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The Twenties and the Great Depression.

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Unit 4 1920-1940, 426-427 The Twenties and the Great Depression. Chapter 12. 1920 - 1929. Politics of the Roaring Twenties Chapter 13. 1920-1929. – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: The Twenties and the Great Depression.


1
Unit 4 1920-1940, 426-427
  • The Twenties and the Great Depression.
  • Chapter 12. 1920 - 1929.
  • Politics of the Roaring Twenties
  • Chapter 13. 1920-1929. The Roaring Life of the
    1920s.

2
  • Chapter 14. 1929-1933. The Great Depression
    Begins
  • Chapter 15. 1933 - 1940. The New Deal.
  • Write 50 words about the painting on 426-427.
    Use some of the words on the page
  • strong lines, vivid colors folk art harshness
    lonely, stark, absence of people
  • vast distance loneliness, Great Plains Broken
    windmill power of nature Plains wind no water,
    just dust dunes trying to cover the house
    vulture - what is it waiting for? No
    relief--dust-filled sky one cloud. Circling
    birds may be vultures.

3
Politics of the Roaring Twenties
  • Section 1 Americans struggle with Postwar
    Issues, 430-435
  • Section 2 Normalcy and isolationism, 436-440
  • Section 3. The Business of America, 441-445.

4
Timeline, 428-429
  • 1920 - John L. Lewis - President of United Mine
    workers.
  • Nineteenth Amendment is ratified. Women get the
    vote!
  • Warren G. Harding is elected president.

5
1921
  • Sacco and Vanzetti convicted
  • Federal-Aid Highway Act funds national highway
    system.
  • Chinese Communist Party founded in Shanghai.
  • Vladimir Ilich Lenin adopts the New Economic
    Policy.

6
1922
  • Miners leave a Scranton, PA, mine at the
    beginning of a strike
  • Benito Mussolini is appointed prime minister of
    Italy.

7
1923
  • President Harding dies and Calvin Coolidge
    becomes president.
  • Adolf Hitlers putsch in Germany fails.

8
1924
  • Teapot Dome scandal grows
  • Calvin Coolidge is elected president
  • Vladimir Ilich Lenin, founder of the Soviet
    Union, dies.

9
1925
  • A. Philip Randolph organizes the Brotherhood of
    Sleeping Car Porters.
  • 1926 British laborers declare a national
    strike.
  • Hirohito becomes emperor of Japan.
  • 1927 Henry Ford introduces Model A.

10
1928
  • Kellogg-Briand Pact is signed
  • Herbert Hoover is elected president
  • Joseph Stalin launches the first five-year plan
    in USSR.
  • 1929. Institutional Revolutionary Party is
    organized in Mexico.

11
12.1 Americans Struggle with Postwar Issues.
  • Learn about postwar conditions in America.
  • To Understand how fear of communism affected
    civil liberties and the labor movement.

12
One Americans Story, 430
  • Everything pertaining to the union had to be on
    the qt (quiet). If you were caught distributing
    leaflets or other union literature around the job
    you were instatly fired. We thought up ways of
    passing leaflets without the boss being able to
    pin anybody down. Sometimes wed insert the
    leaflets into the sales ledgers after closing
    time.

13
  • We swiped the key to the toilet-paper dispenser
    in the washroom, took out the paper, and
    substituted printed slips of just the right size!
    We got a lot of new members that way--it
    appealed to their sense of humor. Irving Fajans
    (trying to persuade fellow workers to join
    Department Store Employees Union.)

14
communism
  • Social and economic system--theory of class
    struggle--based on teachings of karl Marx and
    Friedrich Engles.
  • The Communist Manifesto a social class that has
    econnomic power also has plitical and social
    power. The haves and the have-nots have
    struggled for control throughout history--in
    ancient times conflict between free and enslaved
    people in Middle Ages between lords and
    peasants.
  • During Industrial Revolution, sruggle between
    capitalists who owned means of production--land,
    capital (or money for investment) and
    machines--and the workers in mines and factories
    who owned only by their labor.

15
Marx and Engels urged workers to seize
political power and means of production.
16
Communist Party would lead way
  • In organizing workers and overthrowing capitalism
    through violent revolution.
  • Party would control nations government and plan
    all economic activities.

17
1917
  • Small group led by Vladimir I. Lenin led
    successful revolution in Russia and set up
    Communist government based on Marx and Engels
    teachings.

18
A. Mitchell Palmer
  • Attorney General taking action to combat Red
    Scare (communists).
  • Red Scare in US. 70,000 radicals joined newly
    formed Communist party in US.
  • Included members of Industrial Workers of the
    World.

19
Less than 1/10 of 1 of Americans
  • Joined Communist party
  • Communist talk
  • Abolishing private property
  • Substituting government ownership of factories,
    RR and other businesses frightened public

20
Several dozen bombs mailed to government,
business leaders
  • Panicked nation that Reds, or Communists would
    take over America.

21
Palmer Raids
  • August 1919, Palmer appointed J. Edgar Hoover to
    head new antiradical division in Justice
    Departmentlater became
  • Federal Bureau of Investigation.
  • Government agents hunted down suspected
    Communists, socialists, anarchistspeople who
    opposed any and all forms of government.

22
Agents ran roughshod over peoples civil rights.
  • Invaded private homes, meeting halls, offices
    without search warrants.
  • Suspects jailed for weeks at a time without being
    allowed to see lawyers
  • Those who came to visit were arrested.
  • Hundreds of foreign-born radicals deported
    without trial.

23
Three 1920s trends because people wanted life
back to normal
  • Renewed isolationismstay out of worlds
    business.
  • Resurgence of nativism or suspicion of
    foreign-born people
  • Political conservatism, turning away from
    governmental activism of progressive eraconcern
    about threat of Communism.

24
November, 1917
  • Conditions desperate in Russia.
  • Czar Nicholas II unable to cope with crises at
    home and abroad.
  • Reign fatally weakened by great loss of life and
    resources in WW1.
  • People wanted end to war food riots soldiers
    mutinied, deserted, ignored orders.
  • Czar abdicated throne March 15, 1917.

25
Provisional representative government replaced
czar.
  • November, 1917, revolutionariesBolsheviks (the
    majority) seized power and established state
    based on social and economic system of communism.

26
March, 1919
  • Third Communist International meeting held in
    Moscow.
  • Symbolic red flag
  • Communist speakers advocated worldwide
    revolutionoverthrow capitalist system abolition
    of free enterprise and private property.

27
Palmer warned of Communist plot to overthrow
government
  • May 1, 1920, May Day, international workers
    holiday.
  • Day passed without incident.
  • Public decided Palmer didnt know what he was
    talking about.

28
Sacco and Vanzetti
  • Red Scare people suspicious of foreigners and
    immigrants.
  • Most infamous victims.
  • Italian immigrantsshoemaker and fish peddler.
  • Anarchistsevaded draft during WW1.
  • Robbery, murder seemed to be Italians.

29
Sacco, Vanzetti arrested
  • Provided alibis
  • Evidence circumstantial
  • Prejudicial remarks made by judge.
  • Jury found them guilty, sentenced to death.
  • Protests from around the world, electrocuted
    August 23, 1927.

30
1961
  • Ballistics tests pistol on Sacco used to murder
    the guard.
  • No proof Sacco pulled trigger.
  • August 23, 1977, 50 years after executions,
    Massachusetts governor Michael Dukakis
  • Sacco and Vanzetti not given fair trial.

31
The Klan rises Again
  • Red Scare, anti-immigrant feelings.
  • Bigots used anticommunism as excuse to harass.
  • Ku Klux Klan, somewhat inactive since 1870s
    revived in 1915 strengthened in early 1920s.
  • 100 Americanism

32
1924
  • 4.5 million white male persons, native-born
    gentile citizens, who believed
  • Keeping blacks in their place
  • Destroying saloons,
  • Opposing unions
  • Driving Roman Catholics, Jews, other foreign-born
    people out of country.
  • Opposed union organizers helped enforce
    prohibition.

33
Klans appeal
  • Dressed in hooded robes
  • Used elaborate secret language and rituals.
  • Edward Clarke of sales organization created
    incentive program under which KKK salesmen, known
    as kleagles, kept four dollars of tendollar
    initiation fee for each new Klan member recruited.

34
Kleagling
  • One of most profitable industries of decade.
  • Klan members plain people, not highly cultured,
    not overly intellectualized, unspoiled.
  • People threatened by changes occurring in
    American society.
  • Vented frustrations through racial violence.
  • Tried to influence national, state, local
    politics.

35
During 1920s
  • Klan dominated state politics
  • AR, CA, IN, OH, OK, OR, TX
  • Crimes commmitted by Klan leaders in IN resulted
    in major decrease in Klans power nationwide by
    end of 1920s.

36
A Time of Labor Unrest
  • Severe postwar conflict
  • Workers not allowed to strike during warwar
    effortgovernment allowed nothing to interfere.
  • 19193,000 strikes4 million workers walked off
    job.
  • Employers did not want to give raises
  • Did not want employees to join unions.
  • Said union members wanted revolution.
  • Plots to establish Communism!

37
The Boston Police Strike
  • No raise since beginning WW1
  • Cost of living had doubled.Police sent
    representatives to ask for raise everyone fired.
  • Remaining police went on strike.
  • MA governor Calvin Coolidge called out National
    Guard, police called off strike.

38
New men hired by police commissioner
  • Received everything strikers had asked for.
  • President of American Federation of Labor, Samuel
    Gompers, appealed to Coolidge on behalf of fired
    men.
  • Governor No right to strike against public
    safety by anyone, anywhere, any time.

39
Coolidge praised for saving Boston,
nation, from Communism, anarchy. 1920 election
Warren G. Hardings running mate.
40
The Steel Mill Strike
  • US Steel, September 1919, upsetting.
  • Difficult, dangerous working conditions.
  • Worked 7 12-hour days in heat and noisy
    foundries.
  • Company refused to meet with union
    representatives.
  • 350,000 workers walked off job.
  • Demanded right to bargain w/employer
  • For shorter working hours, living wage.
  • Foster, leader of American Federation of
    Labormanagement said radicals leading labor
    activities.

41
Steel companies hired strikebreakers and used
force.
  • US Steel security police, state militia, federal
    troops killed 18 workers, wounded or beat
    hundreds more.
  • Propaganda campaign linking strikers to
    communists.
  • Strike broken January, 1920.
  • Foster joins Communist partyimage of labor
    unions not helped.

42
Public relieved un-American elements turned
back.
  • Report on harsh working conditions in steel mills
    shocked public
  • Steel companies agreed to establish 8-hour day.
  • Steelworkers remained w/o union.

43
Coal Miners Strike
  • Unionism more successful in coalfields.
  • United Mine Workers, 1919, organized since 1890.
  • New president John L. Lewis.
  • Low wages, long workdaysstrike November 1, 1919.
  • Palmer obtained court order sending minders back
    to work
  • Lewis delcared strike over gave word for strike
    to continue.

44
Mines stayed closed another month
  • Defied court order.
  • President Wilson appointed arbitrator, or judge,
    to decide issues between miners and owners.
  • Miners received 27 wage increase.
  • John L. Lewis became national figure.
  • No shorter workday, five-day workweek until 1930s.

45
Labor movement Loses Appeal
  • Membership in unions declined for several
    reasons
  • 1. Much of work force consisted of immigrants
    willing to work in poor conditions.
  • 2. Immigrants spoke multitude of
    languagesunions had difficulty organizing them.

46
  • 3. Farmers used to relying on themselvesmigrated
    to cities to find factory jobs.

47
  • 4. Most unions excluded African Americans.
  • Exceptions to discrimination mine workers,
    longshoremens, railroad porters unions.
  • A. Philip Randolph founded Brotherhood of
    Sleeping Car Porters in 1925, to help African
    Americans gain fair wage.

48
During the decade
  • Union membership dropped from more than 5 million
    to 3.5 million.
  • During twenties, many Americans changed attitudes
    toward unions but toward immigrants and Americas
    role in world.
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