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Ethics in Engineering

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Ethics in Engineering Jerry C. Collins Department of Biomedical Engineering Vanderbilt University THE NAZI DOCTORS At a second trial of medical underlings, Dr. Edward ... – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: Ethics in Engineering


1
Ethics in Engineering
  • Jerry C. Collins
  • Department of Biomedical Engineering
  • Vanderbilt University

2
Overview of Presentation
  • Fundamentals of Ethics
  • Ethics Education in Engineering
  • Codes of Ethics
  • Accreditation Board for Engineering and
    Technology
  • National Society of Professional Engineers
  • IEEE
  • ASME
  • BMES
  • Examples of Ethical Dilemmas
  • Exercise in Ethical Decision Making

3
Ethical issues permeate our world
4
  • I always thought of myself as a man of science.
  • Then youre in a state of conflict.

5
Definitions of Ethics
  • The study of the general nature of morals and of
    the specific moral choices to be made by a
    person moral philosophy.
  • The rules or standards governing the conduct of a
    person or the members of a profession medical
    ethics.

6
Levels of Technology
  • Development and use of devices and techniques
  • Software
  • Products
  • Gene-transfer vector
  • Effects that come in the wake of new devices and
    techniques
  • Intensive care unit
  • Living will
  • Radioactive waste
  • Way of relating to the world
  • Enhancement technologies
  • Objects for human manipulation
  • Rejection of given
  • Humanity exerts power
  • Humanity as creator, or created cocreator

7
Attitudes toward Technology
Even using the yardstick of the ancient Greeks,
our whole modern existence is nothing but hubris
and godlessness. Hubris today characterizes our
whole attitude towards nature, our rape of nature
with the help of machines and the completely
unscrupulous inventiveness of technicians and
engineers. Friedrich Nietzsche, On the
Genealogy of Mortality, Cambridge Press,
New York, 1994, 86.
8
What is hubris?
  • A Casey Clausen press conference
  • Detritus on the Outer Banks after a hurricane
  • Exaggerated pride or self-confidence

9
What is hubris?
  • A Casey Clausen press conference
  • Detritus on the Outer Banks after a hurricane
  • Exaggerated pride or self-confidence

10
Teaching engineering ethics . . . can achieve at
least four desirable outcomes a) increased
ethical sensitivity b) increased knowledge of
relevant standards of conduct c) improved
ethical judgment and d) improved ethical
will-power (that is, a greater ability to act
ethically when one wants to). Davis, M.
Teaching ethics across the engineering
curriculum. Proceedings of International
Conference on Ethics in Engineering and
Computer Science. Available online at
http//onlineethics.org/essays/education/davis.
html.
11
Ethical responsibility...involves more than
leading a decent, honest, truthful life. . . .
And it involves something much more than making
wise choices when such choices suddenly,
unexpectedly present themselves. Our moral
obligations must . . . include a willingness to
engage others in the difficult work of defining
the crucial choices that confront technological
society . . . . Langdon Winner, 1990.
Engineering ethics and political
imagination. Pp. 53-64 in Broad and Narrow
Interpretations of Philosophy of Technology
Philosophy and Technology 7, edited by P. Durbin.
Boston Kluwer. Cited in Joseph R. Herkert,
Continuing and Emerging Issues in Engineering
Ethics Education, The Bridge, 32(3), 2002.
12
Professional Codes of Ethics
  • Accreditation Board for Engineering and
    Technology (ABET)
  • National Society of Professional Engineers (NSPE)
  • Institute of Electrical and Electronic Engineers
    (IEEE)
  • American Society of Mechanical Engineers (ASME)
  • Biomedical Engineering Society (BMES)

13
ABET (Accreditation Board for Engineering and
Technology) Code of Ethics of Engineers The
Fundamental Principles Engineers uphold and
advance the integrity, honor, and dignity of the
engineering profession by I. using their
knowledge and skill for the enhancement of human
welfare II. being honest and impartial, and
serving with fidelity the public, their
employers, and their clients III. striving to
increase the competence and prestige of the
engineering profession and, IV. supporting the
professional and technical societies of their
disciplines.
14
Who are the groups to be benefited in the ABET
Code of Ethics?
15
ABET Code of Ethics of Engineers The Fundamental
Principles Engineers uphold and advance the
integrity, honor, and dignity of the engineering
profession by I. using their knowledge and
skill for the enhancement of human welfare II.
being honest and impartial, and serving with
fidelity the public, their employers, and their
clients III. striving to increase the
competence and prestige of the engineering
profession and, IV. supporting the professional
and technical societies of their disciplines.
16
Groups Who Benefit (ABET)
  • The human family
  • Public
  • Employers
  • Clients
  • Profession
  • Professional and technical societies

17
ABET Code of Ethics of Engineers The Fundamental
Canons 1. Engineers shall hold paramount the
safety, health, and welfare of the public in the
performance of their professional duties. 2.
Engineers shall perform services only in the
areas of their competence. 3. Engineers shall
issue public statements only in an objective and
truthful manner. 4. Engineers shall act in
professional matters for each employer or client
as faithful agents or trustees, and shall avoid
conflicts of interest. 5. Engineers shall build
their professional reputation on the merit of
their services and shall not compete unfairly
with others. 6. Engineers shall act in such a
manner as to uphold and enhance the honor,
integrity, and dignity of the profession. 7.
Engineers shall continue their professional
development throughout their careers and shall
provide opportunities for the professional
development of those engineers under their
supervision.
18
ABET Program Outcomes
  • Engineering programs must demonstrate that their
    graduates have
  • Ability to apply knowledge of mathematics,
    science, engineering
  • Ability to design and conduct expts, analyze and
    interpret data
  • Ability to design system, component, or process
  • Ability to function on multidisciplinary teams
  • Ability to identify, formulate, and solve
    engineering problems
  • An understanding of professional and ethical
    responsibility
  • Ability to communicate effectively
  • Broad education necessary to understand
    engineering impact in a global and societal
    context
  • Recognition of need for and ability to engage in
    life-long learning
  • Knowledge of contemporary issues
  • Ability to use techniques, skills and modern
    engineering tools necessary for engineering
    practice

19
Ethics in ABET Program Outcomes
  • Engineering programs must demonstrate that their
    graduates have
  • Ability to apply knowledge of mathematics,
    science, engineering
  • Ability to design and conduct expts, analyze and
    interpret data
  • Ability to design system, component, or process
  • Ability to function on multidisciplinary teams
  • Ability to identify, formulate, and solve
    engineering problems
  • An understanding of professional and ethical
    responsibility
  • Ability to communicate effectively
  • Broad education necessary to understand
    engineering impact in a global and societal
    context
  • Recognition of need for and ability to engage in
    life-long learning
  • Knowledge of contemporary issues
  • Ability to use techniques, skills and modern
    engineering tools necessary for engineering
    practice

20
Engineering Ethics Education Current State
  • Awareness of need is increasing
  • Social issues
  • ABET accreditation standards
  • 70 of accredited programs have no ethics course
    requirement (Stephan, 1999)
  • Key concept "professional responsibility" (moral
    responsibility based on an individual's special
    knowledge) (Whitbeck, 1998).
  • Typical concerns conflicts of interest,
    integrity of data, whistle-blowing, loyalty,
    accountability, giving credit where due, trade
    secrets, gift giving and bribes (Wujek and
    Johnson, 1992).
  • Herkert, The Bridge, 32(3), 2002

21
Engineering Ethical Education Issues to be
Considered
  • Ethical implications of public policy relevant to
    engineering
  • Sustainable development
  • Health care
  • Risk and product liability
  • Information technology
  • Culturally embedded engineering practice
    (institutional and political aspects of
    engineering, such as contracting, regulation, and
    technology transfer)
  • Macroethical issues (e.g., overconsumption)
  • Herkert, The Bridge, 32(3), 2002

22
Sustainable Development
The guiding principle of sustainable development
is development that meets the needs of the
present without compromising the ability of
future generations to meet their own needs.
Sustainable development recognizes the
interdependence of environmental, social and
economic systems and promotes equality and
justice through people empowerment and a sense
of global citizenship. Whilst we cannot be sure
what the future may bring, a preferable future
is a more sustainable one. Encyclopedia of
Sustainable Development http//www.doc.mmu.ac.uk/
aric/esd/menu.html
23
National Society of Professional Engineers (NSPE)
Code of Ethics
. Fundamental Canons Engineers, in the
fulfillment of their professional duties, shall
1. Hold paramount the safety, health and welfare
of the public. 2. Perform services only in areas
of their competence. 3. Issue public statements
only in an objective and truthful manner. 4. Act
for each employer or client as faithful agents or
trustees. 5. Avoid deceptive acts. 6. Conduct
themselves honorably, responsibly, ethically, and
lawfully so as to enhance the honor, reputation,
and usefulness of the profession. (More
extensive Rules of Practice follow in the
Code) http//www.nspe.org/ethics/eh1-code.asp
24
IEEE Code of Ethics
  • We, the members of the IEEE, in recognition of
    the importance of our technologies in affecting
    the quality of life throughout the world, and in
    accepting a personal obligation to our
    profession, its members and the communities we
    serve, do hereby commit ourselves to the highest
    ethical and professional conduct and agree
  • to accept responsibility in making engineering
    decisions consistent with the safety, health and
    welfare of the public, and to disclose promptly
    factors that might endanger the public or the
    environment
  • 2. to avoid real or perceived conflicts of
    interest whenever possible, and to disclose them
    to affected parties when they do exist  

25
IEEE Code of Ethics (cont.)
3. to be honest and realistic in stating claims
or estimates based on available data   4. to
reject bribery in all its forms   5. to improve
the understanding of technology, its appropriate
application, and potential consequences   6. to
maintain and improve our technical competence and
to undertake technological tasks for others only
if qualified by training or experience, or after
full disclosure of pertinent limitations   7.
to seek, accept, and offer honest criticism of
technical work, to acknowledge and correct
errors, and to credit properly the contributions
of others  
26
IEEE Code of Ethics (concl.)
8. to treat fairly all persons regardless of such
factors as race, religion, gender, disability,
age, or national origin   9. to avoid injuring
others, their property, reputation, or employment
by false or malicious action   10. to assist
colleagues and co-workers in their professional
development and to support them in following this
code of ethics. http//www.ieee.org/portal/index
.jsp?pageIDcorp_level1pathabout/whatisfilecod
e.xmlxslgeneric.xsl
27
ASME Code of Ethics
  • Code of Ethics of Engineers
  • from The American Society of Mechanical Engineers
  • THE FUNDAMENTAL PRINCIPLES
  • Engineers uphold and advance the integrity,
    honor, and dignity of the Engineering profession
    by
  • using their knowledge and skill for the
    enhancement of human welfare
  • being honest and impartial, and serving with
    fidelity the public, their employers and clients,
    and
  • striving to increase the competence and prestige
    of the engineering profession.

28
ASME Code of Ethics
  • Code of Ethics of Engineers From ASME
  • THE FUNDAMENTAL CANONS
  • Engineers shall hold paramount the safety, health
    and welfare of the public in the performance of
    their professional duties.
  • Engineers shall perform services only in the
    areas of their competence.
  • Engineers shall continue their professional
    development throughout their careers and shall
    provide opportunities for the professional
    development of those engineers under their
    supervision.
  • Engineers shall act in professional matters for
    each employer or client as faithful agents or
    trustees, and shall avoid conflicts of interest.
  • Engineers shall build their professional
    reputations on the merit of their services and
    shall not compete unfairly with others.
  • Engineers shall associate only with reputable
    persons or organizations.
  • Engineers shall issue public statements only in
    an objective and truthful manner.

29
BMES Code of Ethics
Biomedical engineering is a learned profession
that combines expertise and responsibilities in
engineering, science, technology, and medicine.
Mindful that public health and welfare are
paramount considerations in each of these areas,
the Society identifies in this Code principles of
ethical conduct in professional practice, health
care, research, and training. This Code reflects
voluntary standards of professional and personal
practice recommended for biomedical engineers.
  Biomedical Engineering Professional
Obligations  Biomedical engineers in the
fulfillment of their professional engineering
duties shall  1. Use their knowledge, skills,
and abilities to enhance the safety, health, and
welfare of the public.  2. Strive by action,
example, and influence to increase the
competence, prestige, and honor of the biomedical
engineering profession.   Biomedical Engineering
Health Care Obligations  Biomedical engineers
involved in health care activities shall  1.
Regard responsibility toward and rights of
patients, including those of confidentiality and
privacy, as a primary concern.  2. Consider the
broader consequences of their work in regard to
cost, availability, and delivery of health care.
30
BMES Code of Ethics (Cont.)
Biomedical Engineering Research
Obligations  Biomedical engineers involved in
research shall  1. Comply fully with legal,
ethical, institutional, governmental, and other
applicable research guidelines, respecting the
rights of and exercising the responsibilities to
human and animal subjects, colleagues, the
scientific community and the general public.
 2. Publish and/or present properly credited
results of research accurately and
clearly.   Biomedical Engineering Training
Obligations  Biomedical engineers entrusted with
the responsibilities of training others
shall  1. Honor the responsibility not only to
train biomedical engineering students in proper
professional conduct in performing research and
publishing results, but also to model such
conduct before them.  2. Keep training methods
and content free from inappropriate influence of
special interests.
31
THE DILEMMA OF BIOENGINEERING RESEARCH ON HUMAN
SUBJECTS
Times are difficult for researchers using human
subjects.
The Scientist 141, 2000.
32
THE DILEMMA OF BIOENGINEERING RESEARCH ON HUMAN
SUBJECTS
Make the rules protecting patients too lax, and
subjects will suffer and even die needlessly.
Make them too strict, and lifesaving medications
wont make it out of the lab quickly enough to
help the people who need them most.
Time, April 22, 2002.
33
TIMELINE 1932 - present
2000 OHRP
1999 death of Jesse Gelsinger
1991 The Common Rule (OHSR)
1979 Belmont Report
1974 National Research Act (OPRR)
1970 Tuskegee Study exposed
1964 Declaration of Helsinki
1947 Nurem-berg Code
1950s Thalidomide tragedy
1940 Nazi medical experiments
34
THE NAZI DOCTORS
At a second trial of medical underlings, Dr.
Edward Katzenellenbogen, a former member of the
faculty of the Harvard Medical School, asked the
court for the death sentence. Any physician who
committed the crimes I am charged with deserves
to be killed, he exclaimed. He was given life
imprisonment.
Shirer WL. The Rise and Fall of the Third Reich,
1960.
35
Nuremberg Code (1947)
  • ethical yardstick against which defendants were
    judged
  • informed consent
  • risk benefit (equipoise)
  • subject can terminate her/his involvement
  • experiment should be based upon prior animal
    studies
  • only scientifically qualified individuals should
    conduct human experimentation
  • physical and mental suffering and injury should
    be avoided
  • there should be no expectation that death or
    disabling injury will occur from the experiment

36
Conditions for Clinical Trial Participation
  • Under what conditions would you participate in a
    clinical trial of a drug or device or procedure?
  • Under what conditions would you allow a friend or
    a member of your family to participate in a
    clinical trial?

37
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38
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39
USPHS Study of Syphilis
  • 1932 Started as a short study (6-8 months) with
    200-300 syphilitic black males in Macon County
  • Free medical examinations
  • Not told of their disease, not treated
  • Study continued with yearly physicals

40
Conditions for Clinical Trial Participation
  • Under what conditions would you participate in a
    clinical trial of a drug or device or procedure?
  • Under what conditions would you allow a friend or
    a member of your family to participate in a
    clinical trial?

41
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42
Ethics in ABET Program Outcomes
  • Engineering programs must demonstrate that their
    graduates have
  • Ability to apply knowledge of mathematics,
    science, engineering
  • Ability to design and conduct expts, analyze and
    interpret data
  • Ability to design system, component, or process
  • Ability to function on multidisciplinary teams
  • Ability to identify, formulate, and solve
    engineering problems
  • An understanding of professional and ethical
    responsibility
  • Ability to communicate effectively
  • Broad education necessary to understand
    engineering impact in a global and societal
    context
  • Recognition of need for and ability to engage in
    life-long learning
  • Knowledge of contemporary issues
  • Ability to use techniques, skills and modern
    engineering tools necessary for engineering
    practice
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