of piles.
  • Provide access to piles for fire fighting
    equipment (full perimeter access).
  • Provide access to adequate supply of water.
  • Provide space to spread
  • piles out.

18
Reproduced with permission of the US Composting
Council
19
End Unit XXVIII Pile Fires
19
Reproduced with permission of the US Composting
Council
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