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Title:

Knee Anatomy

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Knee Anatomy Knee Joint The most poorly constructed joint in the body. Femur round, tibia flat. Comprised of four bones. Femur Tibia Fibula Patella Femur Medial and ... – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: Knee Anatomy


1
Knee Anatomy
2
Knee Joint
  • The most poorly constructed joint in the body.
    Femur round, tibia flat.
  • Comprised of four bones.
  • Femur
  • Tibia
  • Fibula
  • Patella

3
Femur
  • Medial and Lateral Condyles- distal ends of the
    femur.
  • Largest bone in the body

4
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5
Femur
  • Landmarks to know
  • Add. Tubercle
  • Medial and Lateral epicondyles
  • Medial and lateral condyles
  • Intercondylar fossa
  • Patella fossa (not shown)

6
Tibia and Fibula
7
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8
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9
Fibula
  • Landmarks to know
  • Apex
  • Head
  • Neck
  • Lateral Maelleolus

10
Tibia
  • Landmarks to know
  • Intercondylar eminence
  • Medial and lateral condyles
  • Tibial tuberosity

11
Patella
  • Patella tendon- attaches to the anterior of the
    tibia. (tibial tuberosity)
  • Quadriceps tendon-attaches the quadriceps to the
    patella.

12
Joints
  • Tibiofemoral
  • Largest joint in body
  • Patellofemoral
  • Patella contains the thickest cartilage found in
    the body
  • Superior Tibiofibular
  • Any movement here is due to movement at the ankle

13
Knee Stabilizers
  • PRIMARY
  • Medial Collateral Ligament
  • Lateral Collateral Ligament
  • Anterior Cruciate Ligament
  • Posterior Cruciate Ligament
  • SECONDARY
  • Medial Meniscus
  • C shaped
  • Lateral Meniscus
  • O shaped

14
Cruciate Ligaments
  • Major stabilizing ligaments in the knee
  • Anterior Cruciate Ligament (ACL)-prevents the
    tibia from sliding out in front of the femur
  • Injuries caused by hyperflexion, internal
    rotation, hyperextension

15
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16
ACL
  • Has Two Bundles
  • Anteromedial
  • Tight in flexion and extension
  • Posterolateral
  • Tight in extension
  • Ligament is most lax between 30 60 degrees
    flexion

17
Posterior Cruciate Ligament
  • Prevents posterior translation of the tibia on
    the femur
  • Resists hyperextension of knee
  • Runs from posterior tibia to anterior femur

18
PCL
  • Fibers are tightest around 30 degrees flexion
  • Posterolateral fibers are the last to become
    tight
  • Two times stronger than ACL

19
Collateral Ligament
  • Medial Collateral Ligament (MCL)- connect the
    tibia and the femur.
  • A force from the lateral side could cause a tear.
  • Valgus force

20
Medial Collateral Ligament
  • Two layers
  • Deep layer is actually a thickening of the joint
    capsule that blends into the medial meniscus
  • Superficial layer is what we view as the MCL

21
Collateral Ligament
  • Lateral Collateral Ligament (LCL)- connect the
    fibula to the femur.
  • A force from the medial side can cause a tear of
    the LCL
  • Varus force

22
Lateral Collateral Ligament
  • Attaches to head of fibula
  • Prevents excessive varus and IR forces
  • Tightest in extension, loosest after 30 degrees
    flexion

23
Cartilage
  • Articulate Cartilage-covers the moving parts of
    the knee.
  • Chronic damage to articulate cartilage leads to
    arthritis.

24
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25
Cartilage
  • Meniscus- half moon shaped cartilage lying
    between the knee joint.

26
ARTICULAR DISCS
  • Medial Meniscus
  • Lateral Meniscus

27
Meniscal Blood Supply
  • Each Meniscus has 3 zones
  • Red Zone
  • Outer 1/3 good blood supply
  • Red/White Zone
  • Middle 1/3 minimal blood supply
  • White Zone
  • Inner 1/3 avascular (no blood supply)
  • Implications for injury?

28
Meniscal Blood Supply
29
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