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Mao Zedong and Communism in China

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Title: Mao Zedong and Communism in China


1
Mao Zedong and Communism in China
2
WWII
  • A large portion of WWII was fought in Asia.
  • Many Asian countries had to be rebuilt after the
    war.
  • Many countries experienced a change in government
    after WWII.

3
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4
Leaders of China
  • Mao Zedong-
  • Leader of the Chinese Communist Party (CCP)
  • Chiang Kai-shek-
  • Leader of the Chinese Nationalist Party
    (Kuomintang/ KMT)

5
Mao Zedong and China
6
Mao Zedong (Before WWII)
  • Mao Zedong came from a peasant background.
  • In 1918 he began working at the Beijing
    University library, where he studied Marxist
    ideas.
  • Marxism is a political philosophy that focuses on
    class struggle.
  • The ultimate goal is to have a classless society.
  • The basic ideas for communism came from Marxism.

7
Mao Zedong and the CCP
  • In1921, Mao joined the Chinese Communist Party.
  • The CCP was formed because many young Chinese
    were unhappy with the Kuomintang, or the
    Nationalist Party, which headed the government.
  • The KMT could not control the robbers and thieves
    who roamed the countryside.
  • Also, the KMT could not improve agriculture as
    many Chinese faced famine.

8
CCP KMT
  • Chinese Communist Party
  • Kuomintang/ KMT
  • (Nationalists)

9
Mao Zedong and Civil War in China
  • The formation of the CCP was inspired by the
    recent communist revolution in Russia.
  • For a few years the two parties tried to work
    together.
  • But in 1929, the KMT (Nationalist Party), led by
    Chiang Kai-shek, attempted to wipe out the
    Communists.

10
Mao Zedong and Civil War in China
  • A civil war began between Mao and his communist
    followers and the Nationalist government.

11
The Long March
  • In 1933, Maos 100,000 troop Red Army faced
    defeat by the 700,000 troop Nationalist Army.
  • The Red Army retreated towards the mountains,
    beginning its dangerous journey called The Long
    March.
  • The troops marched 6000 miles to avoid capture.

12
The Long March
  • After about a year, Mao and his 6,000-7,000
    survivors settled in caves in northern China.
  • Chinese Communists today look at the Long March
    as a symbol of Maos dedication to his cause and
    to the Chinese people.

13
The Long March
14
China and WWII
  • In 1937, Japan invaded China.
  • The Japanese set up a puppet state- a Chinese
    leader would be the head of the government, but
    the Japanese government would make all the
    decisions.

15
CCP KMT
  • This invasion brought the KMT and CCP together
    (Lucknow Pact!!).
  • The two parties put aside their differences and
    worked together against Japan.

16
Japanese Occupied Lands During WWII
17
China after WWII
  • The Japanese surrendered on
  • September 2, 1945, but peace did not come to
    China.
  • The KMT and CCP began fighting for control again
    in a civil war- CCP won
  • October 1, 1949- Mao Zedong, the leader of the
    Chinese Communist Party, established the Peoples
    Republic of China.

18
The Great Leap Forward
  • Mao tried to reorganize all of China along
    communist lines
  • Factories and farms would be owned collectively.
  • Private ownership was eliminated.

19
The Great Leap Forward
  • Production Quotas were set for agriculture and
    industry.
  • Society would be classless--everyone would be
    treated exactly the same and no one had more than
    anyone else.
  • In 1958, Mao instituted the Great Leap Forward.

20
The Great Leap Forward
  • This was a series of policies that Mao thought
    would help China make positive changes, becoming
    equal to the leading powers of the West.
  • Mao believed the power of the peasants would make
    this work.

21
Great Leap Forward Propaganda
22
Great Leap Forward Propaganda
23
The Great Leap Forward
  • He decided to organize all farms into large
    collectives, where all ownership and
    decision-making would be in the hands of the
    government.
  • Because they didnt own anything themselves, they
    had little reason to work very hard.

24
The Great Leap Forward
  • Several crop failures followed.
  • Sometimes peasants even lied about the amount of
    grain that had been produced rather than admit
    they hadnt made their quota.
  • A massive famine resulted.
  • Millions of people died throughout China.
  • The Great Leap Forward was abandoned in 1960.

25
How Mao thought China would look after the Great
Leap Forward
26
What China actually looked like for millions of
people during the Great Leap Forward
27
The Cultural Revolution
  • After the Great Leap Forward failed, farmers and
    factory workers tried to create some private
    ownership again.
  • Mao saw his classless society ideal failing.
  • Realizing that there was still a large gap
    between the educated elite in the cities and the
    peasants in the country, Maos response was to
    begin The Cultural Revolution in 1966.

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29
The Cultural Revolution
  • The Cultural Revolution was Maos attempt to rid
    China of anything that encouraged class
    differences.
  • The Cultural Revolution attacked education,
    religion, private ownership, and anything from
    the west.
  • Mao permitted the destruction of books, artwork,
    religious temples, and anything that was
    connected to Chinas past or foreign ideas.
  • Mao urged students to leave school and help
    clean up China.

30
The Cultural Revolution
  • Many of these students were organized into a
    military group called the Red Guards.
  • It was their job to find and remove anyone who
    was preventing China from becoming a classless
    society.

31
The Cultural Revolution
  • Schools and universities were closed.
  • Mao discouraged old Chinese cultural ideas.

32
The Cultural Revolution
  • Teachers, artists, and writers were sent to the
    countryside to do hard labor.
  • The Cultural Revolution was a time of great chaos
    in China.

33
The Cultural Revolution
  • Many innocent people were killed or committed
    suicide during it.
  • It lasted 10 years and only ended when Mao died
    in 1976.

34
Buddhist statues and ritual objects in the
Jokhang Temple destroyed by the Red Guards.
35
  • Underneath a
  • portrait of Mao
  • Zedong,  the banner
  • reads "Completely
  • destroy the old world! 
  • We shall be the
  • master of the new
  • world."

36
China After Mao Zedong
  • After Maos death, Deng Xiaoping was named
    Chinas new leader.
  • Deng had been with Mao since the Long March, but
    his ideas about communism in China were more
    moderate.
  • He allowed farmers to own some of their own land.
  • He allowed some private business.

37
China After Mao Zedong
  • Deng opened China to foreign investment and
    technological advancements.
  • Deng realized, unfortunately, that foreign trade
    opened up China to western influence.
  • Western ideas new to China led to a series of
    student protests in 1989.

38
Tiananmen Square
  • The biggest of these protests was led by 10,000
    students in Beijings Tiananmen Square.
  • The students were protesting corruption in the
    Chinese government.
  • They called for a move towards democracy.
  • The students raised a statue called Goddess of
    Democracy, modeled after the Statue of Liberty.

39
Goddess of Democracy
40
Tiananmen Square
  • June 4, 1989- The Chinese government ordered
    soldiers to break up the demonstration in
    Tiananmen Square.
  • They opened fire on the students, destroyed the
    Goddess of Democracy statue, and arrested
    thousands of people.
  • The brief pro-democracy movement in China was
    ended.

41
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42
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43
Summarize
  • 1 Paragraph each describing each of the
    following
  • Mao Zedong and Chiang Kai-shek
  • The Long March
  • The Great Leap Forward
  • The Cultural Revolution
  • Tiananmen Square
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