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Pregnancy and Prenatal Development

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Title: Pregnancy and Prenatal Development


1
Child Development Unit 2
  • Pregnancy and Prenatal Development

2
What do you imagine your life with children will
be like?
3
How do you think that compares to reality?
4
Unit 2 Vocabulary
  • 1. Abstinence - refraining from sexual
    intercourse until marriage
  • 2. Amniocentesis - a prenatal test using a sample
    of amniotic fluid to check for birth defects
  • 3. Amniotic Fluid - liquid that surrounds and
    protects the developing baby in the uterus during
    pregnancy

5
Unit 2 Vocabulary
  • 4. Birth Defect - problem's babies are born with
    which threaten their health or ability to live
  • 5. Cerebral Palsy - problems of the motor system
    that can include lack of coordination, stiffness,
    jerkiness, difficulty with speech, and paralysis
  • 6. Chromosomes - carry the genes that convey
    hereditary characteristics

6
Unit 2 Vocabulary
  • 7. Chronic Villa Sampling - a prenatal test for
    specific birth defects performed by sampling
    small amounts of the tissue from the membrane
    around the fetus
  • 8. Cleft Palate - a gap in the upper lip or
    palate that causes problems with eating,
    swallowing, speech and appearance
  • 9. Conception - union of an ovum and sperm,
    resulting in the beginning of a pregnancy
  • 10.Cystic Fibrosis - affects the respiratory and
    digestive systems many children die before
    reaching adulthood

7
Unit 2 Vocabulary
  • 11.Dominant Genes - the genes that dictate the
    way a trait is expressed
  • 12.Down Syndrome - a group of problems that
    include mental retardation, problems of the
    heart, blood and digestive system and poor muscle
    tone
  • 13.Fetal Alcohol Syndrome (FAS) - a birth defect
    that occurs because a mother drinks alcohol
    during pregnancy

8
Unit 2 Vocabulary
  • 14.Fertility - the ability to conceive a child
  • 15.Genes - units that determine inherited
    characteristics
  • 16.Genetic Counseling - medical advice that tells
    a couple the options and risks of having genetic
    problems in their children

9
Unit 2 Vocabulary
  • 17.Hydrocephalus - an excess of fluid surrounds
    the brain, causing brain damage.
  • 18.Infertility - the inability to conceive a
    child
  • 19.Maternity Leave - time off from work that
    allows a mother to give birth, recover, and begin
    to care for a new baby
  • 20.Miscarriage - the unexpected death of a
    developing baby before 20 weeks of pregnancy

10
Unit 2 Vocabulary
  • 21.Muscular Dystrophy - there are different types
    that involve a progressive weakness and shrinking
    of the muscles the most common form begins
    between the ages of 2 and 6
  • 22.Ovum - female sex cell, or egg
  • 23.Paternity leave - time off from work that
    allows a father to care for a new baby
  • 24.Period of Embryo - the developing baby from
    conception until the second week of pregnancy

11
Unit 2 Vocabulary
  • 25.Period of Fetus - the developing baby from the
    8th or 9th week of pregnancy until birth
  • 26.Phenylketonuria (PKU) - a condition in which
    the body is unable to process and use a specific
    protein
  • 27.Placenta - a tissue in the uterus of a
    pregnant woman that brings food and oxygen from
    the mother's body to a developing baby
  • 28.Pregnancy - the time of life from conception
    until birth

12
Unit 2 Vocabulary
  • 29.Prenatal - the time before the baby is
    born
  • 30.Recessive Genes - genes that are expressed as
    a trait only if paired with a matching recessive
    gene
  • 31.Sickle Cell Anemia - malformed red blood cells
    that interfere with the supply of oxygen to all
    parts of the body which can lead to early
    death

13
Unit 2 Vocabulary
  • 32.Sperm - the male sex cell needed for
    reproduction
  • 33.Spina Bifida - an incompletely formed spinal
    cord may lead to stiff joints, difficulty moving
    the legs, partial paralysis and problems with the
    kidneys and urinary tract
  • 34.Sexually Transmitted Diseases (STD) - an
    illness spread from one person to another by
    sexual contact
  • 35.Stillbirth - the unexpected death of a
    developing baby after 20 weeks of pregnancy

14
Unit 2 Vocabulary
  • 36.Tay-Sachs Disease - lacking a certain chemical
    in the blood that makes children's bodies unable
    to process and use fats (which leads to severe
    brain damage and to death, usually by age four)
  • 37.Ultrasound - a prenatal test using sound waves
    to make a picture of the unborn child
  • 38.Umbilical Cord - tube that connects the
    placenta to the unborn child which nourishes it,
    gives it oxygen, and takes away wastes
  • 39.Uterus - reproductive organ in a woman in
    which a baby develops

15
Child Development Chapter 4 p. 117-125
  • Objectives
  • List STDs most likely to affect the health of an
    unborn baby and mother (2.6)
  • Identify the symptoms and treatment of STDs
    (2.6.1)
  • Name risks due to teen pregnancy (2.10)
  • Discuss cost of teen pregnancy to society (2.11)

16
Sexuality
  • Sexualitypersons view of himself or herself as
    male or female
  • Sexuality is shown by the way people walk, talk,
    move, dress and laugh
  • During teen years, you develop your sexuality.
  • Hormoneschemicals in body, shape these changes

17
Sexualitynot Sex
  • Just because you express yourself as male/female
    does not mean that you have to have sex.
  • Peer pressureinfluence of others to do things
    you dont want to do
  • Pressure comes from the media as well.

18
Valueswhat are yours?
  • The values you have will help you make wise
    decisions concerning how to express your
    sexuality.
  • Remember, the values you have, may not be the
    values that others have.
  • Just because its popular doesnt mean its right.

19
Consequences of Sexual Activity
  • Pregnancy and STDS
  • STDsSexually transmitted diseases
  • Each year there are 12 MILLION cases of STDs
    reported in the USA
  • About 3 MILLION of these cases are in teens
  • It's estimated that 1 in every 4 sexually active
    teens gets at least one STD!
  • All are preventable--ABSTINENCE

20
Objective 1
  • List STDs most likely to affect the health of an
    unborn baby and mother (2.6)

21
STDs Affecting Unborn Babies
  • Illnesses spread from one person to another by
    sexual contact
  • Some can be passed from pregnant woman to unborn
    child
  • Can result in serious illness, deformity, or death

2.6
22
STDs Affecting Unborn Babies
  • Syphilis
  • Gonorrhea
  • Hepatitis B
  • Genital Herpes
  • AIDS
  • Group B Streptococcus
  • Chlamydia

2.6
23
STDs Affecting Unborn Babies
  • Syphilis
  • Most doctors test all women
  • Some states require test
  • Gonorrhea
  • Can cause blindness
  • Babys eyes treated with solution to kill
    gonorrhea germs

2.6
24
STDs Affecting Unborn Babies
  • AIDS
  • Moms with AIDS may pass it to their babies
  • Doctors treat mothers with drugs to reduce
    childs risk
  • Baby also treated
  • Early testing CRITICAL

2.6
25
STDs Affecting Unborn Babies
STD Symptom Treatment Mother Baby
Chlamydia Pain when urinating, cramps or no symptoms Antibiotics Sterility ---
Genital herpes Open sores on organs, painful urination, fever No cure Painful urination and sex Brain damage or teach
Gonorrhea Burning, itching, discharge Antibiotics Sterility, arthritis, heart problems Eye damage, premature labor, stillbirth
Syphilis Sores on sex organs, fevers, rashes, hair loss Antibiotics Insanity and death Insanity and death
AIDS Caused by HIV Once its AIDS, no cure Weakens immune system Weakens immune system
2.6
26
Objective 2
  • Identify the symptoms and treatment of STDs
    (2.6.1)
  • Chlamydia
  • Genital herpes
  • Syphilis
  • Gonorrhea
  • HIV/AIDS

27
Common STDs
  • See page 121
  • About 1 in 4 teens get an STD every year.
  • Chlamydia and Gonorrhea are more common among
    teens than older men and women
  • AIDS has been made more popular due to
    high-profile people acquiring it.

28
Gonorrhea
  • Gonorrhea is a bacterium that can cause
    sterility, arthritis, and heart problems.
  • In women, gonorrhea can cause pelvic inflammatory
    disease (PID), which can result in ectopic
    pregnancy or sterility.
  • During pregnancy, gonorrhea infections can cause
    premature labor and stillbirth.

29
Common Symptoms of Gonorrhea
  • Women frequent, often burning, urination
    menstrual irregularities, pelvic or lower
    abdominal pain pain during sex or pelvic
    examination a yellowish or yellow-green
    discharge from the vagina swelling or tenderness
    of the vulva and even arthritic pain.
  • Men a pus-like discharge from the urethra or
    pain during urination

30
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31
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32
  • 80 of the women and 10 of the men with
    gonorrhea show no symptoms.
  • If they appear at all, symptoms occur in women
    within 10 days.
  • It takes from one to 14 days for symptoms to
    appear in men.

33
Herpes
  • There are two forms of genital herpes herpes
    simplex virus-1 and herpes simplex virus-2.
  • Although herpes-1 is most often associated with
    cold sores and fever blisters, both forms of
    herpes may be sexually transmitted.
  • In fact, most adults have herpes simplex virus
    (HSV), either type 1 or type 2, or both.

34
Common Symptoms of Herpes
  • A recurring rash with clusters of itchy or
    painful blistery sores appearing on the vagina,
    cervix, penis, mouth, anus, buttocks, or
    elsewhere on the body painful ulcerations that
    occur when blisters break open.
  • The first outbreak may cause pain and discomfort
    around the infected area, itching, burning
    sensations during urination, swollen glands in
    the groin, fever, headache, and a general
    run-down feeling.

35
More than 45,000,000 Americans have been
diagnosed with genital herpes. At least
1,000,000 new cases are diagnosed every
year. Like many other viruses, the HSV remains
in the body for life.
36
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37
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38
Chlamydia
  • Common Symptoms
  • Discharge from the penis or vagina
  • Pain or burning while urinating, frequent
    urination
  • Excessive vaginal bleeding
  • Painful intercourse for women
  • Spotting between periods or after intercourse
  • Abdominal pain, nausea, fever
  • Inflammation of the rectum or cervix
  • Swelling or pain in the testicles

39
FACT
  • 75 of women
  • 50 of men with Chlamydia have no symptoms.

40
How Chlamydia is spread
  • Vaginal and anal intercourse
  • From the birth canal to the fetus
  • Rarely (but possible) from the hand to the eye
  • Rarely (but possible) during oral sex

41
Pubic Lice
  • Common symptoms
  • Intense itching in the genitals or anus
  • Mild fever
  • Feeling run down
  • Irritability
  • Lice or small egg sacks nits in pubic hair
  • Itching usually begins five days after
    infestation begins. Some people don't itch and
    don't know they are infested.

42
How pubic lice are spread
  • Contact with infected bedding, clothing,
    upholstered furniture, and toilet seats
  • Intimate and sexual contact

43
Treatment
  • Everyone who may have been exposed to pubic lice
    should be treated at the same time. All bedding,
    towels, and clothing that may have been exposed
    should be thoroughly washed or dry cleaned, and
    the home should be vacuumed.
  • Protection Limit the number of intimate and
    sexual contacts.

44
Scabies
  • The scabies mite burrows under the skin. It can
    hardly be seen with the naked eye. It belongs to
    the same family as the spider.
  • It is usually sexually transmitted. However,
    school children often pass it to one another
    through casual contact.

45
Common symptoms
  • Intense itching usually at night
  • Small bumps or rashes that appear in
    dirty-looking, small curling lines, especially on
    the penis, between the fingers, on buttocks,
    breasts, wrists, thighs, and around the navel

46
How scabies is spread
  • Close personal contact
  • Bedding and clothing
  • Protection Limit the number of intimate and
    sexual contacts.

47
Objective 3
  • Name risks due to teen pregnancy (2.10)
  • Health
  • Low birth weight
  • Premature labor
  • Miscarriage and Higher stillbirth rates
  • Anemic
  • Education
  • Financial
  • Child Support
  • Emotional and Social
  • Social Stigmas

48
Pregnancy
  • Four main problems for TEENS
  • 1. Health Risks
  • 2. Educationlack there of
  • 3. Financial problems
  • 4. Emotional and social stress

49
Risks of Teen Pregnancy
  • Health Risks
  • Moms body not ready for demands of pregnancy
  • More likely to suffer from anemia (iron
    deficiency) and hypertension (high blood
    pressure)
  • Difficulty providing nutrients for mom AND baby

2.10
50
Risks of Teen Pregnancy
  • Health Risks (cont)
  • Increased risk of premature birth and low birth
    weight
  • May result in learning difficulties
  • Babies of teens more likely to die before 1st
    birthday

2.10
51
Risks of Teen Pregnancy
  • Educational Risk
  • Causes many teens to drop out of school
  • Nearly half who leave never complete their
    education
  • Difficulty finding employment

2.10
52
Risks of Teen Pregnancy
  • Financial Risk
  • Cost of medical care
  • Child care expense
  • Food, clothing, housing, health care
  • Child support

2.10
53
Risks of Teen Pregnancy
  • Emotional and Social Costs
  • Stress on relationships
  • Lack of support from friends
  • Difficulty connecting with peers
  • Inability to participate in extra-curricular
    activities

2.10
54
Objective 4
  • Discuss cost of teen pregnancy to society (2.11)
  • Medicaid
  • Food Stamps
  • WIC
  • Quitting school
  • Abuse
  • Neglect

55
Societal Costs of Teen Pregnancy
  • Children born to teen mothers are more likely to
    drop out of school, to give birth out of wedlock,
    to divorce or separate, and to become dependent
    on welfare, compared to children with older
    parents
  • From 1985 to 1990, public cost related to teenage
    childbearing totaled 120.3 billion, which
    includes AFDC, Medicaid, and food stamps.

2.11
56
Teenage Pregnancy
  • Each year in the United States, 800,000 to
    900,000 teenage girls become pregnant.
  • According to the National Campaign to Prevent
    Teen Pregnancy, 4 out of every 10 girls in the
    United States become pregnant at least once
    before age 20.

57
Review
  • How would you feel if someone you knew got an
    STD?
  • How would you feel if that person was YOU?

58
Chapter 5 p. 141-149
  • Objectives
  • Describe the three stages of prenatal development
    (2.7)
  • Explain physical changes to the mother during
    pregnancy (2.3)
  • Name discomforts of pregnancy (2.4)

59
Objective 1
  • Describe the three stages of prenatal development
    (2.7)

60
Conception
  • Once a month, an OVUM (female egg) is released
    by the ovaries
  • Egg moves through fallopian tube to the uterus
  • When egg reaches uterus it is flushed out of the
    body with the menstrual flow if not fertilized
  • If the egg meets the SPERM, it gets fertilized
    and CONCEPTION has occurred

61
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62
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63
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64
Zygotefirst 2 weeks
  • When sperm and ova unitezygote forms
  • Divides into 2 cells and keeps dividing
  • 14th day after conception, it attaches to the
    wall of the uterus

65
State the first name for the fertilized egg
Ovum
66
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67
A fertilized egggrowing by cell division.
68
Embryoweek 3-8
  • Once implanted in the uterus, its called an
    Embryo
  • Umbilical cord extends from the embryo and
    connects to the placenta
  • Embryo is cushioned inside a fluid-filled pouch
    called amniotic sac
  • Nutrients flow from the mothers bloodstream into
    the umbilical cord into the embryo

69
Umbilical Cord
70
Umbilical cord.
71
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72
Amniotic Sac
73
Fetal Development
  • See pages 146-147

74
3 Stages of Prenatal Development
  • Period of the Zygote
  • First 2 weeks
  • Period of the Embryo
  • From 3-8 weeks of pregnancy
  • Period of the Fetus
  • From 8-9 weeks pregnancy to birth

2.7
75
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76
3 Stages of Prenatal Development
  • Period of the zygote
  • Zygote is fertilized egg
  • Zygote travels down Fallopian tube and attaches
    to uterine lining
  • Uterine lining provides nourishment
  • Zygote grows by cell division
  • 1 to 2, 2 to 4, 4 to 8, etc
  • Ends stage at size of pinhead.

2.7
77
Prenatal Development
Fertilization
78
Approx. 3 days after fertilization cell
division has begun. Its really about the size
of the head of a straight pin.
It is at the zygote stage. It is still
floating around inside the uterus.
79
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80
3 Stages of Prenatal Development
  • Period of embryo
  • Cell mass develops into major body systems
  • Heart and lungs, bones, muscle
  • Amniotic sac forms around embryo
  • Amniotic fluid protects and cushions baby
  • Placenta develops
  • Rich in blood vessels
  • Transmits food and oxygen from mom to baby via
    umbilical cord

2.7
81
First Month
  • By the end of the first month, the embryo is
    about 1/10 of an inch long. The heart, which is
    no larger than a poppy seed, has begun beating.

82
First Month
83
3 weeksit is searching for a place to implant
in the uterine lining. If it is going to
attach it will soon.
Its a little smaller than a rice
krispie. Backbone, spinal column and
nervous system are forming.
84
4 weeks..about the size of a rice krispie.
The kidneys, liver and stomach and small
intestine are beginning to develop. Hormones
in the mothers body stop ovulation and
menstruation.
85
7 weeks
Facial features are visible. A mouth and
tongue have formed. Muscles are forming
86
Two Months
  • The embryo is about 1 inch long and has distinct,
    slightly webbed fingers. Veins are clearly
    visible. The heart has divided into right and
    left chambers.

87
Two Months
88
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89
Fetus8 to 9th week until birth
  • Unborn childfetus
  • Body, head, arms and legs grow
  • Organs develop for breathing and digestion
  • Nerves and muscles
  • Heart and brain continue to grow

90
3 Stages of Prenatal Development
  • Period of the fetus
  • Kicks and movements felt
  • Begin with fluttering or quickening
  • Helps predict delivery date
  • Amount of fluid increases with size of fetus
  • Decreases just before birth as baby swallows
  • Baby is viable at 7 months
  • Major organs begin to function
  • Weight and fat added to baby rapidly
  • Can cry before birth

2.7
91
2 months or 8 weeks
Very prominent forehead because of brain
development Arms and legs are forming. Sex
organs are forming.
92
10 weeks..the heart is almost completely
formed. Baby teeth are forming in the
jaw. 12 weeks..Now called a fetus Vocal cords
are formed. Heart is complete. Ultrasound may
show the fetus sucking its thumb.
93
10 to 12 weeks
94
Period of the Fetus
95
Three Months
  • By now the fetus is 2 1/2 to 3 inches long and is
    fully formed. He has begun swallowing and
    kicking. All organs and muscles have formed and
    are beginning to function.

96
Period of the Fetus - 12 weeks
97
14 to 16 weeks
Mom begins to feel the babys
movement Taste buds have formed.
98
Period of the Fetus - 16 weeks
99
Four Months
  • The baby is covered with a layer of thick, downy
    hair called lanugo. His heartbeat can be heard
    clearly. This is when mother may feel baby's
    first kick.

100
Period of the Fetus - 18 weeks
101
18 weeks
The rest of the body is growing so the
head doesnt seem so out of proportion.
102
Period of the Fetus -
103
Five Months
  • A protective coating called vernix begins to form
    on baby's skin. By the end of this month, the
    baby will be 10 to 12 inches long and weigh
    almost a pound.

104
Hair, finger and toenails begin to
form. Fetus is skinny and wrinkled
still. Fetus is moving around and the mother
can feel the movements.
20 weeks or 5 months
105
20 weeks 5 months
Skin seems very thin.... because there is
very little fat under the skin at this time.
Notice the sex of the baby is evident by now.
106
Six Months
  • Eyebrows and eyelids are visible. The baby's
    lungs are filled with amniotic fluid, and he has
    started breathing motions. If you talk or sing,
    he can hear you.

107
6th Month
  • The fetus begins to develop a layer of fat
    beneath the skin, and fine hair, called lanugo,
    covers the head and body.
  • The baby is said to be "viable," which means that
    it stands a slight chance of survival should it
    be born now.

108
24 weeks or 6 months
Skin is protected by vernix. There is also
fine hair on the baby called laungo.
109
30 weeks
The baby is rapidly putting on weight and
gaining layers of protective fat under
the skin.
110
Period of the Fetus - 32 weeks
  • During the last two months of pregnancy the fetus
    increases in weight by just under an ounce daily.
  • The baby settles into a curled position, usually
    head down.

111
32 weeks
Fat is causing the skin to smooth out. The
baby is getting crowded and will soon
get into the head-down birth position
112
4 months
113
6 Months
114
Seven Months
  • By the end of the seventh month, the baby weighs
    about 3 1/2 pounds and is about 12 inches long.
    His body is well-formed. Fingernails cover his
    fingertips

115
7 Months
116
Eight Months
  • The baby is gaining about half a pound per week,
    and layers of fat are piling on. He has probably
    turned head-down in preparation for birth. He
    weighs between 4 and 6 pounds.

117
8 months
118
Nine Months
  • The baby is a hefty 6 to 9 pounds and measures
    between 19 and 22 inches. As he becomes more
    crowded, mother may feel him move around less.

119
Preparing for Birth
  • During the 9th month the babys weight seems to
    shiftcalled lightening
  • Muscles in abdomen and uterus can be stretched up
    to 60 TIMES their original size during pregnancy
  • After 37-42 weeks, most babies are ready to be
    born!

120
40 weeks
121
40 Weeks
122
Objective 2
  • Explain physical changes to the mother during
    pregnancy (2.3)

123
Pregnancy Development
  • See page 145

124
Pregnancy and Prenatal Development
Pregnancy is just as misunderstood! Having a
baby is wonderful, BUT
  • being pregnant is a life-changing experience
    that is not always pleasant!

125
Mothers Physical Changes
  • Month 1
  • Missed period
  • Month 2
  • Enlarged breasts
  • More frequent urination
  • Nausea
  • Fatigue

Embryo at 6-7 weeks
2.3
126
Mothers Physical Changes
  • Month 3
  • Fuller, firmer breasts
  • Nausea, fatigue, and frequent urination continue
  • Abdomen begins to enlarge
  • Uterus is about the size of an orange.
  • Weight gain of 2-4 pounds

2.3
127
Mothers Physical Changes
  • Month 4
  • Abdomen continues growing
  • Sickness may be gone
  • Appetite increases
  • Month 5
  • Showing
  • Fetal movements
  • Size may affect posture

2.3
128
Mothers Physical Changes
  • Month 6
  • Fetal kicks, bumps, and thumps felt and visible
  • Weight gain of 10-12 pounds
  • Month 7
  • Continued increase in size and weight

2.3
129
Mothers Physical Changes
  • Month 8
  • Discomfort from size
  • Backache, leg cramps, shortness of breath, etc
  • Fetal kicks may prevent rest
  • Weight gain of 18-20 pounds

2.3
130
Mothers Physical Changes
  • Month 9
  • Lightening
  • Uterus drops into pelvis
  • Breathing easier
  • Other discomforts continue
  • Total weight gain of 25-35 pounds
  • False labor pains (Braxton-Hicks Contractions)

Pregnancy Link
2.3
131
Objective 3
  • Name discomforts of pregnancy (2.4)

132
Discomforts of Pregnancy
  • Backache
  • Muscle Cramps
  • Breast Changes
  • Nausea and Vomiting
  • Constipation
  • Nosebleeds and
  • Bleeding Gums
  • Hemorrhoids
  • Pelvic Discomfort
  • Sciatica
  • Frequent Urination
  • Shortness of Breath
  • Difficulty Sleeping
  • Skin Changes
  • Fatique
  • Stretch Marks
  • Headache
  • Stuffy Nose
  • Food or Chemical Allergies
  • Heart Pounding
  • Swelling (Feet, Legs and Hands)
  • Heartburn
  • Intestinal Gas
  • Vaginal Discharge
  • Yeast Infections
  • Light-Headedness
  • Dizziness
  • Varicose Veins
  • Mood Changes 

2.4
133
Sticky Note Review
  • Considering all the discomforts of pregnancy, all
    the changes that a woman would have to go
    throughin YOUR mindIS IT WORTH IT?
  • WHY OR WHY NOT?

134
Child Development Chapter 5 p. 155-167
  • Objectives
  • Research complications/birth defects and include
    description, symptoms, developmental
    disabilities, etc. (2.4.1)
  • Describe prenatal tests used to determine health
    of mother and fetus (2.5)
  • Identify risks involved with prenatal tests
    (2.5.1)

135
Objective 1
  • Research complications/birth defects and include
    description, symptoms, developmental
    disabilities, etc. (2.4.1)

136
Loosing a Baby
  • Everyone imagines having a healthy baby.
  • Sometimes a baby does not develop normally.
  • If the baby dies before 20 weeks of
    pregnancymiscarriage
  • If it dies after 20 weeksstillbirth
  • Nearly 20 of pregnancies end in miscarriage

137
Types of Birth Defects
  • Some babies are born with serious problems that
    threaten their health or ability to livebirth
    defects
  • 3/100 babies born have a birth defect
  • There are 100s of birth defects
  • Not all are apparent at birthsome take years to
    show

138
Causes of Birth Defects
  • Scientists dont understand the causes of 60 of
    birth defects
  • There are 4 main causes
  • Environmental
  • Abnormal genes
  • Heredity
  • Errors in Chromosomes

139
Environmental Causes
  • Choices a mother makes impact the development of
    the childespecially during the first few weeks,
    when she might not know shes pregnant.
  • Nutritional balance of diet
  • Diseases or infections mother gets
  • Harmful substances
  • Medications
  • Radiation

140
Heredity Causes
  • Everyone has imperfect recessive genesabout 5-6
    per person.
  • If BOTH partners contribute the recessive gene
    and BOTH partners have a bad recessive gene, this
    could cause the CHILD to get the trait.

141
Errors in Chromosomes
  • Sometimes the baby might have too many
    chromosomes or too few.
  • This is not a hereditary defect, because the
    child does not get it from the parent.
  • Most commonDown Syndrome
  • 1/800 births in US has this condition
  • Extra 21st chromosome

142
Selected Birth Defects
  • See pages 159-161 for more information

143
Possible Complications Birth Defects
  • Problems babies are born with that may affect
    health or ability to live
  • Some are genetic
  • Genes units that determine inherited
    characteristics
  • Dominant genes dictate the way a trait is
    expressed
  • Recessive genes expressed as a trait only if
    paired with a matching recessive gene

2.4
144
Possible Complications Birth Defects
  • Cerebral Palsy
  • Problems of motor system that can include lack of
    coordination, stiffness, jerkiness, difficulty
    with speech, and paralysis
  • Caused by damage to brain before, during, or
    shortly after birth

2.4
145
Possible Complications Birth Defects
  • Cleft Lip or Cleft Palate
  • A gap in the upper lip or palate that causes
    problems with eating, swallowing, speech, and
    appearance
  • Caused by heredity, environmental factors, or
    both

2.4
146
Possible Complications Birth Defects
  • Cystic Fibrosis
  • Affects the respiratory and digestive systems
    many children die before reaching adulthood
  • Caused by defective recessive genes from both
    parents

2.4
147
Possible Complications Birth Defects
  • Down Syndrome
  • Group of problems that include mental
    retardation problems of the heart, blood and
    digestive system and poor muscle tone
  • Caused by presence of extra chromosome
  • Chromosomes carry genes that convey hereditary
    characteristics

2.4
148
Possible Complications Birth Defects
  • Spina Bifida
  • Incompletely formed spinal cord may lead to
    stiff joints, difficulty moving legs, partial
    paralysis, problems with kidneys and urinary
    tract
  • 70 of children with Spina Bifida also have
    hydrocephalus
  • Caused by combination of heredity and
    environmental factors may be prevented in some
    cases by use of folic acid supplement

2.4
149
Possible Complications Birth Defects
  • Hydrocephalus
  • Excess of fluid surrounding the brain, causing
    brain damage.
  • Usually occurs with Spina Bifida
  • Muscular Dystrophy
  • 2 different types involve progressive weakness
    and shrinking of muscles most common form begins
    from ages 2-6
  • Caused by heredity

2.4
150
Possible Complications Birth Defects
  • Phenylketonuria (PKU)
  • Condition in which the body is unable to process
    and use a specific protein can cause mental
    retardation
  • Caused by defective recessive genes in both
    parents

2.4
151
Possible Complications Birth Defects
  • Sickle Cell Anemia
  • Malformed red blood cells interfere with supply
    of oxygen to all parts of the body can lead to
    early death
  • Caused by defective recessive genes in both
    parents

2.4
152
Possible Complications Birth Defects
  • Tay-Sachs Disease
  • Lacking a certain chemical compound in the blood
    that makes childrens bodies unable to process
    and use fats, which leads to severe brain damage
    and death (usually by age 4)
  • Caused by defective recessive genes from both
    parents

2.4
153
Interaction of Heredity and Environment
  • Some birth defects come from the environment and
    heredity working together
  • Exampleheart defect
  • Researchers also believe these two play a role
    in spina bifida, cleft palate and cleft lip
  • If women took the FOLIC ACID needed, over 1,000
    cases could be prevented each year

154
Prevention and Diagnosis of Birth Defects
  • Some birth defects can be controlled and
    preventedalcohol and drug related
  • Others cannot, but tests can be done early to
    make sure the child receives the proper help
    early on.

155
Genetic Counseling
  • Genetic counseling does not tell people what to
    doit gives them advice about having a child with
    certain impairments
  • Usually involves telling your family history and
    medical history, so they can better determine
    what problems you COULD face in the future if you
    have a child.

156
Objectives 2 and 3
  • Describe prenatal tests used to determine health
    of mother and fetus (2.5)
  • Identify risks involved with prenatal tests
    (2.5.1)

157
Prenatal Tests
  • Over 100 birth defects can be identified before
    the baby is born.
  • Ultrasound
  • Amniocentesis
  • Chronic villas sampling

158
Prenatal Tests
  • Ultrasound
  • Most common
  • Uses sound waves to make image
  • Used to identify skeletal or organ defects
  • Can confirm due date and number of fetuses
  • No known harm

2.5
159
Prenatal Tests
  • Amniocentesis
  • Withdrawal of amniotic fluid
  • Uses BIG needle guided by ultrasound
  • Tests for Down syndrome and other disorders
  • Causes miscarriage in about 1 in 200

2.5
160
Prenatal Tests
  • Chorionic Villi Sampling
  • Uses small amounts of tissue from membrane around
    fetus
  • Tube inserted vaginally and samples snipped or
    suctioned off
  • Used for same diseases as amniocentesis
  • Carries greater risk of miscarriage
  • May cause birth defects

2.5
161
What do you think?
  • Would you want to know if you were having a child
    with a genetic problem?
  • In YOUR opinion, Would the possibility of hurting
    the baby during testing be worth knowing if there
    was anything wrong?

162
Child Development Chapter 5 p. 168-175
  • Objective
  • Name factors that are harmful to the development
    of the unborn child (2.8)
  • Alcohol
  • Drugs (over the counter prescription)
  • Caffeine
  • Infections (such as Rubella)
  • Smoking
  • Harmful fumes and Paint products
  • Lead
  • X-rays
  • Sexually Transmitted Diseases

163
Alcohol
  • Fetal Alcohol SyndromeFAS, caused by women who
    drink alcohol when theyre pregnant.
  • 1/5 babies born with FAS die soon after birth.
  • Those that do survive are left with a host of
    problems.
  • Some are mentally retarded.
  • Some suffer from Fetal Alcohol Effectsless
    severe, but still damaging to the child.
  • There is NO CUREonly prevention will help!

164
Factors Harmful to Unborn Child
  • Alcohol (cont)
  • Degree of damage directly related to amount of
    drinking and stage of pregnancy
  • No cure for FAS or fetal alcohol effects
  • Preventable
  • No known threshold

2.8
165
Factors Harmful to Unborn Child
  • Alcohol
  • Fetal Alcohol Syndrome (FAS)
  • 1 in 5 babies die
  • Causes physical and mental problems
  • Slow growth, poor coordination, heart defects,
    facial disfigurement, learning problems,
    hyperactivity, inability to control behavior
  • Fetal Alcohol Effects
  • Less severe than FAS

2.8
166
Prescription and Over the counter Drugs
  • Medicines or infections that reach the developing
    baby during the first 3 months are the most
    devastating.
  • This is the critical period of time when the
    brain is formingcould cause mental retardation.
  • During the last two trimesters, drugs taken could
    cause slow growth, infections or bleeding.
  • Dont take anything unless a doctor tells you to!

167
Factors Harmful to Unborn Child
  • Medicines (prescription and over-the-counter)
  • No drug is completely safe
  • Aspirin, cold meds, and antihistamines cause harm
  • 1st Trimester has most severe effect
  • Body systems and brain development
  • Last 6 months important as well
  • Can cause slow growth, infections, or bleeding at
    birth
  • Only take meds prescribed by doctor while
    pregnant!!!

2.8
168
Illegal Drugs
  • A mother who is addicted to a drug when pregnant
    passes her addiction to her baby
  • From birth, these children go through withdrawal
  • For some babies, withdrawal is so severe that
    they die
  • Cocaine and marijuana is known to cause
    miscarriage, stillbirth, premature birth and
    birth defects

169
Factors Harmful to Unborn Child
  • Illegal Drugs
  • Addiction passed to baby
  • Infants go through withdrawal
  • May result in death
  • Long range effects
  • Follow only simple directions
  • Often cannot understand classes
  • Cocaine
  • Causes miscarriage, stillbirth, premature birth,
    birth defects
  • Similar effects from marijuana use

2.8
170
Caffeine
  • Small amounts of caffeine (2 cups of coffee or 3
    sodas per day) dont pose a risk.
  • However, large quantities have been associated
    with miscarriage, low birth weight and infant
    death.
  • Caffeine blocks the bodys ability to absorb
    ironiron is needed to build bloodwithout blood
    you dont have life.

171
Factors Harmful to Unborn Child
  • Caffeine
  • Small amounts (2 cups coffee, 3 cokes) not
    harmful
  • Larger quantities cause problems
  • Increased risk of miscarriage
  • Low birth weight
  • Infant death

2.8
172
Rubella
  • Also called German Measles
  • Most women had no symptoms of the diseases, but
    the babies were born with deafness, blindness,
    heart disease and mental retardation
  • A vaccine is now availableusually children are
    given this at an early age
  • (MMR)

173
Tobacco
  • Nicotine is known to cause small babies
  • A newborns survival is critical to how much they
    weight
  • Heavy smoking is known to cause premature birth,
    respiratory infections and allergies in children
    after birth

174
Factors Harmful to Unborn Child
  • Tobacco
  • Nicotine is harmful substance
  • More smoking causes lower birthweight
  • Heaving smoking may cause premature birth
  • Linked to respiratory infection and allergies
  • Secondhand smoke just as dangerous

2.8
175
X Rays
  • Radiation from X rays can cause birth defects
  • Avoid unneeded X rays before pregnancy and
    request abdominal shields during X rays
  • Always be honest with your doctordont lie if
    you think youre pregnant

176
STDS
  • Syphilis, Gonorrhea, Hepatitis B, Genital herpes,
    AIDS, Group B streptococcus and Chlamydia are all
    dangerous to a developing baby.
  • Treatment can cure and relieve symptoms of some
    of these in adults, but no drug can cure damage
    to a newborn due to delay of diagnosis and
    treatment.

177
AIDS
  • Can be passed on to baby from infected mother
  • Can lie dormant for numerous years before causing
    symptoms
  • Can be given treatment to prolong life, but
    doctors must know early on that the mother does
    in fact have AIDS.

178
Journal Entry
  • Is it fair that a mother can do whatever she
    wants to her body? (It is after all, HER body.)
  • What kind of laws do you think should be in place
    for women who knowingly abuse their body and
    their developing baby, or should there be any
    such laws?

179
A Healthy Pregnancy
  • Chapter 6 p. 180-191
  • Objectives
  • List the early signs of pregnancy (2.2)
  • Name discomforts and complications of pregnancy
    (2.4)
  • Describe types of care for mothers and babys
    health (2.9)

180
Objective 1
  • List the early signs of pregnancy (2.2)

181
Early Signs of Pregnancy
  • Missed period
  • Fullness or mild ache in lower abdomen
  • Feeling tired, drowsy or faint
  • Need to urinate more often than usual
  • Discomfort or tenderness in breasts
  • Periods of nausea, especially early in the day

182
Objective 2
  • Name discomforts and complications of pregnancy
    (2.4)

183
Discomforts of Pregnancy
  • Each woman is different.
  • Some have difficultiesothers do not.
  • Common problems are
  • Nausea, sleepiness, heartburn, shortness of
    breath, varicose veins, muscle cramps, lower back
    pains, constipation, headaches, moodiness.

184
Nausea and Vomiting
  • Hormonal changes can cause nausea and vomiting.
    Recommendations are
  • Continue to gain weight
  • Eat small frequent meals
  • Separate liquid and solid foods
  • Avoid odors and foods that are nauseating
  • Choose foods that are well tolerated

185
Heartburn
  • Hormonal changes cause relaxation of
    gastrointestinal muscles. Relaxation of the
    esophageal sphincter is believed to be the cause
    of heartburn. Recommendations are
  • Eat small frequent meals
  • Dont go to bed with a full stomach
  • Avoid foods that make heartburn worse

186
Constipation
  • Relaxed gastrointestinal muscles due to hormonal
    changes is also believed to be the cause of
    constipation and hemorrhoids. Recommendations
    are
  • Consume approximately 30 grams of dietary
    fiber/day
  • Drink at least 6 to 9 glasses of fluid/day

187
Possible Complications
  • Vaginal bleeding
  • Unusual weight gain
  • Excessive thirst
  • Reduced or painful urination
  • Severe abdominal pain
  • Persistent headaches
  • Severe vomiting
  • Fever
  • Swelling of face, hands or ankles
  • Blurred vision or dizziness
  • Prolonged backache
  • Increased vaginal mucus

188
Objective 3
  • Describe types of care for mothers and babys
    health (2.9)

189
Medical Care During Pregnancy
  • As SOON as you think youre pregnant, go to the
    doctor
  • Medical care options
  • General practitionerfamily doctor (medical
    school)
  • Obstetricianspecialist in pregnancy and birth
    (medical school plus specialty)
  • OBGYNspecialist in pregnancy, birth and womens
    anatomy (medical school plus specialty)
  • Nurse-midwiferegistered nurse with training in
    normal pregnancy and birth (nursing degree plus
    specialty training)

190
Types of Care for Mom Baby
  • Obstetricians
  • Doctors who specializes in pregnancy and birth
  • Family Doctors
  • General practice doctors who also deliver babies
    and provide prenatal and postnatal care

2.9
191
Types of Care for Mom Baby
  • Licensed Midwives
  • Nurse-midwife
  • RN with advanced training in normal pregnancy and
    birth pass licensing exam
  • Lay midwife
  • Has special training in care of pregnant women
    and normal deliveries also pass licensing exam
    but are not nurses

2.9
192
Before returning to work
  • The woman must have a note from her doctor
    releasing her back into the workforce.
  • FMLA allows up to 12 weeks of leave for workers
    for family reasons.
  • This leave of work is WITHOUT pay in America.

193
Nutrition for Pregnancy
  • Nutrition during affects the health of both the
    mother and the baby
  • Eat a well-balanced diet including a variety of
    foods following the Food Guide Pyramid

194
Weight Gain
  • Mothers weight gain during pregnancy is related
    to babys birth weight
  • Babys weighing between 6 ½ to 9 pounds have
    fewer health risks
  • Low-birth weight babys (less than 5 ½ pounds)
    have higher health risks

195
Weight Gain
  • Under Weight 28 to 40 pounds
  • Normal Weight 25 to 35 pounds
  • Over Weight 15 to 25 pounds
  • Obese at least 15 pounds
  • Twins 35 to 45 pounds

196
Pattern of Weight Gain
  • 1st trimester may only be 3 ½ to 5 lbs
  • Thereafter, a gradual and consistent weight gain
    of approximately 1 lb/week
  • Weight gain often slows down a few weeks prior to
    delivery
  • A sudden large weight gain however may be a
    danger signal

197
Limiting Weight Gain
  • Weight loss during pregnancy is not recommended
  • Limiting weight gain during pregnancy does not
    decrease pregnancy related hypertension and is
    related to low birth weight, which increases
    health risks for infants

198
Diet During Pregnancy
  • Most nutritional needs during pregnancy can be
    met by following the Food Guide Pyramid, with the
    exception of iron
  • Only the kind and amount of supplements
    prescribed by a physician should be taken, too
    much of some nutrients can be dangerous

199
Balanced Diet
  • Food Group Servings
  • Bread, cereal, rice and pasta 6 - 11
  • Fruit and Vegetables 5 - 9
  • Meat, poultry, fish, dry beans nuts 3
  • Milk, yogurt, and cheese 3 - 4
  • Fats and sweets use sparingly

200
Calories
  • No increase in calories the 1st trimester
  • 300 calorie increase per day during the 2nd and
    3rd trimester
  • Additional calories should come from nutrient
    dense foods
  • Physical activity, age and initial weight may
    alter need for additional calories

201
Carbohydrate and Fiber
  • 50 to 60 of calories should come from
    carbohydrate, mainly from complex carbohydrates
    such as whole and fortified grains, fruits and
    vegetables
  • Include foods to provide 25 to 35 grams of
    fiber/day to lower the risk of constipation

202
Protein
  • Protein intake for pregnancy is 60 grams/day,
    this amount is generally exceeded by non-pregnant
    women
  • Protein needs of women who do not consume animal
    products are somewhat higher because of the lower
    quality of plant protein

203
Fat
  • High nutrient needs of pregnancy leave little
    room for excess fat
  • However, the essential fatty acids are important
    for infant growth, especially omega 3 and omega 6
    fatty acids
  • Including seafood in the diet will provide a
    balance of essential fatty acids

204
Water
  • Water needs increase due to increases in maternal
    blood and body fluids
  • Women need 6 to 9 cups of fluid/day
  • In hot and humid weather, or if one is physically
    active, thirst may not keep up with need

205
Folate
  • Folate is found in citrus fruits, dark green
    leafy vegetables, legumes or fortified breads,
    cereals and grain foods
  • Inadequate folate in early pregnancy can cause
    neural tube defects
  • Women need adequate amounts of folate before and
    during pregnancy

206
Iron
  • Iron needs increase during pregnancy due to
    increased maternal blood volume
  • Women entering pregnancy with little stored iron
    are at risk for developing iron deficiency anemia
    in pregnancy
  • Iron deficiency anemia increases risk of preterm
    delivery and low birth weight

207
Caffeine
  • Caffeine increases the heart rate, is a central
    nervous system stimulant and acts as a diuretic
  • Caffeine easily passes from maternal to infant
    blood, and stays in the infant longer than in
    maternal blood

208
Artificial Sweeteners
  • Artificial sweeteners have been extensively
    studied with pregnancy
  • There is no evidence that consuming artificial
    sweeteners is harmful in pregnancy, still it is
    prudent for pregnant women to use artificial
    sweeteners in moderation.

209
Alcohol
  • Alcohol intake during pregnancy can cause birth
    defects, mental retardation and developmental
    disorders
  • Alcohol crosses the placenta to the infant.
    Infants dont have the enzymes to break down
    alcohol so it stays in the infant, in addition
    the infant is smaller

210
Changes in Dietary Intake
  • Pregnant women may develop food likes and
    dislikes due to changes in the sense of taste and
    smell
  • These changes are related to hormonal changes
    during pregnancy and do not reflect nutritional
    needs

211
Pica
  • Pica is a craving to consume nonfood items such
    as ice, freezer frost, laundry starch or corn
    starch, baking soda and baking powder, and clay
    or dirt
  • Pica can hinder gestational diabetes control,
    lead to anemia, and cause lead poisoning,
    intestinal obstruction and gastrointestinal
    parasitic infestation

212
Supplements
  • Women who make wise food choices during pregnancy
    can meet most of their nutritional needs, except
    for iron
  • Vitamin and mineral supplements may be
    recommended on an individual basis by a physician
    based on the mothers nutritional status

213
Food Safety
  • Increased hormone levels during pregnancy
    decrease a womens ability to fight off
    infections, so they are more susceptible to food
    borne infections
  • Pregnant women should not eat raw fish, oysters,
    soft cheese, raw or undercooked meat or
    unpasteurized milk

214
Exercise
  • Moderate exercise by healthy women consuming a
    high quality diet and gaining appropriate weight
    is not harmful
  • It is important for women to avoid dehydration,
    and not to become overheated during physical
    activity

215
Dietary Problems
  • Normal physiological changes with pregnancy can
    cause problems such as
  • Nausea and vomiting
  • Heartburn
  • Constipation

216
What would you do?
  • What if you found out today that you, or your
    girl friend, were pregnant?
  • How would your life change? What would you have
    to give up or change?
  • Make a list of all the items you would need to
    buy before the child arrives. (2.9)
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