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Human Anatomy I: Tissues, Skin


Human Anatomy I: Tissues, Skin & Bones Some Basic Ideas Anatomy describes the physical parts of an organism Physiology describes the way in which those parts work ... – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: Human Anatomy I: Tissues, Skin

Human Anatomy ITissues, Skin Bones
Some Basic Ideas
  • Anatomy describes the physical parts of an
  • Physiology describes the way in which those parts
    work, alone and in combination
  • Most organisms are organized into different
  • Cells
  • Tissues groups of cells performing some specific
  • Organs groups of tissues performing some
    specific function
  • Organ systems groups of organs performing some
    specific function

Tissue Types
  • There are 4 main kinds of tissues
  • Epithelial Tissue
  • Connective Tissue
  • Muscle Tissue
  • Nerve Tissue
  • Most organs are a combination of two or more

Epithelial Tissue
  • Serves as covering or lining of various body
  • Involved in both absorption of material and
    secretion of material
  • Cells can vary in shape
  • Squamous cells are flat found in areas where
    diffusion important
  • Cuboidal cells are cubes involved in secretion
    and absorption
  • Columnar cells are rectangular also used for
    secretion and absorption
  • Tissue can vary in of layers
  • Simple epithelium has one layer
  • Stratified epithelium has 2 or more can be
    different cell types

Clockwise from upper left simple columnar
simple cuboidal stratified squamous
Connective Tissues
  • Perform a variety of functions
  • All consist of two components
  • Living cells, scattered in a
  • Non-living matrix secreted by these cells
  • Some examples include
  • Bones
  • Cartilage
  • Adipose (fatty) tissue
  • Blood
  • Ligaments
  • tendons

Major Organ Systems
Integumentary System
  • Or, more commonly, skin!
  • Major functions include
  • A barrier to injury or invasion by other
  • A (very large) sensory organ
  • Production of body covering (hair, scales,
  • Production of various substances (toxins,
    pheromones, lubricants, etc.)
  • Body cooling (via sweat)
  • Assistance with respiration

General Anatomy of the Skin I
  • Outermost layer is the epidermis
  • Living epithelial cells towards interior
  • Outer layer of dead cells, many filled with
    keratin (helps prevent water loss)

General Anatomy of the Skin II
  • Middle layer is the dermis
  • Contains primarily connective tissue, plus
    nerves, blood vessels, muscles, sensory organs
  • Hairs and glands appear to come from this region,
    but actually are infoldings of the epidermis

General Anatomy of the Skin III
  • Inner layer is the hypodermis, or subcutaneous
  • Mostly a layer of adipose tissue, which helps
  • Cushion underlying organs
  • In heat retention
  • Also contains some nerves and blood vessels

(No Transcript)
2 Primary Skin Glands in Humans
  • Sweat Glands, with two types
  • Eccrine sweat glands occur over most of body
  • Release a clear fluid, mostly water with
    dissolved salts
  • Apocrine sweat glands are found mostly in groin,
    armpits, face
  • Release more viscous and odor-causing fluid
  • Sebaceous Glands
  • Release a thicker, oily/waxy fluid called sebum
  • Helps lubricate hair follicles

Human skin also possesses a number of different
kinds of sensory receptors (for temperature,
pressure or touch, pain)
Skeletal System
  • Major functions include
  • Protection for internal organs
  • Attachment points for muscles
  • Some animals possess a hydrostatic skeleton
  • Body is a fluid-filled bag under pressure which
    animal can push against
  • Others have an external skeleton, or exoskeleton
  • Still others possess an internal skeleton

Above are some hydrostatic skeletons, in a
roundworm and an earthworm. To the right is a
shed exoskeleton of a cicada.
Anatomy of the Human Skeleton
  • The axial skeleton consists of bones along the
    midline of the body
  • Includes skull, spinal column, ribcage, sternum
  • The appendicular skeleton is everything else
  • Includes arm bones, leg bones, pelvic girdle,
    pectoral (shoulder) girdle

Axial skeleton
Appendicular skeleton
3 Components of Skeleton
  • Bones the hardest part of the skeleton
  • Cartilage more flexible than bone
  • Ligaments a type of connective tissue linking
    two bones
  • NOTE tendons link muscles to bones, but well
    look at these with muscles

Bone Structure
  • Bones may be long, short, flat, or irregular in
  • Most bones have a dense region of compact bone,
    and a less dense region of spongy (or cancellous)
  • Within the spongy bone of long and flat bones is
    red marrow
  • Involved in production of red blood cells
  • Within the shaft region of long bones is yellow
  • Mostly fat storage
  • Can be converted to red marrow in emergencies

Long bones above, flat bones below
The Inside of Bones
  • The living cells in bones are called osteocytes
  • Osteocytes are found within spaces called lacunae
  • Osteocytes produce bone, which is the non-living
    matrix part
  • Osteocytes are arranged (at least in compact
    bone) in groups called osteons, or a Haversian
  • In the middle of each osteon is a canal
    containing blood vessels to nourish the osteocytes

  • Joints occur where two bones come into contact
    and can move relative to each other
  • At the end of each bone is a layer of cartilage
  • Ligaments link bones
  • Fluid usually fills space between bones to reduce
    friction and wear