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The Anglo-Saxons

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Title: The Anglo-Saxons


1
The Anglo-Saxons
  • 449-1066
  • English 12 Honors
  • Mr. Raber

2
Geography 1
  • GREAT BRITIAN,
  • or simply Britain,
  • is an island comprising
  • England
  • Scotland
  • Wales.

3
Geography 2
  • The modern
  • nation known as the
  • UNITED KINGDOM
  • (The entire light brown region)
  • includes
  • Great Britain
  • Northern Ireland,
  • Several smaller islands.

4
Geography 3
  • Collectively,
  • this group of large
  • and small islands is
  • also known as the
  • BRITISH ISLES.

5
Invaders/Settlers
  • The island of Great Britain has been
    invaded
  • and settled by numerous groups of
    people
  • Iberians Celts Romans Angles,
    Saxons, and Jutes
  • (Anglo-Saxons)
  • Danes/Vikings Normans

6
The Iberians
  • The earliest settlers in Britain were called
    IBERIANS because it is thought they originally
    came from the Iberian Peninsula.

this is the peninsula of
present-day Portugal and
Spain
7
The Celts (K)
  • Among the Celts was a group called the
    BRYTHONSsometimes called Britons.

Brython flag
  • Their name was later adopted for the land
    name as BRITAIN.

8
The Celts
  • The religion of the Celts was a form of ANIMISM
  • ANIMISM the Latin word for Spirit
  • ANIMISM belief in the existence of spirits
  • separable from bodies

9
The Celts
  • The Celts saw SPIRITS everywhere, and these
    spirits, or gods, controlled all aspects of
    existence.

10
The Celts
  • The Celts believed these spirits/gods had to be
    constantly satisfied
  • sometimes this even made human sacrifice
    necessary (

11
The Celts
  • Priests, called DRUIDS, acted as intermediaries
    between the gods and the people.

Some think Stonehenge was used by the Druids for
certain religious functions
12
Celtic Myths
  • The Celtic myths influenced many British and
    Irish writers such as
  • Sir Thomas Malory and William Butler Yeats.
  • These myths were unlike later Anglo-Saxon stories
    in various ways.
  • - For example, unlike the male-dominated
    Anglo-Saxon stories, the Celtic legends are full
    of strong women.

13
The Romans
  • Beginning in 55 B.C., under the leadership of
    Julius Caesar, the Romans began to invade.

Julius Caesar
14
The Romans
  • Nearly 100 years later, under Emperor Claudius,
    the Celts were finally conquered.

Emperor Claudius
15
The Romans
  • The Romans provided the armies and organization
    that prevented further serious invasions of
    Britain for several hundred years.

The Romans were strong and SMART!
16
Thus
  • Mr. Raber must be a Roman

17
The Romans
  • They built a network of roads
  • (some still used today)

They also built a defensive wall 73 miles long
18
The Romans
  • During Roman rule, CHRISTIANITY took hold under
    the leadership of European missionaries.
  • Christianity later became a UNIFYING force among
    the people.
  • The old Celtic religion began to vanish.

19
The Roman Downfall
  • Despite the strong leadership and government of
    the Romans, due to troubles at home, they
    evacuated all of their troupes out of Britain by
    A.D. 409.

Romans
20
The Separated Britain
  • Without Roman control, Britain was a country full
    of separate clans.

Unity was gone
21
The Weak Britain
  • The resulting weakness made the island prime for
    a series of SUCCESSFUL INVASIONS by non-Christian
    peoples from the Germanic regions of continental
    Europe.

WEAK
22
THE INVADERS
  • The ANGLES and SAXONS from Germany and JUTES from
    Denmark invaded across the North Sea.
  • They drove out the old Britons and settled the
    greater part of Britain.

23
CHANGE
  • The LANGUAGE of the Anglo-Saxons became the
    dominant language
  • The Angles also changed the name of the land from
    Britain to.
  • Engla land and eventually ENGLAND

24
Anglo-Saxon England
  • Was not any more unified than Celtic Britain had
    been until King Alfred of Wessex, ALFRED THE
    GREAT, led the Anglo-Saxons against the invading
    DANES, one of the Viking invaders from the cold
    North.

Alfred the Great
Viking Invaders
25
The Danes
  • Eventually, the Danes, plundering and destroying
    anything in their path
  • Took over and settled in parts of northeast and
    central England

26
Christianity Unity
  • It is possible even King Alfred would not have
    been able to unify the Anglo-Saxons without the

REEMERGENCE
OF CHRISTIANITY
27
Christianity
  • Christianity provided
  • a COMMON FAITH

2) COMMON SYSTEM OF MORALITY and
PROPER CONDUCT.
28
Christianity
  • Christianity also LINKED England to Europe.
  • Under Christianity and Alfred, the Anglo-Saxons
    fought to protect their people, their culture,
    and their church from the ravages of the Danes.

29
Later
  • Both the Anglo-Saxons and the Danes were DEFEATED
    in 1066 by William, duke of Normandy (The
    NORMANS).

Battle of Hastings
30
Transition
  • OKso we know the succession of differing
    peoples/groups leading up to, and after, the
    Anglo-Saxons

Iberians Celts Romans Angles,
Saxons, and Jutes (Anglo-Saxons) Danes/Viki
ngs Normans
31
Now
  • Let us focus our attention back on the
  • ANGLO-SAXONS since that is the time period we are
    studying, and the time period that Beowulf was
    often recited in.

Different depictions of Beowulf
32
Side Note
  • The new Beowulf movie is not exactly the same as
    the epic we will be reading
  • Sorry guysno Angelina Jolie
  • Sorry girlsno bulging abs

Censor Box
Censor Box
33
Sutton Hoo The Anglo-Saxons
  • In 1939 a treasure laden ship-grave was found in
    Sutton Hoo, Suffolk, England
  • This Sutton Hoo treasure ship is said to have
    been buried for 1300 yrs.

Helmet
Ship Dig
34
Thus
  • The treasures of Sutton Hoos ship showed that
    the Anglo-Saxons were NOT barbarians

Sutton Hoo Ship Treasures
35
Anglo-Saxon Life
  • Even though the treasures proved them not
    barbarians
  • The Anglo-Saxons did not lead a life of luxury
  • Nor were their lives dominated by learning or the
    arts

36
Anglo-Saxon Life
  • Instead, WARFARE was the order of the day
  • As displayed in Beowulf, for the Anglo-Saxons,
    law and order were the responsibility of the
    leader of any given group
  • Groups Family, Clan, Tribe, or Kingdom

37
Anglo-Saxon Life
  • Fame and success, even survival, were gained only
    through loyalty to the leader
  • Success was measured in gifts from the leader
  • This WILL be seen in Beowulf

38
Anglo-Saxon Life
  • This pattern of loyal dependency was basic to
    Anglo-Saxon life
  • Such loyalty grew out of a need to protect the
    group from the terrors of an enemy infested
    wilderness (Grendel)
  • A wilderness that became particularly frightening
    during the long, bone-chilling nights of winter

39
Anglo-Saxon Life
  • Anglo-Saxons tended to live
  • close to their animals in single-family
    homesteads
  • these homesteads were wooden buildings that
    surrounded a communal court or warm, fire-lit
    chieftains hall.
  • This cluster of buildings was protected by a
    wooden stockade fence

40
Anglo-Saxon Life
Reconstructed Anglo-Saxon Buildings
41
Anglo-Saxon Life
  • This arrangement, which WILL be seen in Beowulf,
    contributed to a sense of security and to the
    close relationship between leader and followers
  • It also encouraged community discussion and rule
    by consensus

42
More on Religion 1
  • Despite the influence of Christianity, some of
    the old Anglo-Saxon religion, with its warrior
    gods, persisted
  • The Anglo-Saxon religion that remained was a
    dark, fatalistic religion, that had been brought
    from Germany and is believed to have much in
    common with Norse or Scandinavian mythology

43
More on Religion 2
  • Norse Gods
  • Odin the god of death, poetry, and magic
  • The Anglo-Saxon name for Odin was Woden
    (Wodens dayWednesday)

Odin/Woden
44
More on Religion 3
  • Norse Gods
  • Thunor the god of thunder and lightning
  • The Anglo-Saxon name for Thunor was Thor
    (Thors dayThursday)

Thunor/Thor
45
Also
  • Another significant figure in Anglo-Saxon
    mythology is the dragon
  • The dragon is the personification of death and
    devourer
  • The dragon is also the guardian of the grave
    mound in which a warriors ashes and treasure lay

46
Overall
  • The Anglo-Saxon religion seems to have been more
    concerned with ethics than mysticism
  • More specifically, they were concerned with the
    earthly virtues of bravery, loyalty, generosity,
    and friendship

47
The Singing of Gods and Heroes
  • Not only did the Anglo-Saxon communal hall
    provide a place for shelter
    and council meetings
  • But also, it provided spaces for storytellers and
    their audiences

48
The Singing of Gods and Heroes
  • These skilled storytellers/bards (such as the
    storytellers in Homeric Greece more than 1,000
    years earlier) sang of gods and heroes
  • The Anglo-Saxons called these storytellers scops

49
The Singing of Gods and Heroes
  • These scops were held in the same superiority as
    warriors
  • The Anglo-Saxons felt creating poetry was as
    important as fighting, hunting, farming, or
    loving

50
Death Poetry
  • For the non-Christian Anglo-Saxon, life is hard,
    ends only in death, and there is no hope of an
    afterlife
  • Thus, only fame, and its commemoration in poetry
    could provide a defense against death and a sense
    of lasting immortality.
  • Hence, why bards were considered so important

51
Also
  • Unlike England and the rest of Europe in the 5th
    century
  • Ireland was not overrun by Germanic invaders
  • Then, in 432, the whole of Celtic Ireland was
    converted to Christianity

52
Ireland Continued
  • From 432-750 while England sank into constant
    warefare, confusion, and ignorance
  • Ireland experienced a golden age
  • Winston Churchill stated that is was in Ireland
    that Christianity burned and gleamed through the
    darkness

53
Ireland Continued
  • Christian Irish monks founded monasteries that
    became sanctuaries of learning for refugee
    scholars from Europe and England
  • These monasteries existed right alongside the
    older Anglo-Saxon religion

Remember, printing was still 800 yrs. away in
England
54
The Link
  • In fact, the Christian monks in the monasteries
    preserved not only the Latin and Greek classics
    but also some of the great Anglo-Saxon
    literature/ stories, such as Beowulf, that were
    being told by the scops

55
The Rise of the English Language
  • Latin alone remained the language of serious
    study in England until the time of King Alfred
  • Alfred instituted the Anglo-Saxon Chronicle

56
Anglo-Saxon Chronicle
  • This was a lengthy running history of England
  • Partly because of King Alfreds efforts, English
    began to gain respect as a language of culture
  • Thus, the chronicle displayed some use of
    English/Old English (Old English The language
    Beowulf was composed in)

57
Finally
  • Any

Questions?
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