If you listen to me, you will know what is right, just, and fair. You will know what you should do. You will become wise, and your knowledge will give you pleasure. your insight and understanding will protect you and prevent you from doing the wrong - PowerPoint PPT Presentation

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If you listen to me, you will know what is right, just, and fair. You will know what you should do. You will become wise, and your knowledge will give you pleasure. your insight and understanding will protect you and prevent you from doing the wrong

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Title: If you listen to me, you will know what is right, just, and fair. You will know what you should do. You will become wise, and your knowledge will give you pleasure. your insight and understanding will protect you and prevent you from doing the wrong


1
  • If you listen to me, you will know what is right,
    just, and fair. You will know what you should do.
    You will become wise, and your knowledge will
    give you pleasure. your insight and understanding
    will protect you and prevent you from doing the
    wrong thing.
  • They will keep you away from people who stir up
    trouble by what they say-men who have abandoned a
    righteous life to live in the darkness of sin,
    men who find pleasure in doing wrong and who
    enjoy senseless evil, unreliable men who can not
    be trusted.

2
  • You will be able to resist any immoral woman who
    tries to seduce you with her smooth talk, who is
    faithless to her own husband and forgets her
    sacred vows. If you go to her house, you are
    traveling the road to death.
  • To go there is to approach the world of the dead.
    No one who visits her ever comes back. He never
    returns to the road to life. So you must follow
    the example of good men and live a righteous
    life.
  • Righteous men-men of integrity-will live in this
    land of ours. But God will snatch wicked men from
    the land and pull sinners out of it like plants
    from the ground.

3
? 11? ????? ??????
  • 1, ????
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    ??? ???? ????? ?? ????? ????? ?? ?? ?? ?????-???
    ???? ????? ???? ????? ?? ??? ???.
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    ???? ?? ?? ?? ????? ???? ???? ?? ???? ?? ?????
    ???.

4
  • ?????? ??
  • 1) ?? ????? ??? ????? ?????? ??? ??? ???? ????
    ???? ????? ??.
  • ????? ?? ??? ??? ?????? ???? ??? ??? ?????? ??
    ??? ???? ???? ?? ?????, ??? ?? ???? ??? ????.
  • -??? ?? ??? ???? ????? ????? ??? ???? ??? ? ??
    ??? ????? ???? ??? ???? ?? ? ? ?? ???? ? ? ??.

5
  • 2) ??
  • ????? ???? ???? ??? ??? ??? ???? ??? ????? ???
    ???? ????? ??? ??? ???? ?? ?? ???? ????.
  • -???? ??????? ??? ?? ???? ???? ?
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  • 3) ??
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    ??? ????.
  • ???? ??? ???? ??? ???? ???? ??????? ??? ?? ? ???
    ??? ?? ????.

6
  • ?? ??? ??? ??? ?? ??? ???? ???? ?? ??? ??? ????
    ?? ??? ??? ?? ??? ???? ???? ?? ??? ??? ???? ??
    ??? ??? ?? ??? ???.
  • ??????? ?? ??? ??? ???? ??? ??? ?? ??? ??? ??
    ????? ?? ?????, ??? ????? ?? ??? ???? ??? ???
    ?? ??? ??? ???? ??.

7
  • 2. ??????
  • ???? ????? ??? ??? ????? ??? ??????? ???? ?? ????
    ????.
  • ????? ?? ??? ???? ?? ?? ???? ?? ?? ???? ? ? ?????
    ??? ??? ??? ? ??? ????? ??? ??? ?? ??? ? ?? ???.
  • ????? ??? ??
  • ??, ???? ?? ????.
  • ??, ???? ?? ??? ???
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  • ??, ??? ????? ?? ??? ??? ????

8
  • ???,. ??? ??? ???? ?? ??? ???? ? ?? ???? ????.
  • ???, ??? ?? ?? ??? ???? ??? ??? ???? ?? ? ????
    ????.
  • ???, ??? ????? ?? ?? ?? ?? ????.
  • ???, ??? ???? ?? ???? ???? ????.
  • ???, ??? ????? ?? ?? ????? ?? ???? (???, 2005).

9
  • ???? ????? ?? ??? ??? ??? ??.
  • ??, ??? ?? ????? ? ? ?? ??? ????, ??? ??, ????
    ?? ?? ??? ???? ??.
  • ??, ??? ?? ????? ?? ? ? ???? ??? ??? ???? ?? ???
    ?? ?? ??? ?? ??, ?? ?? ????? ?? ???? ??.
  • ??, ??? ?? ????? ?? ???? ??, ?? ??? ? ??? ???? ?
    ??? (Rakos Schroeder, 1980 ???, 1996 5 ????
    ?? ???).

10
  • ??????
  • ??, ??? ????? ????? ??? ??? ????? ????? ?????
    ???? ??? ???.
  • ??????, ??????, ??????
  • ??? ????? ??(modeling), ??(Observation),
    ????(role-playing), ?? (coaching), ????
    (Behaviour rehearsal), ??? ? ???? ?? ???, ??????
    ????? ??? ??? ???? ??.
  • ??, ??? ?????? ????? ??? ??? ???? ????? ? ? ?? ??
    ????. ??? ?????? ??? ???-??? ??? ????? ??? ??????
    ?? ???? ??.

11
  • ??, ??? ????? ?? ????? ??? ???? ??? ??? ????? ??
    ? ???? ????? ??? ?? ??? ??? ???? ??? ????? ?
    ????.
  • ??? ???? ??? ????? ??? ???? ???? ??? ? ??? ?? ??
    (Rakos Schroeder, 1980 ???, 1995 ???? ???)

12
  • 3. ????(empowerment)? ??
  • ????? ??? ?? ??? ???? ??? ??? ???? ??? ??? ??
    ?????? ????? ??? ??? ??? ??.
  • Guitierrez(1994)? ????? ???? ???.?????.??? ??
    ????. ??? ??? ??? ??? ??? ???? ??? ???? ?? ?? ???
    ?? ? ??? ?? ???? ???.
  • ????? ????? ????? ???? ??? ??? ??? ??? ?? ?? ???
    ??? ?? ??? ??? ?? ??? ?? ?? ???? ??? ??? ?????
    ????? ???? ??? ??? ?? ??? ??? ????.

13
  • ??. ????? ?? ?? P.112
  • ??. ??? ?? ??
  • ??, ????? ?? ??

14
  • 2. ????????? ???? ??
  • ??????? ??? ??? ??? ???? ????? ?? ???.
  • ???? ???? ????? ???? ???? ????? ??? ???? ??? ??
    ??? ??? ?? ???? ???? ??? ????
  • ?????? ?????? ??????? ?? ???.??? ???? ????? ??
    ????? ???? ????, ????? ???? ?? ??? ???? ??? ??.
  • P. 114 ?? ??

15
3. ????? ?? ???? ????
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  • ????
  • ??????
  • ????

16
  • ??? ??? ??? ??? ???? ???? ??? ?????? ???? ???
    ????? ?? ??? ??.
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    ???? ???? ?? ???? ????? ???? ??? ??? ???? ??.
  • ??, ???? ????
  • ????,
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  • ?? ?? ? ??? ??? ??? ????.

17
  • ??, ????? ????
  • ??? ???? ??
  • ??, ??? ????
  • ??? ??? ??? ?? ?? ?? ???? ???? ????? ??? ?? ????.
  • ???? ??? ????
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  • ???? ??
  • ??? ?? ??? ???? ????? ?? ???
  • ??? ?? ???? ? ???? ????? ??? ??? ???? ??? ?? ????
    ????? ?? ? ??.

18
  • ????? ?? ??? ??? ???? ???? ??? ???? ????,????? ?
    ??? ??? ????? ???? ????? ??? ?? ?? ??.
  • Zimmerman (1995) ? ? ?? ??? ? ? ?? ??? ?? ?? ? ??
    ???? ??? ?? ???.
  • ????? ?? ?(setting)? ??
  • ?????
  • ?? ?????
  • ??? ???? ??? ? ????? ????
  • ???? ?? ?? ??
  • ????? ???? ??? ??? ???? ???? ???
  • ???? ??? ???? ????? ?? ??.

19
  • ???? ???? ? ?? ??
  • ??, ????? ??? ???? ???? ???? ????.
  • ???? ???? ???? ??? ?? ??? ???? ??? ?? ??? ??? ?
    ??? ????.
  • ??, ?? ?? ???? ????? ??? ??? ?????? ???? ??????
    ???? ?? ? ? ??? ??? ??? ??
  • ??? ??, ??? ??, ???, ??????, ????, ???? ?? ??
    ??? ????? ?? ??

20
  • Postmodernism is a term applied to a wide-ranging
    set of developments in critical theory,
    philosophy, architecture, art, literature, and
    culture, which are generally characterized as
    either emerging from, in reaction to, or
    superseding, modernism.
  • Postmodernism (sometimes abbreviated Pomo1) was
    originally a reaction to modernism (not
    necessarily "post" in the purely temporal sense
    of "after"). Largely influenced by the
    disillusionment induced by the Second World War,
    postmodernism tends to refer to a cultural,
    intellectual, or artistic state lacking a clear
    central hierarchy or organizing principle and
    embodying extreme complexity, contradiction,
    ambiguity, diversity, and interconnectedness or
    interreferentiality.2

21
  • Postmodernity is a derivative referring to
    non-art aspects of history that were influenced
    by the new movement, namely the evolutions in
    society, economy and culture since the 1960s.3.
    When the idea of a reaction to - or even a
    rejection of - the movement of modernism (a late
    19th, early 20th centuries art movement) was
    borrowed by other fields, it became synonymous in
    some contexts with postmodernity. The term is
    closely linked with poststructuralism (cf.
    Jacques Derrida) and with modernism, in terms of
    a rejection of its bourgeois, elitist culture.4
  • The term was coined in 1949 to describe a
    dissatisfaction with modern architecture, leading
    to the postmodern architecture movement.5.
    Later, the term was applied to several movements,
    including in art, music, and literature, that
    reacted against modern movements, and are
    typically marked by revival of traditional
    elements and techniques.6

22
  • Postmodernist ideas in the arts have influenced
    philosophy and the analysis of culture and
    society, expanded the importance of critical
    theory, and been the point of departure for works
    of literature, architecture, and design, as well
    as being visible in marketing/business and the
    interpretation of history, law and culture,
    starting in the late 20th century. These
    developments re-evaluation of the entire
    Western value system (love, marriage, popular
    culture, shift from industrial to service
    economy) that took place since 1950/1960, with a
    peak in the Social Revolution of 1968 are
    described with the term postmodernity, as opposed
    to the "-ism" referring to an opinion or
    movement. As something being "postmodernist"
    would be part of the movement, "postmodern" would
    refer to aspects of the period of the time since
    the 1950s, a part of contemporary
    historycitation needed still both terms may be
    synonymous under some circumstances.

23
  • Postmodernism is a movement of ideas arising
    from, but also critical of elements of modernism.
    Because of the wide range of uses of the term,
    different elements of modernity are viewed as
    being coterminous and different elements of
    modernity are held to be critiqued.
  • Each of the different usages of 'postmodernism'
    is also inevitably related to some argument about
    the nature of knowledge, known in philosophy as
    epistemology. Individuals who invoke the
    expression nowadays are implicitly arguing either
    that there is something fundamentally different
    about the transmission of meaning in postmodern
    works of art or else that there inheres in
    modernism certain fundamental flaws in its
    epistemology.citation needed
  • The argument against the need for the concept is
    that the "modern" era has not yet arrived at its
    term and that the most important social and
    political project of our age remains modernism's
    project of replacing counter-enlightenment and
    emotionalist tendencies, as well as combating
    widesperead cultural ignorance, pervasive
    superstition, and mindless resistance to
    technological and social innovations.

24
  • From this perspective, the realities of the
    modern era, and its philosophical underpinnings,
    are being challenged by a backlash from precisely
    that reactionary quarter against which modernism
    in fact began its initial late 19th-century
    crusade.
  • On the other hand more nuanced non-postmodernist
    thinkers and writers (quoted below) hold that
    postmodernism is at best simply a period
    following upon modernism a hybrid variety of it
    or an extension of modernism into contemporary
    times and therefore not a separate period or
    idea which represents a quantum leap from the
    theories of art familiar to us from Stravinsky,
    Mann, Kandinsky, Mondrian and Baudelaire.

25
  • Postmodern feminism is an approach to feminist
    theory that incorporates postmodern and
    post-structuralist theory. The largest departure
    from other branches of feminism, is the argument
    sex is itself constructed through language. The
    most notable proponent of this argument is Judith
    Butler, in her 1990 book, Gender Trouble, which
    draws on, and critiques the work of Simone de
    Beauvoir, Michel Foucault and Jacques Lacan.
    Butler criticises the distinction drawn by
    previous feminisms between (biological) sex and
    (socially constructed) gender. Butler's argument
    is that this does not allow for a sufficient
    criticism of essentialism although feminists
    have recognized that gender is not naturally
    given but socially constructed, they have
    nonetheless tended to assume that gender is
    always constructed in the same way.

26
  • This argument leads to the conclusion that there
    is no single cause for women's subordination, and
    no single approach towards dealing with the
    issue. This has led to criticism of postmodern
    feminism for offering no clear path to action.
    Butler herself rejects the term "postmodernism"
    as too vague to be meaningful.1
  • Although postmodernism resists characterization,
    it is possible to identify certain themes or
    orientations that postmodern feminists share.
    Mary Joe Frug suggested that one "principle" of
    postmodernism is that human experience is located
    "inescapably within language." Power is exercised
    not only through direct coercion, but also
    through the way in which language shapes and
    restricts our reality. However, because language
    is always open to re-interpretation, it can also
    be used to resist this shaping and restriction,
    and so is a potentially fruitful site of
    political struggle.

27
  • Judith Butler (born February 24, 1956) is an
    American post-structuralist philosopher who has
    contributed to the fields of feminism, queer
    theory, political philosophy, and ethics. She is
    the Maxine Elliot professor in the Departments of
    Rhetoric and Comparative Literature at the
    University of California, Berkeley.
  • Butler received her Ph.D. in philosophy from Yale
    University in 1984, and her dissertation was
    subsequently published as Subjects of Desire
    Hegelian Reflections in Twentieth-Century France.
    In the late-1980s, between different
    teaching/research appointments (such as at the
    Humanities Center at Johns Hopkins University),
    she was involved in "post-structuralist" efforts
    within Western feminist theory to question the
    "presuppositional terms" of feminism. Her most
    recent work focuses on Jewish philosophy,
    engaging in particular with "pre-Zionist
    criticisms of state violence." 12

28
  • Gender Trouble was first published in 1990,
    selling over 100,000 copies internationally and
    in different languages citation needed.
    Alluding to the similarly named 1974 John Waters
    film Female Trouble starring the drag queen
    Divine3, Gender Trouble critically discusses
    the works of Simone de Beauvoir, Julia Kristeva,
    Sigmund Freud, Jacques Lacan, Luce Irigaray,
    Monique Wittig, Jacques Derrida, and, most
    significantly, Michel Foucault. The book has also
    enjoyed widespread popularity outside of
    traditional academic circles, even inspiring an
    intellectual fanzine, Judy!.4

29
  • The crux of Butler's argument in Gender Trouble
    is that the coherence of the categories of sex,
    gender, and sexualitythe natural-seeming
    coherence, for example, of masculine gender and
    heterosexual desire in male bodiesis culturally
    constructed through the repetition of stylized
    acts in time. These stylized bodily acts, in
    their repetition, establish the appearance of an
    essential, ontological "core" gender. This is the
    sense in which Butler famously theorizes gender,
    along with sex and sexuality, as performative.
  • The performance of gender, sex, and sexuality,
    however, is not a voluntary choice for Butler,
    who locates the construction of the gendered,
    sexed, desiring subject within what she calls,
    borrowing from Foucaults Discipline and Punish,
    "regulative discourses." These, also called
    "frameworks of intelligibility" or "disciplinary
    regimes," decide in advance what possibilities of
    sex, gender, and sexuality are socially permitted
    to appear as coherent or "natural."

30
  • Regulative discourse includes within it
    disciplinary techniques which, by coercing
    subjects to perform specific stylized actions,
    maintain the appearance in those subjects of the
    "core" gender, sex and sexuality the discourse
    itself produces.5

31
  • Individualist feminism is a term for evolving
    feminist ideas which seek to celebrate or protect
    the individual. An "individualist" feminism was
    expressed in anti-capitalist publications such as
    Liberty, and by individualists highly critical of
    capitalism such as Voltairine de Cleyre and Ezra
    Heywood.1 Today, individualist feminism is
    marked by minarchist or individualist anarchist
    perspectives, such as those of Wendy McElroy and
    Cathy Young (individualist anarchist feminism has
    most adherents in the United States, while in
    Europe anarchist feminism as has more emphasis on
    collectivism.2.). Another approach to
    individualist feminism, with views often
    different than McElroy and Young, is promoted by
    the Association of Libertarian Feminists, founded
    by Tonie Nathan. Individualist feminists who have
    promoted this point of view include Joan Kennedy
    Taylor and Sharon Presley.

32
  • A book which discusses the history of
    individualist feminism is Reclaiming the
    Mainstream Individualist Feminism Rediscovered
    by Joan Kennedy Taylor.
  • A core principle of individualist feminism is
    that all human beings have a moral and / or legal
    claim to their own persons and property, not to
    any sort of affirmative action policies or
    privileges.3 In most parts of Europe it is
    viewed as postmodern feminism because of its
    pluralistic view of female nature.citation
    needed While other schools often stress that
    women in general are living under similar
    circumstances, individualist feminists stress
    that all women are unique and have unique
    goals.citation needed

33
  • Marxism
  • Marxists see society in terms of a conflict
    between economic classes.
  • A dominant class (the bourgeoisie or
    'capitalist' class) owns and controls the means
    of production an industrial working class, the
    'proletariat', is exploited by them.
  • The marxist analysis of welfare concentrates
    principally on its relationship to the exercise
    of power. The state can be seen either as an
    instrument of the ruling capitalist class, or as
    a complex set of systems which reflects the
    contradictions of the society it is part of.
  • It is often argued that welfare has been
    developed through the strength of working-class
    resistance to exploitation.

34
  • Marxism is not a single doctrine it has come to
    stand for a wide range of opinions within an
    analytical framework that is critical of
    'capitalist' society. Neo-marxists argue that the
    state has two main functions.
  • The first is to improve the conditions for the
    accumulation of capital - that is, the chance for
    industries to make profits.
  • The second is to legitimate the capitalist
    system, by introducing measures (like welfare
    policies, pensions and health services) which
    lead people to accept the system as it stands.
  • The requirements of accumulation and legitimation
    may be contradictory, and the costs of
    legitimation have led to a 'legitimation crisis'.

35
  • Individualist feminism contra other feminisms
  • Some individualist feminists have applied the
    label gender feminism to describe feminists they
    see as holding that an animosity exists between
    genders and calling for statist measures to
    intervene in gender relations.4 Thus
    individualist feminism is distinct from both
    mainstream and radical feminist movements.
  • In their rhetoric, individualist feminists
    emphasize individual empowerment, responsibility,
    and in the legal/political realm, equality of
    rights.

36
  • The basic objections to marxist analyses are that
    the description of 'capitalism' is false that
    power in society is divided, and not based in
    ownership and that states which promote the
    welfare of their citizens are not pretending to
    be more legitimate - they are more legitimate.
  • By http//www.wikipedia.org

37
  • ???? ??????? ??
  • 1) ????
  • 2) ??? ??
  • 3) ????
  • 4) ????
  • 5) ??????
  • 6) ????
  • 7) ???? ???
  • 8) ?? ? ??? ??

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