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Environmental History: An Overview

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Environmental History: An Overview G. Tyler Miller s Living in the Environment MATES Chapter 2 SPRAGUE ENV MATES * * * * SPRAGUE ENV MATES Key Concepts Four Major ... – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: Environmental History: An Overview


1
Environmental History An Overview
G. Tyler Millers Living in the
Environment MATES Chapter 2
2
Key Concepts
  • Four Major Revolutionsin Human Culture

U.S. Environmental History
  • Tribal and Frontier Era
  • Early Conservation Era
  • The Environmental Era
  • Aldo Leopolds Land Ethic

3
Cultural Changes and the Environment
Hunter-Gatherer Culture
  • Hunter-gatherers
  • LEAVERS VS. TAKERS
  • Homo sapiens 60,000 years- 12,000 years ago
  • Nomadic seasonal movement
  • Limited and local environmental impact
  • Less than 50 people
  • Generally work with natural processes

4
Environmental History of U.S.
1800
1700
1900
1600
5
Cultural Changes and the Environment The
Agricultural Revolution
  • Agriculture 10,000-12,000 years ago
  • NE Africa SE Asia
  • Slash and burn/shifting cultivation (See Fig.
    2-2 p. 23)
  • Sustainable left a plot alone for 30 years
  • Essentially sustainable resource use
  • Started to Increased environmental impact

6
Environmental History of U.S.
1800
1900
1750
Some conservationists were influential in raising
environmental concerns later in this period.
7
Henry David Thoreau
  • Massachusetts
  • Wrote Life in the Woods
  • Alarmed at the loss of wildlife in his home state

8
George marsh
  • Man and Nature
  • Scientific case studies to show past misuse of
    resources led to the rise and fall of
    civilizations.

9
John James Audobon
  • Hunter and painter
  • Catologed numerous birds

10
Cultural Changes and the Environment The
Industrial Revolution
  • Industrial Revolution (mid-1700s)
  • Started in England shifted to US
  • Shift to dependence on non-renewable resources
  • Wood to Fossil Fuels
  • Dramatic increase in environmental impact Lung
    Ailments, Sun Blocked out, SMOG!!!
  • Even changed Evolution Industrial Melanism

11
Environmental History of U.S.
1900
1950
1850
Several presidents, particularly Theodore
Roosevelt, used this Act to establish 43 million
acres of forest reserves.
12
Cultural Changes and the Environment The
Information Revolution/Globalization
  • Information Revolution
  • Rate of information increase and speed of
    communication
  • Globalization
  • Decrease in cultural diversity

13
Environmental History of U.S.
1900
1950
1850
Different worldviews
14
John Muir
  • Founded Sierra Club
  • Preservationist Movement
  • Called for the protection of public lands from
    exploitation

15
Theodore Roosevelt
  • 26th President
  • The Golden Age of Conservation
  • Created wildlife reserves
  • 1905 US Forest Service Established
  • 1916 National Park Service

16
Environmental History of the United States The
Tribal and Frontier Eras
  • Tribal Era Native Americans Leavers
  • Native Americans generally low-impact
    hunter-gather or agricultural societies
  • Frontier Environmental Worldview European
    Settlement (1607-1890)
  • Significant impact as wilderness frontier was
    tamed

17
Environmental History of the United States The
Early Conservation Era
  • Period 1832-1960
  • Concern over resource use
  • Preservation of public lands
  • Public health initiatives
  • Environmental restoration projects

18
Environmental History of U.S.
1950
2000
1900
19
Dirty Thirties
20
Dust Bowl
  • 1930-1936 Franklin Roosevelt
  • Crop Rotation
  • NRCS
  • CCC planted 200 million trees
  • Changed the face of the
  • Area forever. Many left
  • Never to return.

21
Great Depression
  • Hoover wanted to sell all public lands to
    developers depression lack of funds
  • Franklin D. Roosevelt
  • Persuaded Congress to create jobs and restore the
    degraded environment
  • Civilian Conservation Corps Plant trees care for
    parks 2 million employed

22
Environmental History of U.S.
1950
2000
1900
23
Environmental History of the United States The
Environmental Era
  • Period 1960-2000
  • The environmental movement Silent Spring
  • The science of ecology
  • Spaceship Earth worldview 1969 Apollo
  • 1980s Anti Environment
  • 1990s environmental awareness

24
Environmental History of U.S.
25
Environmental History of U.S.
1950
2000
1900
26
Important Figures During The Environmental Era
Part 1
  • Rachel Carson Silent Spring (1962)(See
    Individuals Matter on p. 33)
  • Richard Nixon EPA 1970 CWA 1972
  • ESA 1973
  • Jimmy Carter DOE lower
  • dependence on foreign oil, Superfund

27
Important Figures During The Environmental Era
Part 1
  • Ronald Reagan anti-environmentalist
  • Bill Clinton environmental concerns a priority
  • George W. Bush Jr.

28
Case Study Aldo Leopold and His Land Ethic work
with dont conquer!
  • Individuals are interdependent
  • Ethics respect for land
  • Shift from conqueror to member
  • Problems arise when land viewed as a commodity
  • Preservation of the integrity, stability, and
    beauty of land is right
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