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Instructional Observation Training

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Instructional Observation Training Day 1 * * * * * * * B. WT Debrief Have tables meet Identify a reporter Share the following: What observed Curriculum alignment ... – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: Instructional Observation Training


1
Instructional Observation Training
  • Day 1

2
Connector
  • On the construction paper, please put the
    following information
  • Your name
  • Your school district
  • Your position within the district
  • Number of years in education
  • Favorite movie genre (Horror, Drama, Comedy,
    etc.)
  • Something about you that few people know
  • My favorite vacation is one that lands me at a
    (beach, pool, spa, casino, cruise ship, etc.)
  • If I could spend 5 minutes with any celebrity
    (living or dead) it would be

3
Introduction to the Course
  • 11 Sessions
  • 3 Day Summer Introduction
  • 4 Follow-Up Face-to-Face Sessions
  • 4 Follow-Up On-Line Sessions

4
Introduction to the Course
  • Session 1 Creating a Sense of Urgency Why
    observing classrooms matters
  • Session 2 Exploring Options within Our Practice
  • Session 3 Learner Focused Conversations
  • Session 4 Setting Up An Instructional
    Observation Protocol

5
Introduction to the Course
  • Session 5 Having Crucial Conversations
  • Session 6 On-Line Progress Monitoring Trouble
    Shooting
  • Session 7 Placing Achievement at the Center of
    Conversations
  • Session 8 On-Line Progress Monitoring Trouble
    Shooting

6
Introduction to the Course
  • Session 9 On-Line - Seeking out Problems of
    Practice
  • Session 10 On-Line When reflective
    conversations dont change instructional
    practice. Now what?
  • Session 11 Sustainability of Instructional
    Observation

7
Finish this sentence
  • I hope that, as a result of the content of this
    course, I will be

8
Introducing
  • Dr. Marilyn Meell, Concordia University
  • Information regarding on-line sessions

9
Todays Objectives
  • Objectives
  • Reflect on the importance and changing role of
    instructional leadership
  • Explore the personal and collective understanding
    of curriculum coherence and good instruction
  • Learn and practice a protocol for quick,
    effective classroom observations

10
Norms
  • Take care of your own comfort
  • Start on TimeStay on TimeEnd on Time
  • Turn Electronics to Vibrate
  • Full Engagement but One Conversation at a Time
  • Conduct Sidebars in the Hallway
  • Have Fun

11
Instructional Leadership vs. Instructional
Management
  • Read the article, The Limits of Change
  • Share with your table group using the following
    protocol
  • What Assumptions does the author of the text
    hold?
  • What do you Agree with in the text?
  • What do you want to Argue with in the text?
  • What parts of the text do you want to Aspire to?
  • Create a four part poster with your reactions
  • Share with the whole group

12
Four As Protocol
Assumptions Argue
Agree Aspire
13
Report out
14
Allocation of Time
  • Reflecting on your experience, rank order the
    areas based on how much time you think principals
    spend there.
  • A four (4) means most time and one (1) means
    least time.
  • - Office office area
  • - Off campus
  • - Classrooms
  • - Hallways playgrounds

15
(No Transcript)
16
How Principals Spend The Day
  • Thirteen studies reveal the following
    percentages
  • 40 - 80 is spent in the office or office area
  • 23 - 40 is spent in hallways and playgrounds
  • 11 is spent off campus
  • 2.5 - 10 is spent in classrooms

17
Classroom Observation 1
  • Video Clip 1
  • Sample Teaching Video Secondary Humanities
  • Following the video, you will be asked to
  • Grade the teaching (A,B,C,D or F)
  • Answer What did I see that is consistent with
    good teaching?
  • Answer What did I see (or didnt see) that is
    cause for concern?

18
Chart Your Responses
  • Please write the grade you give the teacher on
    a sticky note and place it on the letter grade
    chart.

19
Chart Your Responses
  • Please write on a sticky note EACH thing you
    observed that was consistent with good
    teaching.
  • One observation or idea per sticky note, please.

20
Chart Your Responses
  • Please write on a sticky note EACH thing you
    observed that was cause for concern.
  • One observation or idea per sticky note, please.

21
Defining Quality Instruction!
  • On the front of the handout, please write your
    personal definition of quality instruction.
    Consider
  • What does it look like?
  • What does it sound like?
  • What does it produce?

22
Next Step
  1. Please bring your draft definition of quality
    instruction to the front of the room.
  2. Please stay in the front of the room until
    everyone has placed their definition in the pile.

23
Next Step
  • Select a definition that is not your own.
  • Read the definition carefully
  • Turn the paper over
  • Share with the author at least 1 thing you liked
    about his/her definition and 1 thing you believe
    that he/she should consider adding or subtracting.

24
Repeat
  • Select another definition that is not your own.
  • Read the definition carefully
  • Turn the paper over
  • Share with the author at least 1 thing you liked
    about his/her definition and 1 thing you believe
    that he/she should consider adding or
    subtracting.

25
Again
  • Select another definition that is not your own.
  • Read the definition carefully
  • Turn the paper over
  • Share with the author at least 1 thing you liked
    about his/her definition and 1 thing you believe
    that he/she should consider adding or
    subtracting.

26
And one last time
  • Select another definition that is not your own.
  • Read the definition carefully
  • Turn the paper over
  • Share with the author at least 1 thing you liked
    about his/her definition and 1 thing you believe
    that he/she should consider adding or
    subtracting.

27
Authorsfind your work!
  • Pick up your own paper. Re-read your definition.
    Read the comments on the back. Would you like
    to revise your definition?

28
Group Processing
  • Please move into the groups that I have
    established.
  • Within your group, please use your individual
    definitions of quality instruction to establish a
    group definition that everyone in the group can
    support.
  • Please write your groups definition on chart
    paper.

29
Report out
30
BREAK!!!
  • Please return in 15 minutes

31
Reviewing Group Memory
  • Please look at the grade distribution from the
    video we observed together.
  • What do you notice about the letter grade
    distribution?

32
Reviewing Group Memory
  • Please review the items listed on the good
    teaching chart.
  • What do you notice about these items?
  • Do you disagree with any of these items appearing
    on the good teaching list?

33
Reviewing Group Memory
  • Please review the items listed on the cause for
    concern chart.
  • What do you notice about these items?
  • Do you disagree with any of these items appearing
    on the cause for concern list?

34
Table Talk
  • At your table, discuss the following questions
  • What does this data (the information on our
    charts) tell us about the challenges that we
    face, as a group, as we begin to observe teachers
    and provide feedback?
  • What challenges would any system (a school
    district, for example) face?

35
Report out
36
LUNCH!
  • Please be back in 1 hour

37
Re-connector
  • Free write - As you think about the morning
    session, what has pushed your thinking? What has
    given you ideas that you have rolling around your
    head? What things do you wonder about?
  • Pair Find someone who you havent spoken to yet
    today.
  • Share your reflections

38
Report out (Create Group Memory)
39
Quality Instruction
  • Essential Question
  • What impact does poor quality instruction have on
    children?

40
Marzanos Research
41
The Effect of School and Teacher Effectiveness on
Student Achievement

School and Teacher Scenario Effect on Students Entering Schools at the 50th Percentile Achievement Percentile Gain After Two Years
Average School and Average Teacher
Least Effective School and Least Effective Teacher
Most Effective School and Least Effective Teacher
Least Effective School and Most Effective Teacher
Most Effective School and Most Effective Teacher
Most Effective School and Average Teacher

Marzano, R. (2003). What Works in Schools pg. 74
42
The Effect of School and Teacher Effectiveness on
Student Achievement

School and Teacher Scenario Effect on Students Entering Schools at the 50th Percentile Achievement Percentile Gain After Two Years
Average School and Average Teacher
Least Effective School and Least Effective Teacher
Most Effective School and Least Effective Teacher
Least Effective School and Most Effective Teacher
Most Effective School and Most Effective Teacher
Most Effective School and Average Teacher
50th
3rd
37th
63rd
96th
78th
Marzano, R. (2003). What Works in Schools pg. 74
43
Essential Question
  • In looking at Marzanos research, what does this
    tell us about what we need to focus on as
    instructional leaders?
  • Which area of focus, creating an effective school
    or effective teacher, gives us the most bang for
    our buck?

44
Teacher Behavior
  • What Influences Teacher Behavior?

45
Reeves Research
46
What is your best guess?
  • On the following scale, how influential did
    teachers see each of the following in terms of
    causing them to change an instructional practice?
  • Undergraduate Coursework ______ (1-4)
  • Professional Reading ______ (1-4)
  • Graduate Courses ______ (1-4)
  • Advice from Colleagues ______ (1-4)

47
The results
  • On the following scale, how influential did
    teachers see each of the following in terms of
    causing them to change an instructional practice?
  • Undergraduate Coursework - Mean 1.8
  • Professional Reading Mean 2.3
  • Graduate Courses Mean 2.6
  • Advice from Colleagues - Mean 3.6

48
Video Clip
  • Watch Video Clip 2
  • Teaching Sample Video ELA Classroom
  • Following the clip you will be asked to
  • Grade the Teaching (A, B, C, D, F) and justify
    your grade
  • Answer What did I see that is consistent with
    good teaching?
  • Answer What did I see (or didnt see) that is
    cause for concern?
  • Answer What specific feedback would you give to
    this teacher?

49
Essential Question
  • Free write Why should school administrators
    place a significant emphasis and spend a
    significant amount of time participating in
    instructional observations and providing
    meaningful feedback to teachers?
  • Pair Find someone you haven't spoken to today
    and join them for a conversation.
  • Share Share with your partner your thoughts
    regarding this essential question.

50
Report out (Create Group Memory)
51
Benefits of Instructional Observations
  • Opportunity for data gathering
  • Frequent sampling more valid
  • Reflective thought stimulated by follow-up
  • Reflective questions lead to on-going reflective
    thought
  • Lowers apprehension of formal evaluations
  • Red flags

52
More Perspective
  • Most powerful change strategy short 2 - 3 minute
    interaction on a single topic.
  • Reflective question for staff to ponder which
    might move them toward on-going reflective
    thought.
  • Feedback, when given, ultimately is to move a
    teacher toward reflection of own practice for
    even higher student learning.

53
More Reasons
  • Identify common staff development needs.
  • Ongoing monitoring of staff development
    implementation.
  • Reinforces coach role of school-based leaders.
  • Walk the talk of district values (symbolic).

54
Quadrant Chart
  • High Impact/Low Resistance High Impact/High
    Resistance
  • Low Impact/Low Resistance Low Impact/High
    Resistance

55
Place the following on the Quadrant Chart
  • If you put yourself in the shoes of the teachers
    within your school or district, where would each
    of the following fall within the quadrant chart?
  • Create a sticky note for each of the following
    questions and place the sticky note within the
    appropriate quadrant.

56
  • Frequent observations by a supervisor

57
  • Frequent observations by other teachers

58
  • Observing other teachers teaching

59
  • Discussing, with a fellow teacher/colleague, what
    was observed during an observation

60
  • Following the observation of another teacher, a
    discussion with a group of colleagues about what
    they saw within the classroom.

61
Moving Within The Quadrants
  • Step 1 Share, with everyone at your table,
    where you placed each statement within your
    quadrant.
  • Step 2 Discuss, as a table, strategies that an
    administrator could use to move each sticky note
    toward the upper left quadrant.

62
Report out (Create Group Memory)
63
Break
  • Please return in 15 minutes

64
Essential Question
  • What is the difference between an observation
    and a judgment?

65
Judgmental Language
  • Kids appeared bored
  • Students were disengaged during the lesson
  • Students were disrespectful of the teacher
  • Instructor favors girls in terms of interactions
  • Poorly constructed questions were used
  • Students were distracting each other
  • Poor classroom management
  • Too much down time

66
Observational Language
  • Kids appeared bored/disengaged (judgmental)
  • 3 students were working on assignments for other
    classes
  • 2 students had their heads down during the lesson
  • 4 students (1 of the groups) were talking about
    their weekend plans during group work
  • Of the 32 students in the class, 4 put their hand
    up and volunteered to participate in the
    classroom discussion

67
Observational Language
  • Students were disrespectful of the teacher.
  • 8 of the 32 students were engaged in
    conversations with one another during direct
    teacher instruction.
  • John refused to take out his writers notebook
    when asked to do so by the teacher.
  • When Mrs. Smith asked the students to take their
    seats, she had to make the request 3 times and it
    took approximately 4 minutes before all students
    were seated.

68
Observational Language
  • Instructor favors girls in terms of interactions.
  • During this observation, boys were called on to
    answer 2 questions. Girls were called on to
    answer 10 questions.

69
Observational Language
  • Poorly constructed questions were used.
  • During the observation, the teacher asked the
    students the following questions
  • Why did the main character go to the store?
  • Who was the main character with?
  • What did the main character purchase while at the
    store?
  • Where did the main character go after leaving the
    store?

70
Observational Language
  • Students were distracting to each other.
  • The group of three girls in the back left of the
    room were talking loudly with one another
    throughout the lesson.
  • On 3 occasions, a student interrupted the student
    who was reporting out to the class.
  • Jon, throughout the class, was tapping his pencil
    on his desk. The girl in front of him asked him
    to stop 4 times.

71
Observational Language
  • Poor classroom management.
  • During the group activities, 3 of the 4 groups
    were having conversations unrelated to the
    assignment given.
  • 4 students used inappropriate language, privately
    to another student, within the classroom.
  • While the teacher was giving instructions to the
    class, 6 students got up and moved about the
    classroom.

72
Observational Language
  • Too much down time.
  • 1000 1009am, teacher attendance and student
    questions at the desk.
  • 1009 1020am, teacher direct instruction
  • 1020 1029am, students move into groups
  • 1029 1050am, students work in groups
  • 1050 1055am, students return to seats
  • 1055 1100am, students line up at door
    awaiting dismissal bell.
  • 28/60 minutes were spent in transitions (47)

73
Looking back
  • Pull out your notes from the second observation
    that we viewed.
  • Identify whether each statement you wrote down
    was an observation or a judgment.
  • Please re-write any judgments using
    observational language.

74
The Ladder of Inference
75
The Ladder of Inference
  • Please take a few moments to read the excerpt
    from Rick Ross book, The Fifth Discipline
    Fieldbook, and mark/highlight any key points
    within the article.

76
The Ladder of Inference
From the 5th Discipline Fieldbook, Peter Senge,
1994.
77
Ladder of Inference
I need to cross the street and avoid the teens as
they are going to do something to me.
Groups of teenagers shouldnt be out this late
and shouldnt be hanging out on a street corner.
The teenagers are talking quietly to one another
I see a group of teenagers standing on a street
corner
78
Ladder of Inference
This teacher has poor classroom management skills
The teacher is not paying attention to students
that are off task
Two students are off task
Two students are playing hangman on the
chalkboard
79
The Ladder of Inference
  • Please think of three examples, from within your
    own previous experiences, where you have climbed
    the Ladder of Inference.
  • Please jot these three examples down so that you
    do not forget them.

80
Report out
81
The Ladder of Inference
  • Don't Climb The Ladder Clip (Hospital)
  • Don't Climb The Ladder Clip (Cat)

82
Formative vs. Summative
  • Formative
  • Ongoing
  • Fluid
  • Growth
  • Coach
  • Improvements
  • Summative
  • Event
  • Static
  • Status
  • Judge
  • Contract Driven

83
Report out
84
Strategy Harvest Day 1
  • Strategies Used
  • Connectors
  • Four As Protocol
  • Free writes
  • Individual Processing
  • Group Processing
  • Group Memory
  • Table Talk
  • Think/Pair/Share
  • Quadrant Chart
  • Objectives
  • Reflect on the importance and changing role of
    instructional leadership
  • Explore the personal and collective understanding
    of curriculum coherence and good instruction
  • Learn and practice a protocol for quick,
    effective classroom observations

85
Evaluation
  • Overall Satisfaction
  • 0 Not worth my time
  • 10 Great Session
  • Biggest learning today
  • ? How could today have been better?

Session 0 5 10

?
86
Homework
  • Please read Improving The Instructional Core by
    Richard Elmore
  • What are the key ideas within this selection?
  • What in the selection do you agree with?
  • What would you like to challenge?
  • What questions do you have?

87
Instructional Observation
  • Day 2

88
Connector
  • Free write
  • As you think about implementing Instructional
    Observations within your school, what do you
    believe will
  • Go really well?
  • Be your greatest challenge?
  • Barriers that you may encounter?
  • Your biggest supporters (use names)?
  • Your greatest resisters (use names)?

89
Connector
  • Please find someone who you did not talk much
    with yesterday and share what you wrote about in
    terms of the following three questions
  • As you think about implementing Instructional
    Observations within your school, what do you
    believe will
  • Go really well?
  • Be your greatest challenge?
  • Barriers that you may encounter?

90
Session 1 Evaluation
  • Overall Satisfaction 9.27 mean (n11)
  • How To Improve
  • Temperature of room (IIII)
  • More High Energy Activities
  • Paper to write on
  • More on use of proper language to get point
    across

91
Todays Objectives
  • Objectives
  • Learn a number of different approaches that can
    be used to effectively integrate instructional
    observation into the daily life of a school.
  • Reflect on your own environment or environments
    and determine which approach or approaches best
    fulfills the needs of your organization.
  • Plan the initial phase in of instructional
    observation within your school.
  • Continue to calibrate our team in terms of
    recognition of Quality Instruction.

92
Norms
  • Take care of your own comfort
  • Start on TimeStay on TimeEnd on Time
  • Turn Electronics to Vibrate
  • Full Engagement but One Conversation at a Time
  • Conduct Sidebars in the Hallway
  • Have Fun

93
Three-Minute Walk-Through
94
Free write
  • During this free write, please reflect on each of
    the following questions
  • When you visit a classroom
  • What do you pay attention to first?
  • What do you do? (walk around, talk with students,
    etc.)
  • What are the things you look for?
  • What data do you gather?
  • What do you do with the data you gather?

95
Group Memory
  • Chart responses
  • Carousel Sharing
  • Instructions On the wall are 5 posters. Each
    poster has one of the 5 questions we just
    responded to. Please add each of your responses
    to the appropriate poster. For example, you will
    list the data you collect on the data you
    collect poster.

96
Break
  • Please return in 15 minutes

97
Downey The Three Minute Classroom Walk-Through
  • Step 1
  • Student Orientation to the Work
  • Completed within the first few seconds of the
    observation
  • Goal To notice whether students appear to be
    oriented to the work (listening, interacting,
    independent work, etc)
  • It is best to collect this data before the
    students notice that you entered the room

98
Downey The Three Minute Classroom Walk-Through
  • Tips
  • Be careful not to take students off task
  • If the door places you at the front of the room,
    quickly move to the back
  • Clarify to teachers that they are to ignore you.

99
Downey The Three Minute Classroom Walk-Through
  • Step 2
  • Curricular Decision Points
  • Goal 1 Identify Curricular Objective
  • Goal 2 Establish if curricular objectives align
    with the written or prescribed curriculum
  • Goal 3 To establish If what the teacher thinks
    is being taught is what is actually being taught.

100
Downey The Three Minute Classroom Walk-Through
  • Step 3
  • Instructional Decision Points
  • This is looking at teaching practices
  • The focus is on things like teaching to
    objectives, questioning skills, grouping
    strategies, assessment strategies, etc.

101
Downey The Three Minute Classroom Walk-Through
  • Some look-for items in Step 3
  • Generic Instructional Decisions
  • Comparison Contrast
  • Assigning of Homework
  • Feedback
  • Use of Examples
  • Student Error (how it is dealt with)
  • Differentiation to the needs of the students

102
Downey The Three Minute Classroom Walk-Through
  • Some additional look for items
  • Instructional Strategies
  • Identifying Similarities and Differences 
  • Nonlinguistic Representations
  • Summarizing and Note Taking 
  • Setting Objectives and Providing Feedback
  • Reinforcing Effort and Providing Recognition 
  • Generating and Testing Hypotheses
  • Homework and Practice 
  • Cues, Questions, and Advanced Organizers
  • Cooperative Learning
  • Marzanos 9 Instructional Strategies That Work

103
Downey The Three Minute Classroom Walk-Through
  • Focus on Effectiveness - Thirty classroom
    examples embed research-based practices within
    the teaching and learning process.
  • http//www.netc.org/focus/examples/
  • MCREL Building Better Instruction The Role of
    Technology
  • http//www.mcrel.org/pdf/educationtechnology/9713I
    R_buildingbetterinstruction.pdf

104
Downey The Three Minute Classroom Walk-Through
  • Some additional look for items
  • Subject Specific, Research Based Best Practices
  • Inquiry based mathematics instruction
  • Use of Readers and/or Writers Workshop
  • Use of manipulatives within math or science
  • Use of artifacts and primary source materials in
    social studies

105
Downey The Three Minute Classroom Walk-Through
  • Step 4
  • Walk The Walls
  • What do the classroom walls tell you about
  • Curriculum objectives
  • Instructional ideas
  • Student performance or student work
  • Look beyond the walls for artifacts of learning
  • Portfolios on counters
  • Graded student papers

106
Downey The Three Minute Classroom Walk-Through
  • Step 5
  • Safety Health Issues
  • Trip Hazards
  • Blocked Aisles
  • Lighting Issues
  • Loud Unit Ventilators
  • Defective Equipment

107
Free Write
  • Go back and review the free write you did earlier
    today. The question was
  • When you visit a classroom
  • What do you play attention to first?
  • What do you do? (walk around, talk with students,
    etc.)
  • What are the things you look for?
  • What data do you gather?
  • What do you do with the data you gather?

108
Downey The Three Minute Classroom Walk-Through
  • Free write
  • Comparing your responses from earlier to Downeys
    approach, what do you see as the strengths of
    Downeys approach and what do you see as the
    limitations?
  • If you were to implement portions of this
    approach, what portions would you include?

109
Report out (Create Group Memory)
110
Lunch
  • Please return in 1 hour

111
Connector
  • Find a partner, preferably someone you havent
    spoken with a lot over the past few days, and
    talk about the following questions
  • Could teachers observe other teachers using the
    Carolyn Downey Walk-Through process?
  • What would teachers gain, and how might it
    improve instruction within a school, to afford
    staff this opportunity?

112
Report out
113
Involving Staff in Observations
  • Premise
  • Our most effective means of staff development
    does not come from listening to experts discuss
    what has worked within schools or districts with
    a different fingerprint and/or philosophy.
    Instead, our most effective learning can take
    place by observing one another and having
    reflective conversations about what works well
    with students at our school.

114
Involving Staff in Observations
  • A Model Carolyn Downey with Modifications
  • Process
  • 3-5 teachers and an administrator observe
    classrooms together
  • 3 classroom visits are scheduled each time
    walk-through observations are scheduled
  • Each classroom is visited for approximately 3-5
    minutes
  • Following each observation, the 3-5 teachers and
    the administrator will discuss, in the hallway
    outside the classroom, the quality things that
    were observed within the classroom.

115
Involving Staff in Observations
  • Developing Instructional Observation as a form
    of imbedded staff development
  • Step 1
  • Define, for staff, what Instructional
    Observation is. Use a series of It is
    statements to accomplish this.
  • You might look back at some of our group memory
    from day one to help with this task.

116
Involving Staff in Observations
  • Example
  • What it is
  • It is an opportunity to watch other teachers
    teach.
  • It is an opportunity to observe quality teaching
    techniques and see the impact these techniques
    have on real students.
  • Please continue the list of It is statements

117
Report out (Create Group Memory)
118
Involving Staff in Observations
  • Developing Instructional Observation as a form
    of imbedded staff development
  • Step 2
  • Define, for staff, what Instructional
    Observation is not. Use a series of It is
    not statements to accomplish this.
  • You might look back at some of our group memory
    from day one to help with this task.

119
What it is
  • An opportunity to find expertise amongst teaching
    staff
  • An opportunity to reflect on ones own teaching
  • Observing connections students make with the
    content and the world around them
  • Ownership for the professional development within
    our school
  • The beginning of professional discourse on
    instructional practice
  • Instructional decisions that teachers make
  • Collegial experience that promotes professional
    and positive conversation with each other.
  • An opportunity to see a practice or strategy in
    action
  • An opportunity to watch students respond to
    another teachers instruction
  • An opportunity to learn from each other, as the
    expert is within our building, an opportunity to
    get pointers and conversations going with that
    teacher,
  • An opportunity for all of us to consider our
    practice and improve it to change student
    learning.
  • An opportunity to have a stronger, but still
    flexible learning community
  • An opportunity to celebrate the strength of our
    entire staff through collective observation
  • An opportunity to establish on-going peer to peer
    relationships
  • An opportunity to use our observation skills and
    take them into our own classroom for the
    betterment of our students.
  • An opportunity to see what is going on in the
    rest of our school to see the connection between
    what is happening in my classroom and how it fit
    into the bigger whole school picture.

120
Involving Staff in Observations
  • Example
  • What it is not
  • It is not used as part of the teacher evaluation
    process
  • It is not an opportunity to reflect, with
    colleagues, on the negative aspects of another
    teachers classroom environment or methodologies.
  • Please continue the list of It is not statements

121
It is not
  • It is not used as part of the teacher evaluation
    process
  • It is not an opportunity to reflect, with
    colleagues, on the negative aspects of another
    teachers classroom environment or methodologies.
  • An attempt to have teachers do an administrators
    job
  • A tool to rank the staff
  • It is not done without your agreement
  • A replacement for a real evaluation
  • An opportunity to criticize children or teachers
  • Negative
  • Opportunity to spy on one another and/or gossip
    about one another
  • An opportunity for one-up-man ship
  • An opportunity to take other peoples stuff and
    use it as your own
  • An opportunity to say gotch-ya
  • A competition
  • Not a judgment
  • It is not a costly learning experience
  • Fad!

122
Report out (Create Group Memory)
123
Involving Staff in Observations
  • Developing Instructional Observation as a form
    of imbedded staff development
  • Step 3
  • Create a list, that could be shared with your
    staff, that answers the following questions
  • What should I expect, on the day of a walk
    through observation, if my classroom is being
    observed?
  • What should I expect, on the day of a
    walk-through observation, if I am observing
    another classroom?

124
Involving Staff in Observations
  • Example
  • What to expect if my classroom is being observed
  • Approximately 5 staff members will enter your
    classroom quietly
  • We will have no expectation that you, or your
    students, will stop what they are doing to
    acknowledge us.
  • Please continue the list of what to expect
    statements

125
Report out (Create Group Memory)
126
Involving Staff in Observations
  • Example
  • What to expect if I am observing a classroom
  • Please meet at the main office at a specified
    time.
  • We will visit 3 classrooms together
  • We will spend about 3-5 minutes in each classroom
  • Please continue the list of what to expect
    statements

127
Report out (Create Group Memory)
128
Involving Staff in Observations
  • Developing Instructional Observation as a form
    of imbedded staff development
  • Step 4
  • Develop a list on Conversation Starters that
    can be used, with staff, following an observation
    that assure
  • That they are processing the right data
  • That the conversation stays positive in nature
  • That the conversation encourages reflection

129
Involving Staff in Observations
  • Example
  • Conversation starters
  • What techniques or strategies were used to engage
    students?
  • What behavior management techniques did you see
    that were working effectively?
  • Please continue the list of conversation
    starters.

130
Conversation Starters
  • What techniques or strategies were used to engage
    students?
  • What behavior/classroom management techniques did
    you see that were working effectively?
  • What instructional decisions did you see?
  • What curriculum decisions did you see?
  • What evidence did you see that learning was
    occurring?
  • What strategies, from Marzanos 9, did you see?
  • What formative assessment strategies did you see?
  • What evidence did you see that the teacher was
    well prepared for instruction?
  • What techniques were used to maximize the use of
    instructional time (minimize down time)?
  • What strategies were used to make the content
    relevant to students?
  • What type of modeling did you see?
  • What connections did you see the teacher making
    to connect to prior learning?
  • What did you see today that you could incorporate
    into your own classroom?
  • How might you use a strategy you say today,
    during a different lesson, within your own
    classroom.
  • How did you see technology or visual supports
    being integrated to improve student learning?
  • What effective questioning techniques were used?

131
Report out (Create Group Memory)
132
Break
  • Please return in 15 minutes

133
Calibration
  • Instructions
  • Please watch the following classroom video. As
    you watch the video, please conduct a Downey
    Style observation. Remember to consider the 5
    essential areas
  • Student Orientation to the Work
  • Curricular Decision Points
  • Instructional Decision Points
  • Walk the Walls
  • Safety and/or Health Issues

134
Classroom Observation
  • The following is an early-childhood classroom.
  • www.youtube.com/watch?vShwR_AVLAA4

135
Report out
Question What comments do you have relative to
the student orientation to the work? Remember,
observation rather than judgment.
136
Report out
Question What comments do you have relative to
the curricular decision points? Remember,
observation rather than judgment.
137
Report out
Question What comments do you have relative to
the instructional decision points? Remember,
observation rather than judgment.
138
Report out
Question What comments do you have relative to
what you noticed while Walking the Walls?
Remember, observation rather than judgment.
139
Report out
Question What comments do you have relative to
safety or health related concerns that you noted?
Remember, observation rather than judgment.
140
Re-connector
  • Using the classroom we just observed
  • Look at the conversation starters that you
    created while working on the Modified Downey
    Approach.
  • Find a partner, someone who works at a similar
    grade level, and role play.
  • Person A is the administrator. Person B is a
    teacher who observed a colleague.
  • Try out your questions. Person B, remember to
    answer from the perspective of a teacher.
  • Once finished, switch roles. Person B should now
    ask their questions of Person A. Person A is now
    the teacher.

141
Instructional Rounds in Education by City,
Elmore, Fiarman Teitel
142
The Instructional Core
  • In its simplest terms, the instructional core is
    composed of the teacher and the student in the
    presence of content.

143
Reflecting on Improving the Instructional Core
Key Ideas Argue with or challenge
Agree with Questions about
144
7 Principles of the Instructional Core
  1. Increases in student learning occur only as a
    consequence of improvements in the level of
    content, the teachers knowledge and skills, and
    student engagement.
  2. If you change any single element of the
    instructional core, you have to change the other
    two.
  3. If you cant see it in the core, its not there.
  4. Task predicts performance.
  5. The real accountability system is in the tasks
    that students are asked to do.
  6. We learn to do the work by doing the work, NOT by
    telling other people to do the work, not by
    having done the work at some time in the past,
    and not by hiring experts who can act as proxies
    for our knowledge about how to do the work.
  7. Description before analysis, analysis before
    prediction, prediction before evaluation.

145
Strategy Harvest Day 2
  • Strategies Used
  • Connectors
  • Reflection Activity
  • Free writes
  • Individual Processing
  • Group Processing
  • Group Memory
  • Lecture Burst
  • Guided Practice
  • Carousel Sharing
  • Classroom Observation
  • Brainstorming
  • Objectives
  • Learn a number of different approaches that can
    be used to effectively integrate instructional
    observation into the daily life of a school.
  • Reflect on your own environment or environments
    and determine which approach or approaches best
    fulfills the needs of your organization.
  • Plan the initial phase in of instructional
    observation within your school.
  • Continue to calibrate our team in terms of
    recognition of Quality Instruction.

146
Evaluation
  • Overall Satisfaction
  • 0 Not worth my time
  • 10 Great Session
  • Biggest learning today
  • ? How could today have been better?

Session 0 5 10

?
147
Homework
  • None

148
Instructional Observation
  • Day 3

149
Norms
  • Take care of your own comfort
  • Start on TimeStay on TimeEnd on Time
  • Turn Electronics to Vibrate
  • Full Engagement but One Conversation at a Time
  • Conduct Sidebars in the Hallway
  • Have Fun

150
Session 2 Evaluation
  • Overall Satisfaction 9.75 mean (n12)
  • How To Improve
  • Watch more classes and discuss process as a group
  • More movement
  • Move faster cut break times
  • More activities in the afternoon

151
Todays Objectives
  • Objectives
  • Learn strategies for having reflective
    conversations with teachers around the
    achievement of their students.
  • Learn strategies for having Learner Centered
    Conversations with all school staff.
  • Learn strategies for debriefing instructional
    observations to increase the impact on teaching
    and learning.
  • Build skills in the area of have Crucial
    Conversations with staff regarding instructional
    practices.

152
Instructional Rounds in Education by City,
Elmore, Fiarman Teitel
  • Step 1
  • Developing a Problem of Practice
  • A problem of practice is something that you care
    about that would make a difference for student
    learning if you improved it.
  • The problem of practice becomes the central
    focus when visiting classrooms.

153
Instructional Rounds in Education by City,
Elmore, Fiarman Teitel
  • Where does the problem of practice come from?
  • Data
  • Dialogue
  • Observation

154
Instructional Rounds in Education by City,
Elmore, Fiarman Teitel
  • Some obvious sources are
  • School Improvement Plan (needs assessment)
  • Achievement Gap Data Analysis
  • AYP Reporting
  • Reading or Math Assessments
  • MEAP

155
Instructional Rounds in Education by City,
Elmore, Fiarman Teitel
  • Pitfalls to avoid in identification of a problem
    of practice
  • Too much packed into the problem of practice
  • Implementation/Audit Syndrome (looking for the
    problem you want to fix, not the one you need to
    fix)
  • Too broad or vague statement of problem
  • Too little or too much context
  • The network has too little exposure or background
    to understand and observe the problem of practice.

156
Instructional Rounds in Education by City,
Elmore, Fiarman Teitel
  • Step 2
  • Observation of Practice
  • Purpose The purpose of visiting classrooms is
    to gather data directly on the work of teaching
    and learning.

157
Instructional Rounds in Education by City,
Elmore, Fiarman Teitel
  • Guidelines for Instructional Rounds
  • Listen dont interrupt the teacher or disrupt
    the lesson
  • Its fine to ask students questions as long as it
    seems appropriate at that point in the lesson
  • Talk with other observers during the debrief, not
    in the classroom or in the hallway

158
Instructional Rounds in Education by City,
Elmore, Fiarman Teitel
  • Remember, for the purpose of doing Instructional
    Rounds all of your focus is on the specific
    problem of practice.
  • Example problem of practice
  • Our children often arent getting opportunities
    to practice thinking, work with one another, or
    engage in problem solving through different types
    of modalities. As a result, our students are
    often unmotivated, unfocused, and off task.
    Lessons arent consistently meeting the
    motivational and learning needs of students.

159
Instructional Rounds in Education by City,
Elmore, Fiarman Teitel
  • Free write
  • Looking at the problem of practice described on
    the previous slide, what would you expect to see
    within a classroom where the teacher was working
    hard to improve in this area?
  • What would you expect to see in the classroom of
    a teacher not committed to improving in this area?

160
Report out (Create Group Memory)
161
Instructional Rounds in Education by City,
Elmore, Fiarman Teitel
  • Tips Takeaways
  • Dont aim for the perfect problem of practice.
    You will get better over time.
  • Look down, not up. Observe what students are
    doing, not what they have been asked to do.
  • Focus on the students, not the teacher.

162
Instructional Rounds in Education by City,
Elmore, Fiarman Teitel
  • The Debrief of Instructional Rounds
  • Focus on the problem of practice
  • Stick to the evidence (observation v judgment)
  • Designate facilitator timekeeper
  • Debrief by questions
  • Debrief in small groups before attempting larger
    groups
  • Share talk time (all voices are heard)
  • Create group memory

163
Classroom Observation
  • Watch the following video and do so using the
    following problem of practice as your lense.
  • Problem of practice
  • Our children often arent getting opportunities
    to practice thinking, work with one another, or
    engage in problem solving through different types
    of modalities. As a result, our students are
    often unmotivated, unfocused, and off task.
    Lessons arent consistently meeting the
    motivational and learning needs of students.

164
Video
  • Problem of Practice
  • You have already observed this teacher once.
    Please remember to view her practice through the
    Instructional Rounds lens.
  • http//www.youtube.com/user/NASSPtv?blend24ob5
    p/u/3/xsnC4tfVlVs

165
Debrief
  • Read through your notes, place a next to
    observations that are relevant to our problem of
    practice.
  • What did you see or hear that relates to our
    problem of practice? Stay descriptive!!!
  • Lets list, together, the evidence we gathered
    while observing this classroom.
  • Please get into groups of four

166
Debrief, continued
  • Three pieces of paper are on the wall labeled
  • Students practicing thinking
  • Students working with one another
  • Students engaging in problem solving
  • As a group, please do the following
  • Identify evidence, from the lesson, that supports
    or negates each of the above.
  • Write the evidence on the appropriate chart.

167
Debrief, continued
  • Do a Gallery Walk and read all three of the
    charts to identify patterns.
  • Group Sharing What did you notice on your
    Gallery Walk that will be helpful for us in
    working toward improving our problem of
    practice?

168
Jig-Saw The Michigan Framework
  • Group 1 Beginning through Foundational
    Principles (including Foundational Principles)
  • Group 2 The Framework Overview through the end
    of the Developmental Goals section.
  • Group 3 The Framework is divided into a
    three-part through the end of the article.

169
The New Teacher Evaluation Law
  • Please read the draft of the new evaluation
    law.
  • How can instructional observations assist
    administrators in fulfilling the requirements
    established within the new evaluation law?
  • How can regular instructional observations
    complement the current summative evaluation model
    that exists within your district to better comply
    with the new law?

170
Learning Centered Conversations
171
Three-Minute Walk-Through
172
Downey, The Three Minute Classroom Walk-Through
  • Three Types of Feedback (Invitation)
  • Direct Supervisor gives feedback to teacher
    then teaches the teacher how to use the feedback.
  • Lets talk about how we set up evaluation
    processes to determine which students are
    learning the objectives we want them to learn.
  • I would like to chat with you about the criteria
    we use to select one activity over another when
    teaching the curriculum.

173
Direct Feedback
  • There are no judgmental words
  • The focus is on the curricular or instructional
    practice decisions, not on the teacher behavior
    observed while in the classroom.
  • The focus is not on the small picture or
    focusing on the specific observation. Rather, it
    is big picture and focuses on future curriculum
    or instructional delivery.
  • Downey, The Three Minute Classroom Walk-Through

174
Downey, The Three Minute Classroom Walk-Through
  • Indirect Supervisor invites teacher to reflect
    on the lesson (the portion observed) and the
    supervisor follows up on those practices that the
    teacher brings up. The supervisor may end this
    type of conversation with a reflective question.

175
Indirect
  • Sample Indirect Statements (Invitation)
  • I know you enjoy reflecting on your work would
    you like to take a few minutes to reflect on your
    practice.
  • When you think about this lesson, what decisions
    were you making that seemed to be working well
    for both you and the students?
  • When you are planning for a lesson, how do you
    decide what you are going to teach and how you
    are going to teach it?

176
Indirect
  • Statements should be unfocused (general) and
    invite reflection and inquiry
  • It should contain no judgmental language.
  • The teachers response to the indirect question
    should be the basis for the conversations that
    follow.
  • As a goal, an administrator should try to end an
    indirect session with a reflective question.
  • Downey, The Three Minute Classroom Walk-Through

177
Indirect Basic Format
  • Ask an unfocused question about the classroom
    observation.
  • Probe for the criteria the teacher uses in making
    a particular decision.
  • End the conversation with a reflective
    conversation related to the teachers response to
    the first question and an invitation for a
    follow-up conversation.
  • Downey, The Three Minute Classroom Walk-Through

178
Downey, The Three Minute Classroom Walk-Through
  • Collegial Supervisor poses reflective questions
    in a conversation and engages in further dialogue
    in the future if teacher so chooses.
  • Downey, The Three Minute Classroom Walk-Through

179
Parts of a Reflective Question
  • Part 1 Identify Situation
  • Examples
  • When you are planning your lessons
  • When you are teaching
  • When you are evaluating your teaching
  • Downey, The Three Minute Classroom Walk-Through

180
Parts of a Reflective Question
  • Part 2 Add a condition, if necessary
  • Examples
  • Considering the grade level curriculum standards
  • For students with special needs
  • For a classroom of students at such varying
    instructional levels
  • Downey, The Three Minute Classroom Walk-Through

181
Parts of a Reflective Question
  • Part 3 Teacher Reflection on Practice
  • Examples
  • And considering the many types of questions you
    might ask
  • And considering how you might access the prior
    knowledge of your students
  • And considering the variety of ways in which you
    can deliver the content to your students
  • Downey, The Three Minute Classroom Walk-Through

182
Parts of a Reflective Question
  • Part 4 Choice
  • Examples
  • What criteria do you use
  • What factors do you consider
  • What thoughts are in your head
  • What considerations do you make
  • Downey, The Three Minute Classroom Walk-Through

183
Parts of a Reflective Question
  • Part 5 Decision
  • Examples
  • To decide on the objectives to be taught
  • To decide on the questions to be asked
  • To decide on the best means of assessing student
    learning
  • To make decisions in terms of which strategies to
    use
  • Downey, The Three Minute Classroom Walk-Through

184
Parts of a Reflective Question
  • Part 6 Student Impact
  • Examples
  • To impact student achievement
  • To increase the likelihood of student mastery
  • To assist students in learning the learning
    objectives
  • Downey, The Three Minute Classroom Walk-Through

185
Downey, The Three Minute Classroom Walk-Through
  • Volunteer Needed To Play The Role of Teacher!!!
  • Watch this video clip and I will model each of
    the three forms of dialogue
  • Secondary Humanities Classroom

186
Examples of The Types of Questions
  • Direct I would like to chat with you about
    student engagement and how we decide the degree
    to which it takes place within a classroom.
  • Indirect When you think about the think-aloud
    you did with your students today, what aspects of
    this lesson do you think went really well for
    both you and the students?

187
Examples of The Types of Questions
  • Reflective In deciding how to structure your
    lesson, how did you determine the best approach,
    given the wide variety of learners within your
    classroom, and taking into account your strong
    commitment to teaching your students the
    techniques good readers use to process and
    understand a text, to assure that the students
    ability to make sense of a complex text improved
    as a result of this lesson.

188
Look Out!!!
  • Sentence starters to avoid using all three types
    of questions
  • Why did you do
  • Have you considered doing
  • You might want to
  • How come you
  • What might you do differently next time
  • Tell me how you did
  • How do you know that
  • Do you think it would have been different if you
    had
  • Downey, The Three Minute Classroom Walk-Through

189
Mentoring Matters
190
Principal as Instructional Coach
  • Coaches need to ATTEND FULLY by
  • Pausing to provide a space for thinking
  • Paraphrasing to establish a relationship and
    increase understanding
  • Reflect
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