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Articles of Confederation

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November 1777 = Articles of Confederation. Not ratified until March 1, 1781 ... After the Declaration, the Articles of Confederation were created ... – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: Articles of Confederation


1
Articles of Confederation the Constitutional
Convention
  • 1776-1787

2
When we last left our Founding Fathers.
  • Declaration just signed (July 1776)
  • American Revolution kicks into full swing
  • Only American government was the First
    and Second Continental Congress
  • Not really a government by the people
  • More of a committee to solve a problem
  • NO REAL POWER

3
Articles of Confederation
  • Needed something more
  • Permanent
  • Centralized
  • Supported by the power of the people

4
What happened next?
  • Worked on it for _at_ 17 months
  • November 1777 Articles of Confederation
  • Not ratified until March 1, 1781
  • Required all 13 states for ratification
  • 11 agreed right away
  • Delaware 1779
  • Maryland 1781

5
Please note
  • Confederacy a union of persons, parties, or
    states a league
  • How is this different from our current
    government?

6
So what did it say?
  • Page 227 of your We the People
  • Article II
  • Each state retains its sovereignty, freedom and
    independence, and every Power, Jurisdiction and
    right, which is not by this confederation
    expressly delegated to the United States, in
    Congress assembled.

7
So what did it say?
  • Article III
  • a firm league of friendship with each other

8
So what did it say?
  • Article IV
  • The better to secure and perpetuate mutual
    friendship and intercourse among the people of
    the different states in this union,

9
So what did it look like?
  • Unicameral (one house)
  • Each state had one vote (regardless of size)
  • No executive or judicial branch
  • New president chosen each year
  • President of Congress, not the United States

10
Troubles with the Articles
  • Congress powerless to set and collect taxes
  • Congress powerless to regulate trade
  • Congress had no power to act/enforce
  • No national court system
  • Amended with consent of all 13 states
  • Laws only passed by 9/13 majority

11
Shays Rebellion
  • Shays Rebellion no power to collect taxes
  • 1500 Farmers stormed the courthouse in MA
  • Courts foreclosing on farms
  • Importance? Government power was so limited that
    the threat of rebellion became a clear reality

12
Review
  • After the Declaration, the Articles of
    Confederation were created
  • At the end of the Revolutionary War, the people
    and Congress started to realize there were
    problems with the Articles of Conf.
  • What were the specific problems?

13
Weaknesses of the Art. Of Conf.
  • One vote per state
  • Congress had no power to set or collect taxes
  • Congress could not regulate trade
  • No power to enforce acts of Congress
  • No national court system
  • Amendments only possible through unanimous
    consent (laws with 9/13th vote)

14
Most importantly
  • We were not a nation state
  • We were a confederacy or a loose league of
    independent states
  • Each state retains its sovereignty, freedom and
    independence, and every Power, Jurisdiction and
    right, which is not by this confederation
    expressly delegated to the United States, in
    Congress assembled.

15
What happened next?
  • Shays Rebellion Mass, 1786
  • Joint meeting Annapolis, MD 1786
  • Call for another meeting to discuss revising the
    Articles of Confederation
  • Set to meet in Philadelphia, 1787
  • Friday May 25, 1787
  • The Constitutional Convention begins

16
Set the scene
  • No one called it the Constitutional Convention
  • Supposed to revise Articles of Confederation
  • Many argued that they had no right to even
    consider creating a new government
  • Hot sweltering summer in Philadelphia
  • 55 men from the states show
  • New Hampshire shows up late
  • Rhode Island doesnt send anyone ()

17
Who were some of the names?
  • George Washington
  • James Madison
  • Benjamin Franklin
  • Alexander Hamilton
  • John Dickinson
  • John Rutledge
  • 8 of them had signed the Declaration

18
SSHHHHHH
  • Why did the Framers decide to keep the meeting
    secretive?
  • 2 reasons
  • Free exchange of ideas
  • More support from the people if they didnt know
    about the arguments while it was being written

19
Do not Disturb
  • Were the members of the convention right to
    ignore their original instructions? Why?
  • Should the debates at the Constitutional
    Convention have been open to the public? Why?

20
What did they do?
  • Big leaders were Madison Hamilton
  • Believed we needed a strong, central govt.
  • Came to become the Federalists
  • George Washington elected president of the
    Convention (didnt want to go in the 1st place)
  • Edmund Randolph (VA) calls for a new, national
    government.
  • Plan to revise the Art. of Confed. scrapped

21
The 2 Big Plans
  • Group Activity
  • In your group, research what the plan called for
  • Youll brainstorm reasons that argue for and
    against the details of the plan
  • Well share as a class

22
Virginia Plan
  • Edmund Randolph again (VA)
  • Added Executive Judicial branches
  • Bi-cameral legislature (Congress)
  • Population and/or money contributed
  • Power to act, veto, or use force against states
  • States required to support national govt.

23
Virginia Plan
  • Pros
  • Cons

24
New Jersey Plan
  • William Paterson
  • Also Executive Judiciary
  • Executive of more than one person
  • Unicameral legislature
  • Each state represented equally

25
New Jersey Plan
  • Pros
  • Cons

26
Warm Up 1/22
  • Imagine you are a member of the Constitutional
    Convention. Which of the following issues would
    you personally fight for the most and what would
    be your desired outcome in the Constitution? WHY?
  • Representation
  • Taxation
  • Slavery

27
The Great Compromise
  • Virginia Plan
  • Added Executive Judicial branches
  • Bi-cameral legislature (Congress)
  • Population and/or money contributed
  • New Jersey Plan
  • Also Executive Judiciary
  • Executive of more than one person
  • Unicameral legislature
  • Each state represented equally

28
3/5 Compromise
  • Slave Population in 1790

29
Key Questions
  • What compromises were made around the slavery
    issue during the Convention? (Hint There were 4
    of them.)
  • Should the government have left the issue of
    whether to allow slavery or not to the states?
  • Is it fair for us to decide the fairness of
    what occurred in 1776?
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