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Jefferson to Jackson


History 201 Early American History JEFFERSON TO JACKSON Themes in US History in the Era Sectional disunity States Rights vs. Federalism Growth of power of ... – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: Jefferson to Jackson

Jefferson to Jackson
  • History 201 Early American History

Themes in US History in the Era
  • Sectional disunity
  • States Rights vs. Federalism
  • Growth of power of Judicial branch
  • Judicial Review and high profile cases
  • Entangling Alliances
  • Development of political identities/parties
  • End of elitism, beginning of era of the common
  • Endless hunger for land
  • Indian Removal

Jefferson as President
  • http//
    Elect Jefferson advertisement
  • Inaugural speech "We are all Republicans, we
    are all Federalists."
  • Pledged "honest friendship with all nations,
    entangling alliances with none.
  • First party overturn in the history of the
  • Significance Demonstrated the efficacy of a
    two-party system

Jeffersons Style
  • Less pretentious
  • Sent a clerk to read presidential messages (e.g.
    annual message)
  • Contrasted with Federalist practice of president
    making personal appearances which seemed
  • Small dinners, seating without rank
  • Casual attire shook hands with guests.
  • Reduced the number and grandeur of formal events
  • Rode on horseback about the Capital instead of
    using a carriage.

Jefferson's Presidency
  • Peaceful transfer of power in 1801.
  • Maintained many Federalist programs Nat'l Bank,
    tariffs, funding debt
  • Kept most public servants from Federalist
  • Expansion Louisiana Purchase
  • Tripolitan Wars
  • Embargo Act

"The government that governs least, governs best."
  • Reversals of Federalist policies
  • Defended rights provided by Bill of Rights and
  • Enacted new naturalization law in 1802 return of
    5 year requirement for citizenship
  • Alien and Sedition Laws had expired in 1801
    parts that were still in effect were removed.
  • Succeeded in substantially reducing the national
    debt by cutting government spending.
  • Reduced standing army but upheld need for
    stronger navy.
  • Emphasized states rights
  • Encouraged development of an agrarian nation

John Marshall and the Supreme Court
  • Act of 1801         1. Federalists created 16
    new judgeships and other judicial offices
            2. Jeffersonians said Federalists were
    packing judicial branch for life.         3. Act
    repealed by the newly elected Republican Congress
    in 1802.
  • John Marshall         1. Appointed Chief Justice
    during last days of Adams' term Served 34 years
            2. Continued handing down Federalist
    decisions long after Federalist party was dead.

Marbury vs Madison, 1803
  • Judicial Review
  • Marshall gave Supreme Court power to rule a law
    by Congress unconstitutional
  • Contrasted with the Kentucky Resolutions
  • Jefferson had claimed states had that right (due
    to compact theory).
  • Power of Supreme Court greatly enhanced -- 1st
    time declared something unconstitutional

Tripolitan War
  • Plundering of U.S. ships by pirates of the North
    African states led to increased military.
  • War seemed cheaper than peace in 1801.
  • Pasha of Tripoli declared war on the U.S.
  • US wins (small navy) but proved ineffective
    during the War of 1812

The Louisiana Purchase
  • Napoleon seemed to pose a possible military
    threat to U.S., perhaps requiring U.S. to make
    alliances with other European powers.
  • Napoleon decided to sell all Louisiana and
    abandon his dream of a New World Empire
  • Decided to use sale of Louisiana as revenue for
    his conquest of Europe.
  • Did not want to be distracted by the U.S. as an
    enemy in North America.
  • More than doubled size of US

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Most important land purchase in U.S. History
  • Constitution did not authorize President to
    negotiate treaties incorporating land into the
  • Secretly proposed an amendment to the
    Constitution to provide for such an act.
  • Land-hungry Americans supported the purchase
  • Paved way for westward expansion
  • Accelerated rise of U.S. as economic political
  • Hastened Indian Removal. By 1890, all remaining
    Native Americans in the region would be on
  • Ended European expansion in North America
  • Boosted national unity

Exploration of Louisiana Territory
  • Lewis and Clark Expedition bolstered U.S. claim
    to Oregon further opened West to trade
  • Zebulon M. Pike
  • 1805-1807, explored headwaters of the
    Mississippi, Colorado New Mexico
  • Spain concerned of increased settlement in these
    Spanish regions.

Meanwhile . . .
  • Back at Home
  • (Conspiracy and Intrigue)

Essex Junto (1804) the exploits of Aaron Burr
  • http//
  • Essex Junto Federalist extremists plotted for
    New England's secession from the union and the
    creation of a seven-state northern confederacy
  • New England a Federalist stronghold threatened by
    Jefferson and the Louisiana Purchase, leading to
    western influence
  • Plotters courted Hamilton to run for governor of
    NY in 1804 and then lead the secessionist
  • Hamilton refuseddid not see Louisiana as the
    problem, only the expansion of democracy.
  • Plotters then courted Vice President Burr.
  • Hamilton led opposition to Burrs NY
    gubernatorial campaign. Burr was defeated and his
    plot was exposed by Hamilton
  • Burr kills Hamilton in a duel.

More Intrigue and Conspiracy
  • http// Aaron
  • In 1806, Burr attempted to separate the western
    part of the U.S. from the eastern part and unite
    it with to-be-conquered Spanish territory west of
    the Louisiana Territory and perhaps in northern
  • Burr arrested in 1806 in Natchez and tried next
    year at Richmond, VA.

Jefferson re-elected in 1804
  • Incorporated Federalist principles during his
    first administration now minimized Federalist
  • Success International peace, territorial
    expansion, and inexpensive, unobtrusive
  • Republicans Obvious Choice

Yazoo Land Controversy, 1804
  • Opponents accuse him of mis-use of land grants
  • Georgia wrongfully granted millions of acres
    prior to turning land over to the federal govt.
  • land companies had bribed GA legislators for
    millions of acres in land grants
  • Jefferson and Madison attempted to repay the new
    (corrupt) land owners for lands ceded to federal
  • Significance
  • Created strife within Republican party and
    weakened Jefferson during 2nd term.

Trouble with France
Berlin Decree 1806
  • Harassment of U.S. shipping
  • British controlled seas but France controlled
  • British began seizing American ships to end U.S.
    practice of importing French goods into U.S.
    re-exporting them as neutral cargo.
  • Berlin Decree, 1806
  • Napoleon to starve Britain by closing ports of
    the continent to British commerce and outlawing
    all trade with British Isles.
  • American ships would be confiscated by France.
  • England closed ports under French continental
    control to foreign shipping
  • Neutrals (e.g. U.S.) might enter Napoleonic ports
    only if they first stopped Britain.
  • American ships that didnt stop at Britain prior
    to entering the Continent would be confiscated.

Milan Decree, 1807
  • Napoleons retaliation
  • Any neutral ship entering a British port, or
    submitting to a British warship at sea, would be
    confiscated by if it attempted to enter a
    Continental port.
  • British Impressment 6,000 Americans from
    1808-1811 many died or were killed in service.
  • Chesapeake-Leopard Affair (June 21, 1807)
  • British commander demanded surrender of four
    alleged deserters on the U.S.S. Chesapeake
    American captain refused. British fired at the
    Chesapeake 3 dead 18 wounded
  • Jeffersonused the incident to incite calls for
    U.S. action.            

Embargo Act -- 1807
  • http//
  • Loose construction of the Constitution Congress'
    power to "regulate commerce" meant it could stop
  • Undermined Jeffersons states rights philosophy
  • Embargo Act was a disaster to the U.S. economy
  • Illegal trade mushroomed as a result
  • Jefferson got Congress to pass harsh enforcement
  • Viewed by many as tyrannical.
  • New England again talked of secession    

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Non-Intercourse Act of 1809
  • Formally reopened trade with all nations except
    France and Britain
  • Reasons for embargo's failure         1. U.S.
    overestimated British dependence on American
    trade, underestimated British resolve.        
    2. Embargo not long enough or well controlled
            3. Embargo Act proved to be three times
    as costly as war         4. Worsened the conflict
    between Britain France
  • New England forced to become self-sufficient once
  • The Embargo eventually wins      
  • Election of 1808 impacted by the Embargo Act
    issue         1.  Federalists made significant
    gains in Congress (although still in minority)
    and gained control of several state legislatures.

Jefferson's Legacy
  • Expansion!
  • Orderly expansion in Old Northwest
  • Southern conquest difficult due to Spanish
  • Ended unwanted European expansion in North
    America with Louisiana Purchase.
  • Soft-side of Jeffersonian expansion invasion of
    Canada during War of 1812
  • Hard side of Jeffersonian expansion removal of
    Indians, blacks, and Spanish (in during Madison
    and Monroes presidencies)
  • Empire and liberty for whites only.
  • Jeffersonians believed free blacks should not be
    allowed to migrate west.

Jeffersons Legacy
  • Creation of a democratic non-aristocratic
  • "Government that governs least, governs best."
  • Lowered debt, balanced budget, promoted states
  • Two-term presidency
  • More than two terms might lead to dictatorship.
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Federalist Defeat complete by 1816
  • "High Federalists"
  • Creation of European-like aristocracy through
    intermarriage, creation of standing army, and
    govt suppression of political opponents.
  • Scandal Burr encouraged secession of western
  • Jefferson kept the country out of a damaging
    European war
  • War of 1812 not until late in Madisons first

War of 1812
  • "To have shrunk, under such circumstances, from
    manly resistance, would have been a degradation
    blasting our best and proudest hopes
  • It would have acknowledged that the American
    people were not an independent people, but
    colonists and vassals.
  • President James Madison, November 1812

James Madison The Little Magician
  • Inaugurated in March, 1809
  • "Virginia dynasty
  • Strongly Jeffersonian in his views

Macon's Bill No. 2
  • Replaced Non-Intercourse Act of 1809.
  • Purpose entice Britain or France to repeal
    commercial restrictions
  • U.S. would restore non-importation against the
    non-repealing nation
  • Napoleon seized the opportunity with hopes of
    getting U.S. in a war with Britain
  • Madison gave the British 3 months or the U.S.
    would restore non-importation
  • Britain angered and demanded U.S. withdraw
    restrictions on Britain until France had
    withdrawn all their restrictions on American
  • Napoleon had no real intention of honoring the

War Hawks
  • New young leaders from South West , Strongly
  • Wanted war to achieve the glory their fathers had
    in Revolutionary War. War Hawks desired U.S. to
    attack Canada to remove further Indian threats.
    Southern expansionists desired Spanish Florida
  • Henry Clay (from Kentucky) elected Speaker of the
  • John C. Calhoun elected as a representative of
    South Carolina.
  • Battle of Tippecanoe Western war hawks eager to
    wipe out resistance against white settlers in the
    western wilderness
  • General William H. Harrison advanced with 1,000
    men and advanced upon Indian headquarters.
  • Significance Essentially ended the Indian
    threat Indians pushed further west.

Daniel Webster
  • Federalist, spoke against entry into the war.
  • Spoke eloquently on behalf of New England
    manufacturing interests.
  • Webster had ghost written many of John Marshalls

U.S. declares war on Britain in June, 1812
  • Why did U.S. fight Britain when France had
    committed nearly as many maritime offenses?
            1. Traditional Republican (Jeffersonian)
    partiality toward France         2. Visibility
    of British impressments and arming of
    Indians.         3. Lure of British Canada
    timber, fishing, pelts.
  • Resentful New Englanders hurt U.S. war effort.
            1. Believed British actions were old and
    exaggerated wrongs still disliked France
            2. New England merchants making handsome
    profits before the war.         3. Opposed
    acquisition of Canada which would add more
    agrarian states (Jeffersonian).         4. New
    England investors lent more money to Britain than
    to U.S.         5. New England farmers sent
    supplies and foodstuffs to Canada, helping
    Britain to invade New York.         6. New
    England governors refused to permit their
    militias to serve outside their states.

War of 1812
  • Small war -- 6,000 Americans killed or wounded
  • Mostly Canadians fought Americans, very few
  • One of America's most poorly-fought wars on land.
                a. Nation militarily unprepared for
    war             b. Attack on Canada a complete
    failure.             c. Washington, D.C., burned
    by British             d. British nearly won
    large territories in the New York and New
  • National disunity Federalists undermined war
  • U.S. Navy out performed the Royal Navy on the
    Great Lakes
  • Andrew Jackson emerged as a national hero for
    defending New Orleans.
  • War ended in a stalemate, but America gained
    respect diplomatically and militarily
  • Fall of the Federalists Reduction of
  • Large Native-American losses during war.
  • Relinquished vast areas of forested land north of
    the Ohio River.
  • American industry was stimulated by less
    dependence on Br. manufacturing.

Unprepared for War
  • Economy hurt by Embargo Act and non-intercourse
  • Regular army inadequate supplemented by even
    more poorly trained militia.
  • Britain possessed the best navy in the world.
  • British maintained a blockade on American
    Atlantic ports for most of the war which U.S.
    shipping and caused significant opposition to the
  • Jeffersons navy was inadequate.
  • U.S. attack on Canada was a strategic failure
  • Americans falsely believed Canadians would easily
  • 80 of Canadians in Upper Canada (Ontario) were
    post-Revolution Loyalists.
  • If U.S. had concentrated on Montreal, Canada
    would have fallen

  • Napoleon subdued and British concentrated on
    North America.
  • Set fire to most public buildings incl. Capitol
    and the White House.
  • Retaliation for American burning Canadian capital
    at York.
  • Francis Scott Key, Star Spangled Banner

General Jackson
  • Victorious in the Southwest and at New Orleans
  • British strategy in addition to Canada and the
    Atlantic coast was to take the U.S. Gulf Coast
    and New Orleans.
  • Mississippi Creek Indians 400 Americans killed
    General Andrew Jackson retaliated by attacking a
    Creek village and killing 300

Battle of New Orleans
  • Significance Bought time for Jacksons 7,000-man
    army to fortify New Orleans
  • Battle of New Orleans British blundered by
    launching a frontal assault in Jan. 1815
  • Jackson commanded 7,000-man force of sailors,
    regulars, pirates, Frenchmen,  free  blacks
    militiamen from LA, KY and TN
  • Over 2,000 killed wounded in 1/2 hour compared
    to about 70 Americans.
  • Battle of New Orleans resulted in tremendous
    upsurge of American pride and nationalism
  • Jackson became the hero of the West            

Naval Battles
  • Americans didn't have nearly enough large
    warships to challenge Britain at sea.
  • American privateers more effective than the U.S.
    navy (as in Revolutionary War)
  • British manufacturers, merchants, shippers put
    strong pressure on Parliament to end the war due
    to U.S. privateers' damage of Br. shipping.
  • British responded with a crushing blockade along
    America's coast and by landing raiding parties
    almost at will.             a. U.S. economy was
    crippled.             b. U.S treasury was

Treaty of Ghent (1814)
  • Both sides agreed to stop fighting and to restore
    conquered territory.
  • No mention of pre-war U.S. grievances
    impressment, Indian menace, search and seizure,
  • Americans retained right to fish off Canadian
  • Americans rejoiced -- many expected to lose

Hartford Convention
  • New England Federalists and some Republicans
    adamantly opposed to the war.
  • Hartford Convention (Dec. 15, 1814 -- Jan. 5,
  • Purpose Discuss grievances and seek redress
  • Immediate goal to secure financial assistance
    from Washington due to British blockading menace
    on New England shores.
  • A minority of radical delegates urged secession
  • Convention recommended amendments to the
  • End 3/5 Compromise, reduce Southern influence in
  • 2/3 vote for an embargo, admission of western
    states and declaration of war.
  • Limit the term of the President
  • Deny naturalized citizens (usually Republicans)
    right to hold office    

International legacies
  • American hatred of the British and mutual
    suspicion would last for decades.
  • Canadian patriotism and nationalism was boosted
    some say birth of the Canadian nation.
  • Naval arms race between U.S. and Britain began in
    the Great Lakes.
  • Rush-Bagot Treaty (1817)         1. Severely
    limited naval armament on the lakes.         2.
    By 1870, U.S. Canada shared longest unfortified
    border in the world (5,500 mi)
  • Americans no longer worried of European
    intervention in North America.         1. New
    sense of nationality.         2. Turned towards
    settlement of the West.

  • At no period of our political existence had we so
    much cause to felicitate ourselves at the
    prosperous and happy condition of our country.
    -- James Monroe

1812 and Nationalism
  • Madison more popular when leaving office in 1817
    than when he assumed it in 1809
  • Why?
  • Victories, especially Battle of New Orleans
  • Death of the Federalist party reduced
    sectionalism reduced states rights-ism
  • Lessening of economic dependence on Europe
  • Westward expansion optimism about the future
  • Americans coming to regard themselves as
    Americans first and state citizens second.

Henry Clay's American System
  • Remake American politics. But how?
  • BUS, tariffs, internal improvements
  • Second National Bank voted by Congress in 1816.
  • Lack of national backing during the War of 1812
    created a banking vacuum
  • Local banks sprung up all over the country
  • Country flooded by depreciated bank notes that
    hampered the war effort.
  • Jeffersonians supported the revived bank,
    creating political unity           

Looking at HOME Tariff of 1816
  • Purpose protection of American manufacturing
    from British competition.
  • After the war, Brits flooded U.S. with cheap
    goods, often below cost too strangle infant U.S.
  • Americans perceived this as British attempt to
    crush U.S. factories.
  • First protective tariff in U.S. History
  • 20-25 tax on imports, but not high enough to
    eliminate Br. threat

Henry Clays Strategy
  • Tariffs develop a profitable home market.
  • Eastern trade would flourish under protection.
  • Tariff revenues would fund roads and canals in
    the interior, esp. Ohio Valley.
  • Frontier wanted better transportation no roads
  • Foodstuffs, raw materials from the South and West
    would flow into the North and East

Internal Improvements (failure)
  • New England opposed federally constructed roads
    canals would drain away population and create
    competing states in the West.
  • Prior to Civil War, most internal improvements
    (except railroads) were done at the expense of
    state and local governments.
  • Becomes a State vs. Federal issue

Era of Good Feelings (1817-1825)
  • James Monroe elected President in 1816
  • Federalist party extinct, but bad feelings linger
  • Became extremely sectional
  • "Era of Good Feelings" ushered in by Monroe's
    1817 inspection tour of military bases from New
    England to Detroit (term coined by a newspaper
    man covering the tour).
  • Why?

"Era of Good Feelings
  • Misnomer Acute issues troubled the country.
            1. Sectionalism         2. Tariff issue
    (east and south opposed west in favor)        
    3. Internal improvements (east and south opposed
    west in favor)         4. Bank of U.S. (west and
    south opposed eastern bankers in favor)        
    5. Sale of public lands (east opposed west and
    south in favor)        
  • Monroe's presidency oversaw two major events
            1. Panic of 1819         2. Missouri
    Compromise of 1820

Panic of 1819
  • First panic since the "Critical Period" of the
  • Causes
  • Over-speculation on frontier lands by banks
  • Inflation from 1812 war economic drop-off after
  • Significant deficit in balance of trade with
  • Need for reform and pressure for increased
  • Hard hit poor classes looking for more responsive
    gov't (beginnings of Jacksonian democracy)
  • Directed attention to inhumanity of imprisoning
  • Monroe reelected in 1820 with all but one
    electoral vote (nearly unanimous)         --
    Only president in history to be elected after a
    major panic.

The Growing West
  • New states' characteristics         1. No
    long-established history of states' rights
            2. More than other regions, depended on
    federal gov't where it had secured most of its
    land.         3. Melting pot of a wide diversity
    of peoples immigrating from the east.    
  • Maintaining a sectional balance in Congress was a
    supreme goal.

Reasons for explosive westward expansion
  • Cheap lands in the Ohio territory attracted large
    numbers of European immigrants.
  • Land exhaustion in older tobacco states drove
    people westward.
  • Speculators accepted small down payments
  • Economic distress of embargo years
  • Crushing of Indians cleared much of the frontier.
  • Transportation Revolution improved land routes to
    Ohio Valley.
  • Cumberland Road built in 1811 ran from MD to
  • Emergence of the steamboat in 1811 made upstream
    travel possible.
  • Canals beginning in 1826 allowed for increased
    trade between west and east.

The Growing West
  • West still remained weak in population and
  • Forced to ally itself with other sections when
    addressing national political issues.
  • Demanded land reform cheap transportation (got
    it slowly), cheap money issued its own "wildcat"
    banks, fought the powerful Bank of he US to get
    its goals

The Missouri compromise
  • Id rather be right than be president. --
    Henry Clay

Missouri Compromise of 1820
  • http//
  • Missouri asked Congress to enter the union in
  • Tallmadge Amendment passed by the House of
    Representatives in response.             a. No
    more slaves could be brought into Missouri
                b. Gradual emancipation of children
    born to slave parents already there.
  • Southern states viewed Tallmadge Amendment as
    threat to sectional balance.
  • Senate still balanced 11 free to 11 slave states
    parity had to be maintained
  • Jefferson Crisis "a firebell in the night."

Missouri Compromise of 1820
  • Provisions             a. Congress agreed to
    admit Missouri as a slave state.             b.
    Maine was admitted as a free-soil state.
                    -- Balance kept at 12 to 12 for
    the next 15 years.             c. Future slavery
    prohibited north of 36-30' line, the southern
    border of Missouri.
  • Compromise was largely accepted by both sides
                a. South got Missouri            
    b. North won concession that it could forbid
    slavery in the remaining territories above 36-30
  • Northern advantage because Spanish territory in
    southwest prevented significant southern
    expansion westward.
  • Southerners not overly concerned of lands north
    of 36-30 as lands not conducive to slave-labor
    cash crop agriculture.

Legacy of the Compromise
  • Lasted 34 years and preserved the union (until
    the Kansas-Nebraska Act in 1854)
  • Slavery became a dominant issue in American
  • Serious setback to national unity
  • South began to develop a sectional nationalism of
    its own.
  • Looked to the young West for allies
  • Clay criticized by subsequent generations as an
    "appeaser"             a. Yet, nation was
    founded on compromise no one section could
    dominate             b. End of compromise in the
    1850s resulted in civil war.

The Supreme Court
  • We must never forget that it is a constitution we
    are expounding John Marshall

John Marshall and Judicial Nationalism
  • Marshall most important chief justice in U.S.
    history (1801-1835)
  • Increased power of the federal government over
    the states.             a. Created a stable,
    nationally uniform environment for business.
                b. Checked popularly elected state
    legislatures.             c. Found legal
    precedents to support his Federalist views.
  • Jeffersonian attempts to balance the Court with
    Republicans failed.
  • So . . . .
  • Republicans came to accept the Federalist ideal
    of strong central gov't.

Fletcher v. Peck (1810)
  • Protection of property rights against popular
  • Issue Georgia legislature canceled a contract
    granting 35 million acres in the Yazoo River
    country (Miss.) to private speculators, calling
    it graft.
  • Significance Court ruled the Constitution
    forbids state from "impairing contracts".
                a. Court asserting its right to
    invalidate state laws.             b. Court
    stated the legislative grant was a contract

Martin v. Hunters Lessee (1816)
  • Issue Did Supreme Court (as provided for in
    Judiciary Act of 1789) have the right to review
    decisions of state supreme courts where federal
    statutes or treaties were involved?
  • Virginia sought to disregard Treaty of Paris
    (1783) and Jays Treaty (1794) regarding
    confiscation of Loyalist lands.
  • Decision Supreme Court rejected state claims of
    equal sovereignty with the federal govt.
  • Significance Upheld Supremacy Clause of the
    Constitution and federal judicial supremacy over
    the states.

McCulloch v. Maryland (1819)
  • Blow to states' rights
  • Issue Maryland tried to destroy Baltimore branch
    of the BUS by taxing its notes.
  • Marshall declared US bank constitutional
    (doctrine of implied powers -- elastic clause of
    the constitution -- "necessary proper").
  • "Loose construction" given major boost.
  • Argued the Constitution derived from the consent
    of the people and thus permitted the gov't to act
    for their benefit.
  • Denied Maryland the right to tax the bank
    "..that the power to tax involves the power to
    destroy" and "that a power to create implies the
    power to preserve."

Gibbons v. Ogden -- 1824
  • Blow to states' rights
  • Issue NY tried to grant a monopoly of river
    commerce between NY NJ to a private company
    (owned by Ogden). Gibbons had congressional
    approval to conduct business on the same waters.
  • Significance Marshall ruled Constitution
    conferred on Congress alone the right to control
    interstate commerce.
  • Court ruled interstate streams were to regulated
    by Congress, not individual states.

Daniel Webster
  • Influence in Marshalls decisions.
  • Advocated strongly Federalist and nationalist
    views before the Supreme Court.
  • Ghost wrote" some opinions.
  • Classic speeches in the Senate, challenging
    states' rights and nullification

Monroe Doctrine
  • European monarchs, Russia, Austria, Prussia, and
    France -- "Holy Alliance" alarmed at Latin
    American revolutions and European democratic
  • Saw democracy as a threat to absolute monarchy.
  • Americans alarmed at European hostility to
    democracy in Western Hemisphere
  • Great Britain sought an alliance with the U.S. to
    protect its interests in Latin America
  • Br. foreign secretary, George Canning, proposed a
    joint declaration, warning European despots from
    to stay away from Latin American Republics.

(No Transcript)
Monroe Doctrine
  • 1823
  • President's annual message to Congress
    incorporated stern warning to Europeans
  • Colonial  powers could keep their existing
    colonies but gain no new ones.
  • Non-intervention in the Americas let new
    republics govern themselves
  • Directed primarily at Russia, whom the U.S.
    feared would threaten the Pacific coast
  • Nationalistic Americans widely supported the
  • No "entangling alliances.
  • European monarchs angered and offended at U.S.
  • Long-term impact Monroe Docrtine became
    cornerstone of U.S. foreign policy during last
    half of 19th century and throughout 20th century.

  • Americans are not a perfect people, but we are
    called to a perfect mission.
  • Any man worth his salt will stick up for what he
    believes right, but it takes a slightly better
    man to acknowledge instantly and without
    reservation that he is in error.

The "New Democracy"
  • By 1820s, aristocracy  was becoming outmoded
    while democracy was becoming respectable.
  • Politicians now forced to cater to the voting
  • Jeffersonian democracy the people should be
    governed as little as possible.
  • Jacksonian democracy government should be done
    directly by the people.

New Democracy
  • New Democracy based on universal white manhood
    suffrage rather than property qualifications --
    common man now more influential.
  • Between 1812 and 1821, 6 new western states
    granted universal manhood suffrage
  • Between 1810 and 1821, four eastern states
    significantly reduced voting requirements
  • However, blacks in north gradually
    disenfranchised by Civil War only New England
    allowed blacks to vote.
  • New voters demanded a new type of politician that
    would represent common peoples
  • Jackson was the result of the "New Democracy"
    rather than the cause of it
  • Frederick Jackson Turner "The Significance of
    the Frontier on American History"
  • Thesis Existence of cheap land in the West
    created a frontier society that shaped the
    American charactermore democratic and

Rise of workingmens parties
  • Free education for children
  • 10-hr work day
  • End to debtors prisons

Causes of the New Democracy
  • Panic of 1819
  • Workers and farmers blamed bankers (esp. BUS) and
    speculators for foreclosures on their
  • Answer was to get more politically involved,
    especially followers of Andrew Jackson.
  • State laws for prevention of debt imprisonment

The Missouri Compromise
  • Northern opposition to Missouris admission as a
    slave state aroused southern fears the federal
    govt would trample on states' rights.
  • Prime Goal of white southerners Control the
    federal gov't for Souths preservation
  • New Political Age
  • A new two-party system reemerged by 1832
    Democrats vs. National Republicans/Whigs
  • Voter turnout rose dramatically 25 of eligible
    voters in 1824 78 in 1840
  • New style of politicking emerged (esp. in 1840
  • Banners, badges, parades, barbecues, free drinks,
    baby kissing, etc.
  • Voting reform Members of the Electoral College
    were being chosen directly by the people rather
    than state legislatures 18 of 24 states in 1824

Extension of the Missouri Compromise
Election of 1824 "The Corrupt Bargain"
  • Candidates Jackson, Clay, William H. Crawford of
    GA, and J.Q. Adams of Mass. All four rivals were
  • Jackson polled the most popular votes but did
    not have a majority of the electoral vote.
  • 12th Amendment states House of Reps must choose
    among first three finishers   
  • Clay finished 4th but was Speaker of the House
    and in charge of selection. Hated Jackson, his
    archrival for leadership in the West
  • Early 1825, House of Representatives elected
    Adams president.         1. Largely due to
    Clay's behind-the-scenes influence         2.
    Jackson with the largest of the vote lost to
    second place Adams
  • Adams announced Clay as secretary of state a few
    days later
  • Jackson's supporters called the affair the
    "corrupt bargain"

President John Quincy Adams
  • Ranks as one of the great secretaries of state
    but one of the least successful Presidents.   
  • Hated spoils system, but only removed twelve
    public servants from the federal payroll
  • Party workers dismayed that Adams did not reward
    them for their loyalty support
  • Sectionalism increased while the Republican party
    fractured increased hatred of Adams and Clay by

The "Tariff of Abominations" (1828)
  • Biggest issue of Adams presidency
  • Congress had increased the general tariff in 1824
    from 23 on dutiable goods to 37        
  • Jacksonites rigged up a plan for unseating Adams
    by creating a tariff bill that would send duties
    as high as 45 on New England manufactured
    goods.Westerners would blame Adams.        
  • New England pushed for passage of the Tariff of
    1828 anyway and the bill passed.         1. New
    England factory owners sought more protection
    from foreign competition.         2. Daniel
    Webster argued for it reversed his previous
    position in the 1816 tariff         3. John C.
    Calhoun argued against it the tariff would hurt
    the South.
  • Southern reaction strongly negative feared power
    of federal govt was too strong.         1.
    Southerners would suffer both as consumers and
    exporters.         2. John C. Calhoun's"The
    Southern Carolina Exposition"             a.
    Written secretly since Calhoun was Adams
    vice-president             b. Denounced the
    tariff as unjust and unconstitutional
                c. Stated states should nullify the
    tariff (similar to Jeffersons and Madisons
    Virginia and                 Kentucky
    Resolutions of 1798)             d. His desire
    was to save the Union by lowering the divisive
    tariff that offended the South.             e.
    No other state joined South Carolina in her
    heated protest.

Election of 1828
  • Intense mudslinging between the two factions of
    the Republican party         1. National
    Republicans supported J.Q. Adams         2.
    Democratic Republicans supported Jackson
  • Jackson defeated Adams 178 electoral votes to 83
    (pop. vote 647,286 to 508,064)
  • First President from the West seen as a great
    common man
  • Election called "The Revolution of 1828 No
    sitting president had been removed since John
    Adams in 1800
  • Increased voter turnout in universal-white-manhood
    suffrage states was a powerful force. Balance of
    power was shifting from the East to the expanding
  • Jackson was the hero of the working masses.

Andrew Jackson ("Old Hickory")
  • Personified the new West
  • Suspicious of federal gov't as a bastion of
    privilege remote from popular scrutiny
  • Like Jefferson, sought to reduce role of the
    federal govt in favor of states rights
  • Fierce unionist and nationalist (to the dismay of
    the South) federal supremacy over states.
  • At times defied will of Congress and the Supreme
  • Employed the veto 12 times six predecessors
    combined only vetoed 10 times!
  • Opponents condemned him as "King Andrew I"

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Jacksonian Democracy -- politics
  • Increase of manhood suffrage
  • Spoils System Rewarding political supporters
    with public office.            
  • Jackson believed in the ideal of "rotation in
    office" or "turn about is fair play"            
    a. Civil service had in some ways become corrupt
    and ineffective             b. Goal Let as many
    citizens as possible hold office for at least a
    short time.             c. . Swiftest road to
    reform was to remove Adams-Clay appointees with
    loyal Jacksonians, yet, only 20 of incumbents
    were removed.
  • However, set a precedent for "clean sweeps" in
    later administrations.
  • Consequences of the spoils system             a.
    Spoils system begun on a national scale
                b. Many able citizens discouraged to
    hold office.             c. Competence and merit
    as ideals of office were subordinated while
    offices were prostituted to political ends
                d. Scandal accompanied the new
    system             e. A political machine built
    around Jackson resulted.

Webster-Hayne Debate
  • Cause Late 1829, a New England senator
    introduced a bill designed to curb sale of public
  • Western senators furiously defended their
  • Southern senators, seeking allies against the
    Northeast, sided with the West.
  • Stage was set for a showdown in the Senate
  • Webster-Hayne Debate lasted nine days in January,

States Rights . . . Again
  • Condemned disloyalty of New England during the
    War of 1812
  • Condemned New England's selfish inconsistency on
    the protective tariff.
  • Blasted the "Tariff of Abominations" (1828
  • Calhoun's doctrine of nullification only means of
    protecting Southern rights.
  • Preserve the Union by protecting Southern

Websters Response
  • Insisted the people not the states had framed the
    Constitution and blasted the doctrine of
  • "Liberty and Union, now and forever, one and
  • Result of the Debate each side believed its
    champion had won.
  • Impact of Webster's Response
  • Many credit Webster for helping win the Civil War
    by arousing the new generation of northerners to
    fight for the ideal of Union.

Jefferson Day Toast (1830)
  • Southern strategy was to devise a series of
    toasts in honor of Jefferson that would lead
    toward states' rights and nullification.
  • Plotters assumed Jackson would be swept along by
    the toasts and commiserate.
  • Jackson received word of the plot and carefully
    prepared his response.
  • Jackson "Our Union It must be preserved!
  • Calhoun replied "The union, next to our liberty,
    most dear!"

Peggy Eaton Affair
  • Snubbed by the wives of Jackson's cabinet members
    especially by wife of Calhoun.
  • Jackson, remembering his late wife, defended Mrs.
  • Jackson began purging Calhouns allies in the
    cabinet in 1831.
  • In reality, this issue was minor
  • Tariffs were the major immediate issue between
    Jackson and Calhoun
  • Jackson learned Calhoun had criticized him during
    his earlier Florida campaign against Spain
    Seminoles when Calhoun was Sec. of War.
  • It was a convenient excuse for retaliation

Tariff Controversy of 1832
  • major wedge between Calhoun and Jackson
  • Calhoun resigned in 1832         1. Became a
    leader in the Senate and champion of states
    rights and South Carolina.
  • Up until this time, Calhoun had publicly been a
    strong nationalist.    
  • Now, a sectionalist
  • Rigorously protected slavery and states rights
  • Concurrent majority" plan
  • U.S. would have two presidents one representing
    the majority (North)    and one representing the
    minority (South).
  • Each would have veto power over Congress
  • Only way to protect stability

Nullification controversy of 1832
  • If the Union is once severed, the line of
    separation will grow wider and wider, and the
    controversies which are now debated and settled
    in the halls of legislation will then be tried in
    fields of battle and determined by the sword. --
    Andrew Jackson

Tariff of 1832
  • Tariff of 1832         1. Jackson attempted to
    improve tariff to conciliate the south by
    lowering the            Tariff of 1828. Lowered
    duties to 35 from about 45, or the 1824 level
  • South Carolina nullified Tariff of 1832
  • Called upon state legislature to make necessary
    military preparations
  • Secede if Jackson attempted c force.
  • Jackson's reaction
  • Dispatched modest naval and military
    reinforcements to SC while preparing sizable army
  • proclamation against nullification
  • Henry Clay proposed a compromise
  • Tariff would be reduced by 10 over eight years.
  • Force Bill passed by Congress as face-saving
  • Authorized president in the future to use army
    and navy to collect federal tariffs if necessary.

  • Victory for both sides Neither Jackson nor the
    "nullies" clearly triumphed
  • Stepping stone to Civil War
  • SC gradually abandoned nullification in favor of
    secession by 1860.

Election of 1832
  • Henry Clay (National Republican) vs. Jackson--
    (Democrat)         1. Jackson earlier favored a
    one-term presidency cronies convinced him to
    stay.         2. Clay was War Hawk and Senator.
  • Clays Advantage Funded by easterners BUS,
    supported by Daniel Webster
  • Urbane, polished, good publicity
  • Jackson d. Clay 219-49 in Electoral College
    687,502 to 530,189 in popular vote.
  • Jackson had the support of the masses
    overwhelmed the vote of the rich.

New political features
  • Anti-Masonic party became the first 3rd party in
    an American presidential election.
  • Opposed secrecy
  • Masons recruited upwardly mobile middle-class
    professionals, business leaders, and politicians
  • Masons accused of gaining economically at the
    expense of the masses.
  • Anti-Masonic party attracted evangelical groups
    eager to fuse moral religious reforms with
    politics (e.g. keeping Sabbath Day holy.)

Jacksonian Democracy
  • Based on states rights and economic advantage
    for the common man
  • Divorce government from the economy         1.
    Anti-monopoly the common man should have a
    chance to succeed economically.         2.
    Return to Jeffersonian democracy -- govts role
    should be limited         3. Give more power to
    states to promote equality of opportunity.

End of the Bank of the United States (BUS)
  • "The Bank... is trying to kill me, but I will
    kill it.
  • vetoed BUS's charter in 1832 plutocratic,
    monopolistic and unconstitutional.
  • Felt bank only benefitted wealthy message
    appealed to the masses.
  • "Pet banks" scheme
  • Removed federal deposits from the BUS and placed
    them in 23 state "pet banks

General incorporation laws
  • During Jacksons presidency and beyond, states
    made incorporation much easier, spurring the
    economy with small and medium-sized businesses.
  • limited liability business owners were now
    allowed to be a separate entity from their
    corporation. Thus if the corporation went
    bankrupt, the business owner still kept his

Maysville Road veto
  • Congress passed bill funding improvement
  • Jackson favored states rights
  • Refused to spend federal money for intrastate
    improvements (e.g. roads canals)
  • Vetoed bill

Indian Removal
  • Transplanting Native American Tribes
  • Jackson felt it unwise to regard the tribes as
    separate nations within individual states.
  • Indian Removal Act (1830)
  • removal of Five Civilized Nations Cherokee,
    Creek, Choctaw, Chickasaw and to Indian Territory
  • Voluntary Individual Indians might remain if
    they adopted white ways.
  • 100,000 uprooted and moved in 1830s
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The Cherokee
  • Sequoya created Cherokee syllabic alphabet (85
  • Cherokee had own newspaper, Cherokee Phoenix
  • constitution similar to U.S. similar electoral
  • Agriculture-based economy
  • Bad news Cherokee nation sat on valuable land in
    NE Georgia
  • Land could be used for cotton coveted by
    land-hungry white farmers
  • Cherokee Nation v. Georgia, 1831
  • Cherokee tried to stop a Georgia declaration that
    Cherokee laws were null void.
  • Supreme Court ruled that though Cherokee lacked
    jurisdiction over land, it was a "domestic
    dependent, nation" possessing some sovereignty,
    but not an independent nation.

Worcester v. Georgia (1832)
  • John Marshall ruled that Georgias laws had no
    jurisdiction inside Cherokee territory
  • Samuel Worcester was a missionary living with the
    Cherokee for years but was forced by GA to take
    an oath of allegiance or leave Cherokee land he
    refused and was arrested
  • Jackson "John Marshall has made his decision
    let him enforce it if he can.
  • Jackson did nothing. Cherokee realized their fate
    when Jackson flouted the authority of the Supreme

Trail of Tears
  • 1838 -- 18,000 Cherokees forcibly removed from
    their homes and marched 1,000 miles to Indian
    Territory (Oklahoma).
  • 4,000 died from malnutrition, exposure, cholera,
    harsh treatment.
  • Earlier, 25 of Choctaws died en route to Indian
    Territory between 1831-1835
  • 3,500 of 15,000 Creeks died during removal in

Indian Wars
  • Black Hawk War (1832)         1. Illinois
    Wisconsin         2. Crushed by U.S. troops
            3. Area west of Lake Michigan became
    open for white settlement.
  • Seminoles in Florida
  • ordered to merge with their old enemy -- the
    Creek -- and be relocated.
  • Refused as Creek were slave owners many
    Seminoles had escaped Creek slavery.
  • Second Seminole War ( 1835-1842) 1,500 U.S.
    soldiers dead
  • about 3,000 (80) were forcibly moved to
    Oklahoma 3,000 still survive today

The Birth of Texas
  • "Texas has yet to learn submission to any
    oppression. Sam Houston

Desire for Land
  • Americans coveted Texas
  • 1823 independent Mexico granted Stephen Austin
    what is today Texas.
  • Immigrants were to be Catholic and properly
  • Restrictions were largely ignored by Americans
  • Friction between Mexicans and Americans over
    issues of slavery, immigration, local rights
  • Mexico emancipated its slaves in 1830 and
    prohibited importation into Texas.
  • Prohibited further settlement by Americans.
  • Texans refused , settlers continued to bring
  • In 1835, Mexican dictator Santa Anna erased all
    local rights and raised an army to suppress

Texas Independence
  • 1836 -- Sam Houston, commander in chief        
    1. Santa Anna and 6,000 man army and swept
    through Texas.         2. Killed 342 American
    volunteers.         3. Trapped and killed all
    Americans at the Alamo
  • Houston's army victorious at San Jacinto
  • American aid important to Texas' fight for
  • America's neutrality laws overshadowed by public
    opinion which nullified existing legislation
  • Mexicans complained US obligated to honor its
    international neutrality law

Jackson's dilemma
  • To recognize Texas was to touch off explosive
    slavery issue
  • Recognized Texas the day before he left office in
  • Texas officially petitioned to be annexed
  • Antislavery crusaders in the North opposed it.
  • Southerners welcomed idea of annexation.
  • Texas left to protect itself             a.
    Feared reprisals from Santa Anna             b.
    Courted British and French for aid.            
    c. Houston became the first president of the
    Independent Republic of Texas.

Election of 1836
  • Birth of the Whigs (heirs of Hamiltons
    Federalist ideas)
  • Emerged when Clay and Calhoun joined forces
  • Mutual hatred of Jackson "King Andrew I"
  • Evolved into a national political party of groups
    alienated by Jackson.

  • Democrats
  • Whigs
  • Supported by the common people and machine
    politicians in the East
  • States Rights opposed to "American System"
  • Favored spoils system
  • Anti-monopolyfavored increased competition
  • Believed federal govt should not be involved in
    peoples personal lives
  • Supported by northern industrialists and
  • Sought to reduce the spoils system
  • Southern states rights advocates angry at
    Jacksons stand on nullification
  • Evangelicals from Anti-Masonic party joined
  • Later supported moral reforms prohibition of
    alcohol and abolition of slavery
  • Sought to use national govt to solve societies
    problems (over states rights issues)
  • Many Whig principles became the foundation for
    the modern-day Republican party

Election of 1840 William Henry Harrison
  • Martin Van Buren
  • Jackson decided not to run for a third term.
  • Van Buren def. Harrison 170-73 765,483 to
    739,795 in popular vote.

Jacksons legacy
Jackson's Legacy
  • Positive Contributions         1. strong
    executive leadership         2. champion of the
    common people in politics         3. United
    followers into powerful Democratic Party
  • Liabilities         1. spoils system         2.
    Killing the BUS resulted in thousands of bank
    failures         3. Trail of Tears.         4.
    Cabinet crisis and break with Calhoun resulted in
    increased sectionalism.

Van Buren's presidency
  • Patronage policies
  • 4 years of turmoil and trouble
  • Rebellion in Canada threatened war with Britain
  • Antislavery northerners condemning prospective
    annexation of Texas.
  • Panic of 1837

Panic of 1837
  • Most important cause over-speculation
  • Land speculators in the West borrowed heavily
    from "wildcat banks.
  • Speculation spread to canals, roads, and slaves.
  • Unable to pay back loans causing bank failures
  • Flour Riot Crop failures forced high grain
  • Failure of two major British banks causes English
    investors to call in foreign loans.

  • American banks collapsed
  • Commodity prices and sale of public land fell
  • customs revenues dried up.
  • Factories closed unemployment soared.    
  • Van Buren's Jacksonian philosophy of limited
    gov't involvement thwarted action.

Treasury Bill of 1840 ("Divorce Bill")
  • Van Buren was convinced that part of the problem
    was due to federal funds being given to private
  • Used Jacksonian principle of "divorcing" gov't
    from banks altogether.
  • Independent Treasury System established where
    gov't could lock its surplus in vaults in several
    of the larger cities.
  • Funds were safe but also denied the banking
    system reserves which shriveled available credit
  • Policy condemned by the Whigs and repealed next
    year when they won the presidency.            
    -- Reenacted in 1846 by victorious Democrats

Election of 1840
  • Van Buren re-nominated by Democrats
  • Whigs once again chose William H. Harrison over
    both Clay and Webster
  • Whigs created false myths about Harrison being a
    poor farmer from a log cabin Log Cabin and
    Hard Cider"
  • Voters blamed the depression on Van Buren
  • Harrison defeats Van Buren
  • Significance         1. First mass-turnout
    election in American history         2.
    Propaganda and silly slogans set unfortunate
    example for future campaigns.         3. Liberty
    Party, 1st anti-extension of slavery party

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