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The Causes of the American Civil War

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Title: The Causes of the American Civil War


1
The Causes of the American Civil War
  • Manifest Destiny, Slavery, States Rights,
    Economics,

2
The United States Constitution
  • A Bundle of Compromises
  • Representation in government
  • The 3/5s Compromise
  • Validation of slavery in the original
    Constitution
  • The concept that All men are created equal was
    not universal
  • The concept of property

3
Slavery
  • Slavery was an old institution and in the ancient
    world was not limited to people of any one color
    or race
  • Slavery was very profitable for those who dealt
    in the trade in was not profitable to those who
    were the slaves!
  • In modern times we associate slavery with race
    and in the United States we think of slaves as
    being African
  • English settlers first tried to use native
    Americans as slaves but these people did not last
    long as slaves they were very susceptible to
    disease and often died of depression
  • The English settlers were very good at
    antagonizing the natives and frequently there
    were hostilities between the two Do you want to
    make a slave of someone who was trying to kill
    you?

4
The First Africans in the New World
  • The first Africans came to the New World with the
    Spanish and the French as explorers but not with
    the English
  • The English needed help on their farms and
    Indians were not much help so they thought of
    Africans as a source of labor
  • Africans would be easy to spot in the English
    colonies and many thought that since the Africans
    were pagans they could be given harsh discipline
    with no penalty to the owner
  • The Europeans also saw the Africans as an endless
    supply of laborers
  • In 1619 the first Africans arrive in Jamestown as
    indentured servants they are brought in by a
    Dutch trader who acquired them from a Spanish
    ship- some scholars believe that English pirates
    captured a Portuguese ship and brought the
    Africans in to Jamestown
  • Indentured servants were to work for the master
    for seven years (usually) and then they would be
    set free with a set of clothes and possibly some
    money or tools. However, the length of the
    indenturement could be extended if the servant
    did not behave well

5
The Triangular Trade
  • Europeans sailed to Africa with rum and
    manufactured goods
  • African chiefs captured African people to be sold
    as slaves
  • British colonials, especially New Englanders,
    sailed directly to Africa, often carrying cargoes
    of rum, to trade for slaves
  • The Middle Passage, from Africa to the New World,
    became a trip of terror and horror

6
The Middle Passage
  • Slaves were packed into the slave ships like
    sardines!
  • Slaves were kept in chains and only let on deck
    for a short period each day
  • Slaves slept spoon-fashion
  • The Africans who resisted were beaten or killed
  • Perhaps as many as half of the people who left
    Africa in chains did not make it to the New World

7
Statistics on Slavery
  • It is very difficult to give exact numbers on
    this subject
  • Between 1783 and 1793 303,737 slaves landed in
    the United States
  • In the 16th century 900,000 slaves landed in the
    New World
  • In the 17th century 2,750,000 slaves landed in
    the New world
  • In the 18th century 7,000,000 slaves landed in
    the New World
  • In the 19th century 4,000,000 slaves landed in
    the New world

8
Slavery in the Colony of Virginia
  • The Virginians tried Indian servitude and slavery
    but it failed
  • In 1640 John Paunch, one of three runaway
    indentured servants, who also happened to be
    African, was sentenced to be a slave for life,
    while the two white men received an extra year of
    servitude
  • The first laws regarding slavery in Virginia were
    passed in 1661
  • In the last quarter of the 17th century there was
    a sharp rise in the number of salves in Virginia
  • 1708 12,000 Africans and 18,000 whites
  • 1713 23,000 Africans and 72,500 whites
  • 1756 120,156 Africans and 173,316 whites

9
Fear Seemed to Rule!
  • The Whites feared a slave revolt
  • The first slave revolt was in 1687 but it failed
  • Slave Codes were set up by 1700
  • No slave could leave the plantation without a
    pass or permit
  • Slaves who were guilty or murder or rape could be
    hanged by the master on the spot and compensated
    by the colony
  • For stealing, a slave could get 60 lashes from
    the sheriff, put in the pillory with his ears
    nailed to a post for one half hour, and then his
    ears would be cut from his head
  • Slaves would be shipped, maimed or branded for
    petty offenses
  • Before the end of the colonial period Virginia
    was an armed camp

10
Slavery in the Northern Colonies and Early States
  • Slavery via the slave trade- was a big part of
    the economy of New England
  • Boston had a big auction center for slave
    auctions
  • Northern farms, especially in New England, did
    not lend themselves to the use of large numbers
    of slaves so there were not large numbers of
    slaves in the North
  • Northern states began to outlaw slavery during
    the American Revolution Pennsylvania 1780,
    Massachusetts 1783, Connecticut and Rhode island
    1784, New York 1785, New Jersey 1786
  • In 1787 the Northwest Ordinance was passed by the
    Articles of Confederation government and it
    outlawed slavery in the new territory
  • This was the high point of the anti-slavery
    movement in the 18th century
  • The northwest Territory included the states of
    Ohio, Indiana, Illinois, Michigan, and part of
    Wisconsin

11
Slave Revolts
  • The British encouraged slaves to rise up against
    their rebel masters during the American
    Revolution
  • Gabriels Plot in 1800 Gabriel Prosser and
    1,000 slaves march on Richmond but are dispersed
    by the militia with Prosser and 35 others hanged
  • Denmark Vesey Insurrection in 1822 Vesey was a
    freed African and he plotted for a long time but
    was betrayed and 47 Africans were hanged and 4
    white men were arrested, fined, and imprisoned
  • Nat Turners Rebellion August, 1831- Turner
    attacks and his men kill 60 whites in 24 hours
    but the Virginia militia will counterattack and
    kill over 100 slaves. Turner and many others are
    hanged

12
Results of the Slave Revolts
  • Southern whites fear for their lives and the
    South becomes an armed camp to ensure that the
    slaves do not revolt
  • Strict slave codes or laws are passed and the
    freeing or emancipating of slaves is strongly
    discouraged
  • Fugitive Slave Laws are passed to help capture
    runaway slaves
  • The Underground Railroad was organized by
    anti-slavery people in the North and South
  • At least 3,000 conductors helped runaways to
    escape
  • Harriet Tubman is one of the most famous
    conductors
  • Many escape to Canada, and in the states the
    largest number of runaways went to Ohio
  • The Underground Railroad was an illegal activity

13
Manifest Destiny and Expansion Lead to Political
and Legal Troubles
  • Manifest Destiny was our God-given right to
    expand to our natural boundaries.
  • English settlers had been moving westward since
    they landed at Jamestown in 1607
  • In1819 the territory of Missouri applied for
    statehood and the North and South divided over
    this
  • Representative James Tallmadge, of New York,
    added an amendment to the Missouri statehood bill
    saying that the further introduction of slavery
    was prohibited into Missouri and that all
    children born of slaves would be free at age 25.
  • The Tallmadge Amendment passes the House of
    Representatives but is defeated in the United
    States Senate

14
The Louisiana Purchase
15
The Missouri Compromise
  • Henry Clay helps to work a compromise
  • Missouri will enter the Union as a slave state
  • Slavery will be prohibited in the Louisiana
    Territory above the 36o30. latitude line, except
    for Missouri (this line is the southern boundary
    of Missouri)
  • Maine, which had been a part of Massachusetts,
    becomes a free state
  • Now there are 12 slave states and 12 free states
    and the balance of power is maintained in the
    Senate
  • The North fears the extension of slavery into the
    North and the South feels that it can take its
    property anywhere that it wants to
  • The Missouri Compromise puts the question of the
    extension of slavery to rest for a generation

16
The War For Texas Independence
  • American Southerners began to move into Texas in
    the 1820s in large numbers and before long they
    were agitating for Texas to break away from
    Mexico
  • In 1835 the Texans revolt against Mexico and this
    leads to the Alamo, Goliad, and San Jacinto
  • Texan leaders are William Travis, Jim Bowie, Davy
    Crockett, and Sam Houston The Mexicans are led
    by Santa Anna
  • Texas wins its independence in 1836 and becomes
    an independent country for 9 years

17
The War With Mexico
  • In 1846 the United States annexes Texas to the
    union and the Mexicans protest
  • The southern boundary of Texas had been in
    dispute for 9 years
  • Fighting breaks out between Mexican and United
    States forces and the United States declares war
    on Mexico
  • Abraham Lincoln Show me the spot!
  • David Wilmot, of Pennsylvania, amended a money
    bill to say neither slavery nor involuntary
    servitude shall ever exist in any part of the
    territory acquired from Mexico. This bill passed
    the House but was defeated in the Senate.
  • American forces defeat overwhelming numbers of
    Mexicans in Texas and northern Mexico

18
The United States Invades
  • U.S. forces under General Winfield Scott attack
    at Vera Cruz
  • The city falls after a siege and then Scott
    marches inland to capture Mexico City
  • The American forces are greatly outnumbered but
    are extremely well lead and often lucky!
  • Young officers, graduates of West Point, such as
    Robert E. Lee, Pierre Beauregard, Thomas Jackson,
    George McClellan, George Thomas, James
    Longstreet, George Pickett, and many others, lead
    the way
  • Mexico City falls and the Mexican government
    surrenders

19
The Treaty of Guadeloupe- Hidalgo
  • The United States gains Texas, New Mexico,
    Arizona, California, Nevada, Utah, parts of
    Colorado and Oklahoma
  • The southern boundary of Texas is recognized as
    the Rio Grande
  • The U.S. gave the Mexicans 15,000,000 as
    compensation for the war
  • The U.S. forgave the Mexicans any debts that they
    had to U.S. citizens
  • Manifest Destiny was validated

20
Gold in California
  • James Marshall found gold at Sutters Mill in
    January, 1848
  • The U.S. gains California as part of the treaty
    of Guadeloupe Hidalgo
  • Thousands of people came to California, starting
    in 1849, to find gold they came from the
    Eastern United States, from Europe, from South
    America, from Australia, from China
  • By 1850 there were enough people in California to
    apply for statehood
  • What problems would California face in its desire
    to become a state in the union?

21
The Fateful Decade
  • The Compromise of 1850
  • Uncle Toms Cabin
  • The Kansas Nebraska Act 0f 1854
  • Bleeding Kansas
  • The Rise of the Republican Party
  • The Dred Scott Case
  • The Lincoln-Douglas Debates
  • John Browns Raid

22
The Great Debate of 1850
  • All of this was a direct result of the war with
    Mexico
  • The North wanted California to enter the Union as
    a free state, wanted the Wilmot Proviso to be
    implemented, wanted to reduce the size of Texas,
    wanted to abolish slavery in Washington, D.C.,
    and jury trials for fugitive slaves
  • The south wanted slavery to be permitted in
    California and New Mexico, Texas to have the
    boundaries that it originally claimed, slavery to
    continue in Washington, and a new fugitive slave
    law that would force officials to return slaves
    to their masters immediately and with no trials

23
Henry Clay The Great Compromiser comes forth
for his last great fight
  • Clay had been the author of the Missouri
    Compromise in 1820
  • Clay proposed an Omnibus Bill which included
    California to enter as a free state, all other
    land gained from Mexico to be divided into two
    territories Utah and New Mexico, Squatters
    Sovereignty would decide the issue of slavery in
    these territories, Texas would be reduced from
    379,000 square miles to 264,000 square miles and
    the chopped off land went to New Mexico, Texas
    would get 10,000,000 to help pay her debts,
    slavery would continue in Washington but the
    slave trade would be outlawed in that city, and a
    new stricter fugitive slave law would be passed.

24
The fight for passage of the bill
  • Henry Clay and Daniel Webster spoke in favor of
    this compromise
  • John C. Calhoun, of South Carolina, was against
    the bill but he was dying from TB and so had to
    have his speech read for on the floor of the
    Senate
  • Senator William H. Seward was against it since it
    allowed the possible extension of slavery

25
The Compromise of 1850
26
The Compromise of 1850 passed Congress
  • President Zachery Taylor was an anti-slavery Whig
    and he refused to sign the bill
  • Congress did not have enough votes to over-ride
    Taylors veto
  • On July 5, 1850 Taylor suddenly gets sick and
    dies 4 days later
  • Millard Fillmore becomes president and he signs
    the bill
  • The South benefited the most from this bill
    because it did allow the extension of slavery and
    had a strong fugitive slave law

27
Uncle Toms Cabin one of the most important
books in American history!
  • Written by Harriet Beecher Stowe who was a very
    strong abolitionist (as was her entire family)
  • The book was passionate but not totally accurate
  • Stowe condemns slavery, not the South, and also
    condemns the North The people of the free
    states have defended, encouraged, and
    participated in the slave trade, and are more
    guilty before God than the South in that they
    have not the apology of education or custom.

28
Reaction to Uncle Toms Cabin
  • This book was written as a reaction to the
    Fugitive Slave Law that was part of the
    Compromise of 1850
  • The book was published as a serial in the
    newspapers of the country so this story was
    read across the nation by very large numbers of
    people
  • Mrs. Stowe avoided the problem of racial
    adjustment by having her successful fugitives
    migrate first to Europe for education and then to
    Liberia as residents
  • Uncle Tom was the hero and Simon Legree was one
    of the villains
  • The book had very graphic descriptions of slave
    conditions and harrowing escapes of fugitives
  • Southerners said that Mrs. Stowe did not know
    what she was talking about and that slavery was
    not that bad
  • Uncle Tom becomes a Christ-like figure in the
    North and is the first African hero created by an
    American author
  • When Abraham Lincoln met Harriet B. Stowe in 1862
    he said, So youre the little lady who started
    all of this.

29
The Kansas Nebraska Bill of 1854
  • Stephen Douglas was appointed by President
    Franklin Pierce to head a committee to find a
    solution to the unorganized territories
  • At first Douglas thought that the land could be
    one territory and he wrote the Nebraska Bill
    which left the question of slavery up to the
    people in the territory this was called
    popular sovereignty This violated the
    Missouri Compromise and the South was against it

30
Douglas writes a new bill The Kansas-Nebraska
Act
  • The first thing that this bill did was to repeal
    the Missouri Compromise
  • The unorganized territory was divided into 2 new
    territories Nebraska and Kansas they were
    separated at the 40o North Latitude Nebraska to
    the north and Kansas to the south
  • The question of slavery was to be settled by
    popular sovereignty in each territory

31
Reaction to the Kansas-Nebraska Act
  • The North was upset because it feared that both
    territories could vote for slavery and for 34
    years slavery had been outlawed in this land
  • The South was not sure that it wanted the
    Missouri Compromise to be repealed
  • Stephen Douglas was able to convince Congress to
    pass the bill he was a fiery and passionate
    speaker and considered to be one of the best of
    his time

32
The Focus Goes to Kansas
  • Both North and South thought that Nebraska would
    be a free state since the land and climate did
    not lend itself to slavery
  • Both sides thought that they needed to gain
    control of Kansas since the issue of slavery
    was to be settled by popular sovereignty by
    sending in people committed to their beliefs
  • Northerners created the Emigrant Aid Society to
    send abolitionists to Kansas these people were
    also called Free Soilers

33
Bleeding Kansas a civil war
  • The Northerners established Lawrence as a town
    and their headquarters
  • Southerners came into Kansas from Missouri and
    were called Border Ruffians by the Northern
    press
  • A Southern sheriff comes to Lawrence to capture a
    runaway slave and is killed
  • In May, 1856, 800 Southerners attack Lawrence in
    retaliation and burn the newspaper offices, the
    hotel and the home of the governor (who was a
    Free-Soiler)
  • This really sets off a war in Kansas!

34
Murder in Kansas
  • There are a lot of murders and bushwhacking
  • Over 200 men are killed in this fighting
  • Both sides organize militias to fight

35
John Brown at Pottawatomie Creek
  • John Brown was an extreme abolitionist who had
    been furious ever since the Fugitive Slave Law of
    1850 had been passed
  • Brown was sure that God had called him to punish
    the sinners those who believed in slavery

36
The Wrath of God according to John Brown
  • Brown and his followers capture 5 Southern men
    who had nothing to do with any murders
  • Brown said that these men were guilty of murder
    and he uses a broadsword to kill them
  • This was done in retaliation for the attack on
    Lawrence and to show that Free Soilers had
    rights
  • Is it murder?

37
The Government in Kansas is in total Chaos
  • Governors come and go
  • Elections are fraudulent in one district 584
    ballots out of 604 cast were not legitimate!
  • Two rival governments are set up one is
    pro-northern and one is pro-southern and each
    ask Washington for recognition as the legitimate
    government
  • Southerners write the LeCompton Constitution for
    the state which will allow slavery but also has a
    clause that says no matter what the vote on the
    state constitution will be that the slaves
    already in Kansas can stay this would mean that
    Kansas would be a slave state!
  • Northerners had stayed away from LeCompton since
    they feared that they would be killed
  • This constitution was decisively defeated and
    more chaos follows
  • Northerners had their own constitution, written
    at Topeka, and it outlawed slavery in the state

38
The Fighting in Kansas spills over into
Washington, D.C.
  • Senator Charles Sumner an ardent abolitionist
    gave a very passionate speech entitled The Crime
    Against Kansas that lasted two days on the floor
    of the Senate
  • He said, Murderous robbers from Missouri,
    hirelings picked from the drunken spew and vomit
    of an uneasy civilization have committed a rape
    of a virgin territory, compelling it to embrace
    slavery.

39
Sumner goes on with his speech!
  • Sumner then attacked Senator Andrew Butler of
    South Carolina by saying that South Carolina with
    its shameful imbecility from slavery had sent
    to the Senate in his person (meaning Butler) a
    Don Quixote who had chosen a mistress to whom he
    has made his vows, and who though polluted in
    the sight of the world, is chaste in his sight
    I mean the harlot, Slavery.
  • Sumner said that he had made the most thorough
    and complete speech of my life
  • Democrats and Southerners were appalled and even
    Republicans felt that Sumner had gone too far

40
First Bleeding Kansas, now Bleeding Sumner!
  • Congressman Preston Brooks, a cousin of Butler,
    wants revenge for the insults he knows that
    Sumner is not a gentleman and therefore should
    not be treated as one
  • Brooks goes into the Senate, walks up to Sumner,
    and attacks him with his cane hitting Sumner at
    least 30 times on his head, face, and shoulders
  • Brooks is a hero to the South and a villain in
    the North Sumner becomes a hero to all of the
    North but will suffer from his injuries for the
    rest of his life
  • Most reasonable people could see that things were
    out of hand

41
Federal troops are sent to Kansas
  • Even though United States soldiers had been in
    Kansas for several years they had not taken an
    active role in keeping the peace
  • U.S. cavalrymen are ordered to stop the violence
    and that is the only way some peace comes to
    Kansas

42
The Election of 1856
  • The Federal government and the Federal leadership
    was very weak at this point Franklin Pierce was
    just not a strong leader
  • The Democratic Party, which had been a national
    party, begins to split along sectional lines
  • Stephen Douglas was the most famous Democratic
    leader and he had made his position on the
    extension of slavery clear with his popular
    sovereignty doctrine

43
A New Party Emerges in 1856
  • The Republican Party is created and grows very
    quickly
  • The name Republican appealed to many groups and
    had a historical connection to Thomas Jefferson
    and Henry Clay
  • The most important plank of the party was that it
    was opposed to the extension of slavery so the
    common ground for this party in 1856 was what is
    was against, not necessarily what it was for!

44
The Republicans hold their Convention in Chicago
  • David Wilmot is the Chair of the party
  • The party plank in 1856 includes Opposition to
    the extension of slavery, re-enactment of the
    Missouri Compromise, admitting Kansas to the
    Union as a free state, and building a railroad
    across the continent to the Pacific
  • Their candidate for president was John C. Fremont
    The Pathfinder
  • Abraham Lincoln was second in the balloting for
    vice president

45
The Democrats hold their convention in Cincinnati
  • This was an unusual place to hold their
    convention but they wanted to appeal to the
    people of the West
  • The Democrats had to stand on Douglas popular
    sovereignty doctrine but did not try to flaunt it
  • They picked James Buchanan of Pennsylvania as
    their candidate for president

46
A third party The American Party or the Know
Nothings were also running
  • The Know Nothings were anti-immigrant and
    anti-Catholic
  • They got their nickname by saying I know
    nothing when asked about the party
  • They picked Millard Fillmore to be their
    candidate- but Fillmore was not a member of the
    party! and he did not endorse their ideas!
  • Fillmore stressed the need for all sections of
    the country to get along and he was worried that
    sectional conflict was in the near future he
    saw the Republicans as a sectional party

47
The Election of 1856 boils down to Buchanan
versus Fremont
  • Most of the South votes for Buchanan as the
    Democratic candidate
  • The Democratic lost a lot of its strength in the
    North to the Republicans
  • The states of Pennsylvania, Indiana and Illinois
    go for Buchanan due to better party
    organization and money Douglas alone
    contributed 100,000 in Illinois
  • James Buchanan wins the election
  • The south sees the Republican Party as a real
    threat and open talk of secession is common
  • If the votes for Fillmore and Fremont are added
    together it is clear that the electorate did not
    endorse the Kansas Nebraska Act
  • Politicians see that if a candidate can hold the
    Upper North and then carry Pennsylvania, Indiana
    and Illinois that candidate would win the
    presidential election in 1860

48
The Dred Scott Case
  • Dred Scott had been a slave of an army doctor who
    took him to many states, some slave and some free
    (Missouri, Illinois, Wisconsin, Missouri) and
    both his owner and Scott ignored this
  • Ten years after the master dies Scott sues for
    his freedom claiming that residence in areas made
    free by the Missouri Compromise had made him a
    free man
  • A lower court in Missouri upholds Scotts plea
    but the Missouri State Supreme Court reversed
    that decision in 1852

49
Dred Scott
  • Scott is sold to John Stanford of New York who is
    an abolitionist and the case is appealed to the
    United States Supreme court as Scott vs. Sanford
  • The Courts initial reaction was to rule that
    Scott had no right to bring suit, since he was a
    Negro and Negroes were not citizens nor entitled
    to use the judicial process
  • This decision was not accepted by many and
    President James Buchanan wanted to use the case
    to settle sectional differences
  • Buchanan wanted the Court to decide the issue of
    slavery in the territories
  • Buchanan persuaded Judge Robert C. Grier of
    Pennsylvania to side with the Southern judges and
    said that the Mason-Dixon Line should not decide
    justice
  • In his inaugural speech Buchanan had said the he
    would cheerfully submit to the courts decision
    on Dred Scott and that every American should do
    likewise

50
Supreme Court Chief Justice Roger B. Taney
Decides The Issue
  • Taney had been appointed to his position by
    Andrew Jackson so that Jackson could use the
    Court to validate the removal of the Cherokees
  • Taney had all nine justices of the Supreme Court
    write an opinion on the Dred Scott case but Taney
    wrote the Opinion of the Court which is the
    official one and the majority of the justices
    agreed with Taney although for different reasons
  • Justice John McLean of Ohio and Justice Benjamin
    R. Curtis of Massachusetts both said that Scott
    should be free and that the Missouri Compromise
    was a legal action
  • Taney said
  • Scott had no right to bring suit
  • That the Missouri Compromise was unconstitutional

51
Taneys Rationale
  • Taney used Maryland and Massachusetts colonial
    law to prove that the Americans intended to erect
    a perpetual and impassible barrier between the
    races
  • Taney said that Negroes are simply property, not
    people
  • He said that Congress could not rule on territory
    not owned in 1789 in regard to slavery
  • Taney said that Congress could not deprive a
    person of his property when he moved from state
    to state or state to territory since the
    Constitution guaranteed the right of property
  • This is a very strict interpretation of the
    Constitution

52
Public Reaction to the Dred Scott Decision
  • Remember James Buchanan had said that all good
    citizens would cheerfully submit to the
    decision of the Court This was ridiculous!
  • The North exploded in opposition, especially the
    Republican Party
  • Northern legislatures and the Northern press
    condemned the Court and its ruling
  • There were many demonstrations in the streets and
    violent speeches
  • Many people who had not been too concerned about
    the slavery question now join the Republican
    Party
  • In the South people thought that the Court had
    made a good decision
  • John Sanford quietly set Dred Scott free and
    Scott died two years later from TB
  • So a person could take a slave anywhere and
    Congress could not make laws concerning slaves
    since slaves were property and the right to own
    property was guaranteed in the Constitution

53
The Great Debate Lincoln vs. Douglas
54
The Race For A Senate Seat
  • In 1858 Stephen A. Douglas seat in the United
    States Senate was up for re-election and Abraham
    Lincoln challenged Douglas
  • The actual election then took place in the state
    legislature it was not a popular vote like
    today
  • Douglas was very well known, a great orator, a
    statesman, sophisticated, and one of the top men
    in the Democratic Party
  • Lincoln appeared to be unkempt, crude, and
    inexperienced next to Douglas but Lincoln was a
    very good public speaker

55
The Issues
  • Douglas had to defend his national positions on
    Dred Scott, popular sovereignty, the extension of
    slavery and the future of slavery in the United
    States
  • Lincoln made slavery the central issue of the
    challenge and this put Douglas on the defensive
  • James Buchanan was against Douglas since Douglas
    had opposed the LeCompton Constitution in Kansas
  • Lincoln challenges Douglas to debate and Douglas
    agrees to debate in areas where he had not
    already spoken, and the format would be one in
    which each speaker presented for a given period
    of time this would not be a heated discussion
    going back and forth
  • There would be seven debates, covering different
    congressional districts in Illinois

56
The Lincoln-Douglas Debates
57
The Debate Sites
  • . The debates took place at the following places
    in Illinois
  • Ottawa, August 21, 1858, 12,000 people attend.
    Debate last 3 hours
  • Freeport, 15,000 people attend. Debate lasted 3
    hours. Freeport Doctrine.
  • Jonesboro, 1,400 people attend. A strong slave
    holding area.
  • Charleston, 12,000 people attend. The Tall
    Sucker vs. the Little Giant.
  • Galesburg, October 7, 1858, 20,000 people attend.
    Cold, windy, damp day. Lasted 3 hours.
  • Quincy, October 13, 1858. 12,000 people. Debate
    lasted 3 hours.
  • Alton, October 15, 1858, 6,000 people attend.
  • There were a total of 78,400 people who attended
    these debates. This was the largest audience in
    U.S. A. history up to that point. In addition,
    millions of Americans read the speeches in the
    newspapers. A new dictation-type of machine had
    recently been invented which allowed reporters to
    get every word.

58
Lincolns House Divided Speech
  • June 16, 1858 Lincoln gives a speech to the
    Illinois House of Representatives.
  • If we could first know where we are, and
    whither we are tending, we could better judge
    what to do, and how to do it. We are now far into
    the fifth year, since a slavery agitation. Under
    the operation of that policy, that agitation has
    not only, not ceased, but has constantly
    augmented. In my opinion, it will not cease,
    until a crisis shall have been reached, and
    passed. A house divided against itself cannot
    stand. I believe that this government cannot
    endure, permanently half slave and half free. I
    do not expect the Union to be dissolved- I do not
    expect the house to fall- but I do expect it will
    cease to be divided. It will become all one
    thing, or all the other.
  • Either the opponents of slavery, will arrest the
    further spread of it, and place it where the
    public mind shall rest in the belief that it is
    in the course of ultimate extinction or its
    advocates will push it forward, till it shall
    become alike lawful in all the States, old as
    well as new, North as well as South..Put that
    and that together, and we have another nice
    little niche, which we may, ere long, see filled
    with another Supreme Court decision, declaring
    that the Constitution of the United States does
    not permit a state to exclude slavery from its
    limits Such a decision is all that slavery now
    lacks of being alike lawful in all the States.

59
Lincoln and Douglas back and forth
  • Stephen Douglas said of Lincoln not long after
    the House Divided Speech
  • Mr. Lincoln advocates boldly and clearly a war
    of sections, a war of the North against the
    South, of the free States against the slave
    States- a war of extermination- to be continued
    relentlessly until one or the other shall be
    subdued, and all the States shall either become
    free or become slave.
  • Douglas also said, at the Quincy debate
  • Let each State mind its own business and let its
    neighbors alone!... If we will stand by that
    principle, then Mr. Lincoln will find that this
    republic can exist forever divided into free and
    slave States Stand by that great principle and
    we can go on as we have done, increasing in
    wealth, in population, in power, and in all the
    elements of greatness, until we shall be the
    admiration and terror of the world, until we
    make this continent one ocean-bound republic.
  • Lincoln responded
  • You say slavery is wrong but dont you
    constantlyargue that this is not the right place
    to oppose it? You say it must not be opposed in
    the free States, because slavery is not here it
    must not be opposed in the slave States because
    it is there it must not be opposed in politics,
    because that will make a fuss it must not be
    opposed in the pulpit, because it is not
    religion. Then where is the place to oppose it?
    There is no suitable place to oppose it.

60
Douglas proclaims his Freeport Doctrine
  • At Freeport, Illinois Lincoln tricks Douglas into
    reconciling the Dred Scott decision with popular
    sovereignty The Dred Scott decision
    contradicted the concept of popular sovereignty
    since it said that people could take their
    property anywhere they wanted to and government
    could not interfere with that
  • Douglas responds to Lincoln by saying, It
    matters not what way the Supreme Court may
    hereafter decide as to the abstract question
    whether slavery may or may not go into a
    territoryIn either event the people have the
    lawful means to introduce it or exclude it as
    they please, forslavery can not exist a day or
    an hour anywhere, unless it is protected by local
    police regulations.
  • So Douglas says that slavery can not exist
    without local enforcement does this not
    contradict all that he has said in the past?

61
Results of the Lincoln Douglas Debates
  • Douglas won the Senatorial seat
  • The Democrats lost most of the races in 1858
  • Lincoln got tremendous national exposure and
    gained tremendous credibility
  • The question of slavery became even more of an
    issue in American society

62
John Browns Raid On Harpers Ferry
  • John Brown had been active in Kansas, had no
    faith in the political system, and firmly
    believed that slavery was a sin which the country
    had to pay for in blood
  • Brown openly helped slaves escape to Canada
  • Brown moved to Maryland in 1859 and rented a farm
  • He collected an army of 21 men

63
October 16, 1859
  • Brown and his men raid the Federal arsenal at
    Harpers Ferry
  • He intends to liberate the slaves of the South
  • The slaves do not rise up in revolt
  • Brown fortifies himself in the fire house in
    Harpers Ferry and waits he should have fled to
    the hills
  • Federal troops Marines- arrive under the
    command of Robert E. Lee and Jeb Stuart

64
The Storming of the Engine House
65
Brown is Captured and Tried
  • The Marines rush the firehouse and kill or
    capture all of those inside
  • Brown was wounded, several of his sons were
    killed
  • A trail was held in Charles Town, Virginia and
    Brown was found guilty on October 31, 1859 of
    treason against the state of Virginia, murder,
    and inciting a slave rebellion
  • Brown was still suffering from his wounds and was
    carried into the court on a stretcher
  • Brown spoke in his own defense and frequently
    quoted the Bible

66
John Brown Is Hanged
  • Brown was hanged on December 2, 1859 in Charles
    Town
  • Over 5,000 militia come to Charles Town to
    maintain security and/or to watch
  • Professor Thomas J. Jackson led the corps of
    cadets from Virginia Military Institute to the
    hanging
  • John Wilkes Booth joined the Richmond Militia in
    order to come to this hanging
  • Brown spoke before he was hanged and said that
    the United States would pay in blood for its sin
    of slavery
  • John Brown becomes the Martyr of Abolition
  • Six of Browns men are hanged after him ( at a
    later date)
  • John Browns Body became one of the most famous
    songs of the era

67
Generalizations of the Fateful Fifties
  • The different sections solidified and there was
    no hope of reconciliation between the sections
  • Radical leadership took control in each section
  • Blood was spilled in several states and it is
    easier to do that the second or third time
  • Abolition became a Holy Crusade and the Cotton
    Kingdom a way of life
  • Militia units were forming all over the country
    and before long they would need something to do
  • There was no strong leadership in Washington
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