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Wireless Sensor Networks for Fire Fighting and Fire Investigation

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Wireless Sensor Networks for Fire Fighting and Fire Investigation CS526 Semester Project Spring 2006 Sarah A. Summers Firefighters Motivation FIRES KILL ! – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: Wireless Sensor Networks for Fire Fighting and Fire Investigation


1
Wireless Sensor Networks for Fire Fighting and
Fire Investigation
  • CS526 Semester Project
  • Spring 2006
  • Sarah A. Summers

2
Firefighters Motivation
  • FIRES KILL !

http//www.usfa.fema.gov/download.jsp?url/downloa
ds/media/tree24012056k1.rm
3
Firefighters Motivation
  • What you have just seen is just the early stages
    of a fire (45 seconds).
  • On average the fire department arrives at 61 of
    structural fires within 6 minutes.
  • By that stage the fire may have spread
    extensively.
  • The exact location of the fire will probably be
    unknown.
  • The extent of the fire will probably be unknown.
  • Result the fire fighters are entering the scene
    almost blind.

4
Fire Investigators MotivationBest Case Scenario
5
Fire Investigators MotivationWorst Case Scenario
6
Goals
  • Determine how wireless sensor networks can help.
  • Assess the current position of wireless sensor
    networks for fire detection and firefighting
    applications in buildings.
  • Assess the challenges faced by fire
    detecting/tracking WSN.
  • Assess the requirements for a pre-deployed fire
    detecting/tracking wireless sensor network.
  • Consider the deployment scheme for sensors.

7
How Can Wireless Sensor Networks Help?
  • Provide information about the location of the
    fire.
  • Provide information about the extent of spread of
    the fire where it is spreading and how quickly.
  • Temperature/Smoke at various locations with the
    structure.

8
Current WSN for Fire Detection/ Tracking in
Buildings
  • FIRE - Fire Information and Rescue Equipment
  • Siren - Context-aware Computing for
    Firefighting

9
FIRE - Fire Information and Rescue Equipment
  • SmokeNet pre-deployed WSN detects fire.
  • FireEye firefighter head mounted display unit.
  • eICS visual display showing resource
    allocation, personnel location and firefighter
    biometrics

10
SIREN - Context-aware Computing for Firefighting
  • Tacit communication among firefighters using WiFi
    enabled PDA with a built in mote.
  • The mote in the PDA collects data from motes
    which are pre-deployed in the building to inform
    the firefighter of hazards and immediate danger.
  • Pre-deployed motes also serve as location beacons
    allows firefighter to navigate through the
    building.
  • Each PDA connects to the PDAs of other
    firefighters in a peering mode.

11
Challenges
  • Motes must detect an event without too many false
    alarms.
  • Transmit information rapidly location and event
    information smoke, temperature rise or both.
  • Reorganize rapidly when one or more mote goes
    down.
  • Incident Commander must be able to link into the
    WSN.
  • Provide Incident Commander with a visual display
    of the scene.

12
Types of Sensors
  • Temperature Sensors detection and tracking
  • Smoke Detectors- detection
  • Infrared Detectors tracking
  • Accelerometers detection of structural collapse

13
Fire Data
  • Temperature changes in a simulated fire in a two
    storey family home.

14
Summary of Temperature Data
Time (seconds) Ceiling Temperature Rise Floor Temperature Rise
5 121C (218F) 1C (2F)
20 187C (337F) 3C (5F)
137 673C (1212F) 318C (547F)
15
Deployment of Temperature Sensors
  • Flaming fire results in rapid changes in
    temperature close to the ceiling.
  • Temperature changes closer to the floor are less
    rapid.
  • Deploy an array of sensors extending from ceiling
    level downwards.
  • Ceiling level sensors will be destroyed early but
    lower sensors should be able to continue passing
    data.

16
Smoke Detectors
  • Ionization smoke detectors best suited for
    detecting flaming fires.
  • Photoelectric smoke detectors best suited for
    detecting smoldering fires.
  • Since temperature sensors will detect flaming
    fires with rapid temperature changes, it would be
    best to use photoelectric smoke detectors to
    ensure rapid detection of smoldering fires.

17
Firefighters And Wireless Sensor Networks
(FAWSNet)
  • WSN comprised of pre-deployed temperature and
    smoke sensors.
  • Internet connection to the Fire Department.
  • Graphical User Interface for use by the Incident
    Commander which connects directly to the wireless
    sensor network.

18
Example FAWSNet Deployment
19
Example Deployment Cross Section of Room
20
Required Algorithms
  • Sentry algorithm to conserve mote power.
  • Temperature event algorithm.
  • Smoke event algorithm.

21
FAWSNet Operation
22
FAWSNet Operation
23
Future Work
  • Viability of sensing motes mote protection
  • TinyViz Simulation
  • Graphical User Interface
  • WSN Security
  • Additional Sensors
  • Physical Testing of Implementation

24
Conclusions
  • Wireless sensor networks have the potential to
    provide valuable information to firefighters and
    fire investigators.
  • There is still a lot of research to be done and a
    lot of issues remain to be resolved, but the fact
    remains that the provision of any additional
    information to firefighters that enhances safety
    must be beneficial.

25
References
  • Overview of Sensor Networks, D. Culler, D. Estrin
    and M. Srivastava, Computer, Vol. 37, Issue No.
    8, August 2004, pp. 41 49, http//csdl2.computer
    .org/comp/mags/co/2004/08/r8041.pdf
  • Sensor Network Operation, http//www.intel.com/res
    earch/exploratory/sensornetwork_operation.htm
  • Intel Motes and Wireless Sensor Networks,
    http//www.intel.com/research/downloads/SNOverview
    CD.pdf
  • Sensor Nets/ RFID, http//www.intel.com/research/e
    xploratory/instrument_world.htm
  • Crossbow Technology Inc. Data Sheet,
    http//www.xbow.com/Products/Product_pdf_files/Wir
    eless_pdf/MICA2_Datasheet.pdf
  • Sensor Based Efficient Multi-Floor Location
    Tracking, D. Sinha, Masters Thesis, University of
    Colorado at Colorado Springs. http//cs.uccs.edu/
    gsc/pub/master/dsinha/doc/DEVJANI_PROJECT_REPORT.d
    oc
  • Wireless Sensor Networks, pt 1 Introduction,
    Eliana Stavrou http//webhosting.devshed.com/c/a/W
    eb-Hosting-Articles/Wireless-Sensor-Networks-pt-1-
    Introduction/

26
References (continued)
  • TOSSIM A Simulator for TinyOS Networks, P. Levis
    and N. Lee, September 17, 2003,
    http//www.cs.berkeley.edu/pal/pubs/nido.pdf
  • Design of Monocular Head-Mounted Displays for
    Increased Indoor Firefighting Safety and
    Efficiency, J. Wilson, D. Steingart, R. Romero,
    J. Reynolds, E. Mellers, A. Redfern, L. Lim, W.
    Watts, C. Patton, J. Baker and P. Wright,
    Proceedings of SPIE -- Volume 5800, Helmet- and
    Head-Mounted Displays X Technologies and
    Applications, May 2005, pp. 103-114,
    http//bmi.berkeley.edu/fire/SPIEpaperFinal.pdf
  • Augmented Cognition for Fire Emergency Response
    An Iterative User Study, D. Steingart, J. Wilson,
    A. Redfern, P. Wright, R. Romero and L. Lim,
    Proceedings of the 1st International Conference
    on Augmented Cognition, Las Vegas, NV, 22-27 July
    2005, http//bmi.berkeley.edu/our_lab/images/AugCo
    gFinal.pdf
  • Siren Context-aware Computing for Firefighting,
    X. Jiang, N. Y. Chen, J. I. Hong, K. Wang, L.
    Takayama and J. A. Landay, Proceedings of Second
    International Conference on Pervasive Computing
    (Pervasive 2004)., Vienna, Austria, April 18 -
    April 23, 2004, http//dub.washington.edu/projects
    /siren/pubs/pervasive2004-siren-final.pdf
  • Ubiquitous Computing for Firefighters Field
    Studies and Prototypes of Large Displays for
    Incident Command, X. Jiang, J. I. Hong, L. A.
    Takayama and J. A. Landay, CHI Letters (Human
    Factors in Computing Systems CHI 2004). ,
    Vienna, Austria, April 24 - 29, 2004,
    http//dub.washington.edu/projects/siren/pubs/CHI2
    004-firefighters-final.pdf

27
References (continued)
  • Full-Scale House Fire Experiment for InterFIRE
    VR, Report of Test, A.D. Putorti Jr and J.
    McElroy, November 2, 1999, Revised April 10,
    2000, http//www.interfire.org/features/fire_exper
    iment.asp
  • System Smoke Detectors, http//www.systemsensor.co
    m/html/guides/A05-1003.pdf
  • Application of Wireless Sensor Mote for Building
    Risk Monitoring, N. Kurata, B. F. Spencer, Jr,
    and M. Ruiz-Sandoval, http//www.unl.im.dendai.ac.
    jp/INSS2004/INSS2004_papers/PosterPresentations/P8
    .pdf, (2003)
  • On Random Event Detection with Wireless Sensor
    Networks, P. K. Dutta, Masters Thesis, Ohio State
    University, 2004, http//www.cs.berkeley.edu/prab
    al/pubs/masters/dutta04masters.pdf
  • Energy-Efficient Surveillance System Using
    Wireless Sensor Networks, T. He, S.
    Krishnamurthy, J. A Stankovic, T. Abdelzaher, L.
    Luo, R. Stoleru, T. Yan, L. Gu, J. Hui and B.
    Krogh, MobiSYS 04, June 6 -9, 2004, Boston, MA,
    http//www.cs.virginia.edu/papers/tracking-mobisy
    s04.pdf

28
Temperature Event Triggering Algorithm
  • 1. If temperature sensing mote detects
    temperature increase gt 10C in 5 seconds then
    fire ignited, trigger alarm.
  • 2. If alarm triggered, determine closest
    neighboring sensors (temperature and smoke) and
    send them a wake up call.
  • 3. Send location of detecting mote and detected
    condition to controller.
  • 4. Draw mote detecting fire on GUI as red
    circle.

29
Temperature Event Triggering Algorithm (continued)
  • 5. If a neighboring mote detects temperature
    rise gt 10C but less than 50C and alarm has
    already triggered, draw motes as an amber square
    to indicate heat associated with fire.
  • 6. Send location of mote and event to
    controller.
  • 7. If a neighboring mote detects temperature
    rise gt 70C and alarm has already triggered,
    draw motes as an amber circle to indicate fire
    spreading.
  • 8. Send location of mote and event to
    controller.

30
Smoke Event Triggering Algorithm
  • 1. If smoke detected for time gt 30 seconds then
    fire ignited, trigger alarm.
  • 2. If alarm triggered, determine closest
    neighboring sensors (smoke and temperature) and
    send them a wake up call.
  • 3. Send location of detecting mote and detected
    condition to controller.
  • 4. Draw mote detecting fire on GUI as red
    square.

31
Smoke Event Triggering Algorithm (continued)
  • 5. If a neighboring mote detects smoke and alarm
    has already triggered, and nearest temperature
    sensors have not been triggered draw smoke
    detector as an amber square to indicate smoke in
    that area.
  • 6. Send location of mote and event to
    controller.
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