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Microbial Ecology

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Microbial Ecology Presented by: FARASAT ALI NOMAN RASHID The importance of these interactions and their effects on the environment Biogeochemical Cycles : describe ... – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: Microbial Ecology


1
Microbial Ecology
  • Presented by
  • FARASAT ALI
  • NOMAN RASHID

2
Definition the interactions of m.o. with the
biotic and abiotic components of the environment
3
The importance of these interactions and their
effects on the environment
  • Biogeochemical Cycles describe the movement of
    chemical elements through the biological and
    geological component of the world

4
producers
consumers
The role of microorganisms ?
decomposers
Help in
- the decomposition of pollutants and toxic
wastes - the efficient utilization of limited
natural resources - transformations of chemical
substances that can be used by other organisms
5
Carbon Cycle
Anaerobic respiration and fermentation
Org.cpd.
CO2 fixation
(phototrophic bacteria)
(anaerobic m.o.)
Methanogenic procaryotes
Anaerobic
CO2 CH4
CO2
Aerobic
Methane-oxidizing procaryotes
CO2 fixation
Respiration
(cyanobacteria, algae, plants, and
chemoautotrophic procaryotes)
(animals, plants, and m.o.)
Org.cpd.
6
Nitrogen Cycle
N2O
Denitrification
N2
(Pseudomonas)
Nitrogen fixation
NO2-
(Klebsiella)
Anaerobic
Assimilation
Organic nitrogen
NH3
Aerobic
Assimilation
Ammonification
Nitrogen fixation
NO3-
(Rhizobium)
N2
Nitrification
(Nitrococcus)
NO2-
(Nitrosococcus)
7
Phosphorus Cycle
phytoplankton
Higher plant
bacteria
zooplankton
Dissolved org.ortho-P
Precipitated inorg.-P
Dissolved org.-P
Sediment
8
Sulfur Cycle
Beggiatoa Thiothrix Thiobacillus
sulfate assimilation
R-SH
So
(some procaryotes)
sulfate assimilation
desulfurylation
Aerobic
R-SH H2S
SO42- R-SH
Anaerobic
Dissimilatory sulfate reduction
Chromatium Chlorobium
Chromatium Chlorobium
Desulfovibrio
S2O32-
So
9
Photoautotrophs
  • Use light as E-source for CO2 fixation
  • Photosynthetic bacteria fix CO2
  • Discovered in 1966 in Chlorobium
    thiosulfatophilum
  • requires ATP, NADH H, reduced flavin,
    reduced ferredoxin
  • ferredoxin is reduced in a light-dependent
    reaction coupled with the oxidation of H2S
  • this cycle probably occurs as a sole pathway
  • for CO2 fixation or in association with the
  • Calvin cycle
  • photoheterotrophs use light as an E-source
    organic compound as C-source e.g.
    Rhodospirillaceae

10
Chemoautotrophs
Use chemical compounds (NH3, NO2-, CH4, H2S, H2)
as E-source for CO2 fixation are widely
distributed in the natural environment e.g.
freshwater ponds and springs
Nitrifying bacteria
soil
Sulfur-oxidizing bacteria (Thiobacillus
thiooxidans Thiobacillus ferrooxidans)
acid drainage water
11
Heterotrophic CO2 fixation is a important way for
m.o. to synthesize intermediates of TCA cycle
from other chemical compounds
Phosphoenolpyruvate CO2 oxaloacetate Pi
ATP pyruvate CO2 oxaloacetate ADP Pi
Oxaloacetate formed by either type of mechanism
is used to keep the TCA cycle functioning
12
Methanogens (Methanobacterium, Methanococcus) can
anaerobically reduce CO2 to CH4
CO2 4H2 CH4 2H2O
found in anaerobic habitats rich in organic
matter e.g. swamps, marine sediments, intestinal
tract and rumens of animals) the amount of CO2
fixed by heterotrophs and methanogens is quite
small as compare to photoautotrophs
13
Microbes and Soil
  • soil consists of organic and mineral matter and
    capable of supporting life
  • soil characteristics depend on
  • 1. Climate and availability
  • of water
  • 2. Geologic age (young-old)
  • 3. Biological inhabitants

14
  • many kinds of bacteria, fungi, algae, and
  • protozoa are found in soil

15
Bacteria are the dominant m.o. in soil
  • they are responsible for many of the
  • biochemical changes in soil
  • the most common soil bacteria Arthrobacter,
    Bacillus, Pseudomonas, Agrobacterium,
    Alcaligenes, Flavobacterium, Streptomyces, and
    Nocardia (Actinomyces)

16
  • anaerobes such as Clostridium and
  • Desulfovibrio are also found in soil
  • soil bacteria are especially noted for their
  • diverse metabolisms because the organic
  • nutrients in soil vary

Pseudomonas
Different types of CHO
Bacillus
Starch, cellulose, gelatin
Arthrobacter
Pesticides, caffeine, phenol
17
Fungi
  • account for a large part of microbial population
    in well-aerated, cultivated soil
  • make up a significant part of total bio mass
    because of their large size and extensive network
    of filaments
  • most common fungi isolated from soil
  • Penicillium and Aspergillus

18
Role and activity of fungi
  • degrade organic matters
  • control growth of other organisms e.g.
  • Predator protozoa, nematode
  • humus formation
  • improve soil aggregation
  • help in the nutrient adsorption
  • of plant root e.g. mycorrhiza
  • cause disease in human, plants, and animals

19
Algae
  • eucaryotic algae and cyanobacteria are found
  • in the upper layers of soil
  • algae do not require a source of organic
  • carbon because ????
  • light accessibility, N, and P are the limiting
  • factor in the distribution of algae

20
Role and activity of algae
increase organic carbon in soil CO2 org.-C soi
l corrosion (from respiration product) CO2
H2O H2CO3 prevent soil erosion and improve
soil aggregation nitrogen fixation blue-green
algae
21
Protozoa
  • are found in greatest abundance near the soil
  • surface (104 -105 cells)
  • why ?

adequate food supply
water availability and organic matter
  • flagellated protozoa (e.g. Allantion, Bodo)
  • dominate the flora of terrestrial habitats
  • soil can also be a reservoir for pathogenic
  • protozoa such as Entamoeba histolytica

22
Virus
  • different types of viruses persist in soil
  • - Bacteriophages of soil bacteria
  • - viruses that cause human, animal, and
  • plant dieases e.g. hepatitis virus, tobacco
  • mosaic virus
  • - are of agricultural and public health
  • importance
  • - the detection and monitoring of such
  • viruses in soil is important

23
Symbiotic Nitrogen Fixation
rhizosphere the region of soil closely
surrounding the roots rhizosphere effect a
consequence of the excretion of organic matter by
plant roots to attract and stimulate the growth
of soil bacteria an estimated 5-10 times more
nitrogen is fixed symbiotically than
nonsymbiotically in free-living bacteria
24
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25
the mutualistic association between rhizobia and
legumes is highly specific The plant benefits
from the bacterial conversion of gaseous N into a
usable combined form the plant provides the
bacterium with nutrient for growth and
metabolism N-fixation occurs only if a legume is
infected by a specific rhizobial species the
roots of leguminous plant secrete flavonoid
compounds that attract rhizobia to rhizosphere
26
Mycorrhiza
certain types of soil fungi are closely
associated with the roots of vascular plants
27
they significantly increase the absorption area
of the roots for minerals and water Mycorrhizae
are especially important in nutrient-poor and
water-limited environments the fungus benefits
from the carbohydrates made available to it by
plant the plants benefit from the increased
absorption area provided by the fungus
28
Endomycorrhiza
  • the more common type and occur in approx.
  • 80 of all vascular plant
  • the fungal hyphae penetrate the cortical
  • cells of the plant root and extend into the
  • surrounding soil

29
Ectomycorrhiza
  • are typically found in trees and shrubs,
  • particularly in temperate forests
  • the plant roots are surrounded but not
  • penetrated by fungal hyphae

30
Microbial Leaching
Leaching is commercially used for the
extraction of Cu, Pb, Zn, and Ur from
sulfide-containing ores Thiobacillus thiooxidans
and Thiobacillus ferrooxidans are acidophilic and
generally found in acid environments e.g. hot
springs and sulfide ore deposits they obtain
carbon from CO2 and energy for growth from the
oxidation of either iron or sulfur
31
Fe2 Fe3 So S2- S2O32- SO42-
Acid mine drainage serious problem
FeS2 H2SO4 1/2 O2 FeSO4 2 So H2O 2 So
2 H2O 3 O2 2 H2SO4
Acidification of water and surrounding soil
32
  • Benefit Microbial leaching in Copper mining
  • low grade Cu ores contain lt0.5 Cu in the
  • form of chalcocite (Cu2S) or covellite (CuS)

T. ferrooxidans
8 Fe2 2 O2 8 H 8 Fe3 4
H2O CuS 8 Fe3 4 H2O Cu2 8 Fe2
SO42- 8 H
  • microbial leaching of low-grade copper ores
  • is important in the mining industry

33
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34
Microbes and the Air
Microorganisms are not found in the upper regions
of the atmosphere because of the temp. extremes,
available oxygen, absence of nutrients and
moisture, and low atmospheric pressures m.o. are
frequently found in the lower portion of the
troposphere (8-12 km from earth) most of them are
either spore formers or microbes that are easily
dispersed in the air
35
Ex. Cladosporium, Alternaria, Penicillium,
Actinomyces, Aspergillus, Bacillus, Sarcina,
Corynebacterium, Achromobacter the relative low
humidity in the atmosphere and UV rays from the
sun limit the types and number of m.o. in the
air Nevertheless, the atmosphere serves as an
important medium for dispersing many types of
microbes to new environment many microbial
diseases are transmitted through the air during
sneezing, coughing, or even normal breathing
36
sO mANY kINDS oF tHANKS
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