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Alzheimers: The Incurable Disease

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Alzheimer's: The Incurable Disease. Derrick Davies, Anna Espe, & Nicole Paschall ... Noticed abnormal plaques and tangles in a woman who died of an unusual ... – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: Alzheimers: The Incurable Disease


1
Alzheimers The Incurable Disease
  • Derrick Davies, Anna Espe,
  • Nicole Paschall

2
What is Alzheimers Disease
  • Brain Disease
  • Destroys brain cells and nerves
  • Disrupts the message carrying transmitters
  • Contains lower levels of message chemicals

3
Alois Alzheimer
  • Doctor from Germany
  • Noticed abnormal plaques and tangles in a woman
    who died of an unusual mental disorder

4
The Risk Factors
  • Age
  • Family History

5
The First Signs of AD
  • Mild forgetfulness
  • Difficulty of completing everyday tasks
  • Forgetting simple words
  • Getting lost

6
Progressing Symptoms
  • Forgetting names and recent events
  • Changing personalities
  • Problems with Speech
  • Sleeping more than usual

7
Diagnosis of Alzheimers Disease
  • Only confirmed after someones death
  • Make a possible or probable diagnosis
  • Look at family history

8
Tools to Diagnose Possible AD
  • General health
  • Past medical problems
  • Difficulties carrying out daily activities
  • Medical tests
  • Memory tests
  • Brain Scans

9
What is Actually Happening
  • Nerve cells die in regions of the brain
  • Gaps develop in the temporal lobe and hippocampus
  • The brain shrinks
  • Protein fragments make tangles and plaques

10
The Four Stages of AD
  • Preclinical Stage
  • Mild Stage
  • Moderate Stage
  • Severe Stage

11
Preclinical Alzheimers Disease
  • Begins in the entorhinal cortex
  • Proceeds to the hippocampus
  • Affected regions begin to shrink
  • Changes start 10 to 20 years before visible signs
    and symptoms appear

12
Mild Alzheimers Disease
  • Affects cerebral cortex
  • Growing numbers of plaques and tangles damage
    areas of the brain
  • Clinical diagnosis made during this stage

13
Moderate Alzheimers Disease
  • Spreads to further areas of the cerebral cortex
  • Regions begin to waste away
  • Language, reasoning, sensory processing and
    conscious thought begin to deteriorate

14
Severe Alzheimers Disease
  • Plaques and tangles are widespread throughout the
    brain
  • Cannot recognize familiar faces or things
  • Cannot communicate
  • Usually die from other illnesses

15
Who has Alzheimers Disease?
  • Four-million Americans
  • 3 of men and women ages 65 to 74
  • 50 of men and women over the age of 85

16
CURENT FINDINGS
  • Is there proof that the research is getting
    anywhere ??

17
Concrete Facts
  • There is no cure for Alzheimers patients
  • Only acetylcholinesterase inhibitors have been
    FDA approved as treatment.
  • There are several other factors that have shown
    promising for delaying the onset of Alzheimers

18
The Approved Drugs
  • Rivastigmine
  • Donepezil
  • Tacrine
  • Galantimine
  • ALL WORK VIA ACETYLCHOLINESTERASE INHIBITION.

19
Rivastigmine Mechanism
  • How long will the drug inhibit the enzyme?
  • X-ray crystallography
  • Two parts 1. Carbamyl moity
  • 2. NAP
  • Remains in active site

20
Genetics
  • Familial Alzheimers
  • Aploipoprotein (apoE)

21
Nerve Growth Factors
  • Dendrites and Axons
  • Nasal Spray
  • Implants

22
Nicotine
  • Brain Lesions
  • Attach AcCh receptors
  • Stimulate receptors to trick brain

23
Pacemaker
  • Hippocampus
  • Mathematical model
  • 2 electrodes penetrate skull

24
Other drugs
  • NAIDS
  • Over-the-counter
  • Glutamate
  • FDDNP

25
High Costs
  • Numbers will increase
  • Funding is low
  • Increasing need for permanent, effective
    treatment and care

26
The Future of Alzheimers Disease
  • Theories
  • Treatments
  • Possible Vaccine

27
Theories of Cause of Alzheimer Disease
  • Deficiencies
  • High Levels
  • Beta amyloid

28
Possible Prevention of Alzheimer
  • Supplements (Example are anitoxidents, Vitamins,
    melatonin, Ginkgo Biloba, and Co-Enzyme Q10)

29
Treatments
  • Three-fold mission
  • Slowing progression of cognitive decline
  • Managing the behavioral symptoms
  • Support and education to caregiver
  • The main thing to remember is that there is not
    cure so the symptoms are what are to be treated.

30
Possible Vaccine
  • Early attempt (2002)
  • Fights beta-amyloids
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