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Homeless Youth on the Road and in the Streets

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Homeless Youth on the Road and in the Streets The anthropology of deviance sub-cultures Urban anthropology The anthropology of space and place – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: Homeless Youth on the Road and in the Streets


1
Homeless Youth on the Road and in the Streets
  • The anthropology of deviance
  • sub-cultures
  • Urban anthropology
  • The anthropology of space and place

2
The Anthropology of Deviance
3
Deviance
  • Modes of action which do not conform to the norms
    or values held by most of the members of a group
    or society.
  • What is regarded as 'deviant' is as widely
    variable as the norms and values that distinguish
    different cultures and subcultures from one
    another.
  • Many forms of behaviour which are highly esteemed
    in one context, or by one group, are regarded
    negatively by others.

4
Deviance
  • shared sense of order (predictability) the
    meanings we attach to people, things, and
    actions.
  • "Otherness" (differentness) challenges our
    assumptions, our taken-for-granted sense of
    normalcy and naturalness
  • Deviance is problematic, yet essential and
    intrinsic to any conception of Social Order.

5
Deviance Social Control
  • Deviance is a label (PROCESS) used to maintain
    the power, control, and position of a dominant
    group.
  • Deviance is a negotiated order.
  • The definition of deviance defines the threat and
    allows for containment and control of the threat
  • definition of deviance preserves, protects, and
    defines group interests and in doing so maintains
    a sense of normalcy.
  • Deviance is a product of Social Interaction.

6
Deviance and Conformity
  • Social constructions
  • idealized conduct is most clearly seen in
    marginalized people
  • deviance forces them into "discredited" or
    "discreditable" groups, based on the nature of
    their stigma
  • deviance the existence of a stigma

7
Stigma
  • "mark of infamy or disgrace sign of moral
    blemish stain or reproach caused by dishonorable
    conduct reproachful characterization" (Webster,
    1913)
  • Social stigma
  • social disapproval of personal characteristics or
    beliefs that are against cultural norms
  • social stigma often leads to marginalization

8
Normality/abnormality
  • Multi-dimensional concepts
  • Represents a range of possible perceptions
  • Of what is normal and not normal
  • Whether it is controlled or not by the norms of
    society
  • Times places people can behave in an abnormal
    way
  • Most cultures disapprove of forms of public
    behavior that are obviously not being controlled

9
Zones of social behavior
10
Zones of social behavior
  • Not static, fluid categories, spectrum of
    possibilities
  • Change with time circumstance
  • Normal in one group abnormal in another
  • Controlled normality (A)
  • Uncontrolled normality (D)
  • Controlled abnormality (B)
  • Uncontrolled abnormality (C)

11
Zones of social behavior
  • A, D, B it is assumed that the individual is at
    least aware of what the social norms are
  • Whether they conform or not
  • Substance use
  • Traversing the categories of bad and mad
  • Criminal Intoxication
  • Temporary madness

12
Which Group?
  • Modes of action which do not conform to the norms
    or values held by most of the members of a group
    or society
  • Deviance, stigma, zones of social behavior
  • Reminder What is regarded as 'deviant' is as
    widely variable as the norms and values that
    distinguish different cultures and subcultures
    from one another.

13
sub-cultures
  • In sociology, anthropology and cultural studies,
    a subculture is a set of people with distinct
    sets of behavior and beliefs that differentiate
    them from a larger culture of which they are a
    part.
  • The subculture may be distinctive because of the
    age of its members, or by their race, ethnicity,
    class and/or gender
  • the qualities that determine a subculture as
    distinct may be aesthetic, religious,
    occupational, political, sexual or a combination
    of these factors

14
Sub-cultures
  • Versus community
  • Sub-cultures have come to designate social groups
    which are perceived to deviate from the normative
    ideals of some community
  • Small-scale association of people united by a
    common interest
  • Sub beneath or within
  • Variance from a larger normal, average, dominant
    collectivity
  • Consciousness of otherness or difference

15
Sub-cultures difference
  • Difference defined in contrast to existing norms
  • As opposing category embraces those norms in
    the process of differentiation
  • Social cultural reproduction
  • Mimesis alterity
  • Hegemony -- the dominance of one group over other
    groups, with or without the threat of force

16
Hegemony Cultural Control
  • Cultural perspectives become skewed to favor the
    dominant group.
  • The cultural control that hegemony asserts
    affects commonplace patterns of thought
  • Hegemony controls the way new ideas are rejected
    or become naturalized in a process that subtly
    alters notions of common sense in a given society.

17
Cultural hegemony
  • Cultural hegemony is a concept coined by Marxist
    philosopher Antonio Gramsci.
  • a diverse culture can be ruled or dominated by
    one group or class, that everyday practices and
    shared beliefs provide the foundation for complex
    systems of domination.
  • Whats bad, mad, normal, deviant, etc.

18
Urban Anthropology
  • The urban spatially dense, heterogeneous
    population
  • Heterogeneity sub-cultures
  • Anthropology ethnography applied to the study
    of urban phenomena
  • the causes, processes and consequences of urban
    migration and urbanization
  • cross-cultural similarities and variations in
    urban ways of life
  • how people negotiate urban life as a particular
    sociocultural world
  • rural-urban influences, neighborhoods,
    ethnicities, subcultures, social networks and
    stratification to understand how social relations
    are constructed and how cultural knowledge is
    distributed in cities

19
Conceptual Approaches
  • ecology models
  • community, family, and network analyses
  • studies of power/knowledge of planning and
    architecture
  • supralocal/local linkage analyses
  • political economic, representational, and
    discursive models of the city

20
City(s)
  • The ethnic city - mosaic of enclaves
  • The divided city hidden barriers of race
    class
  • The gendered city a male preserve
  • The contested city -- attention to spatialising
    of culture
  • The de-industrialized city
  • The global city
  • The informational city
  • The modernist post-modernist city
  • The sacred city
  • The fortress city

21
Urbanity
  • The processes of segregation establish moral
    distances which make the city a mosaic little
    worlds which touch but do not interpenetrate.
  • This make it possible for individuals to pass
    quickly and easily from one moral milieu to
    another, and encourages the fascinating but
    dangerous experiment of living at the same time
    in several different contiguous, but otherwise
    widely separated worlds (Park 195247)

22
dominant research trends in urban anthropology
  • Post-structural studies of race, class and gender
    in urban context
  • Structure agency
  • political economic studies of transnational
    culture
  • studies of the symbolic and social production of
    urban space and planning

23
Space Place
  • Place and space -- central constructs within
    geography, archaeology, architecture and
    landscape architecture.
  • emphasized spatial thinking, visualization, and
    the use of non-linear and conceptual modes of
    representation (maping, drawing, and model
    building).
  • other academic disciplines rarely studied space
    and place.
  • architectural design, settlement layout, or the
    visual character of a region as the setting
  • spatial patterns, the meanings that groups and
    individuals attach to landscape and built
    environment, and spatial modes of problem solving
    usually not considered

24
The anthropology of space place
  • Built environments
  • place is a space to which meaning has been
    inscribed
  • space as an abstract, universal, non-cultural
    phenomenon
  • we only have place experienced, practiced, local
  • Built world and geographies as systems of signs
    and symbols
  • a language of signification

25
two different approaches to space/place
  • one that emphasizes the experiential,
    situational, sensual, contingent aspects of space
  • the other emphasizes the brute force of power,
    the structural, and the continuity of structuring
    principles of built environments

26
Re-Thinking GEOGRAPHIES OF IDENTITY
  • Spatial-cultural habits of mind, body,
  • immutable link between cultures, peoples, and
    identities specific places
  • notion of culture based on the inseparability of
    identity from place
  • Deterritorialization
  • Diasporic public spheres -- part of the cultural
    dynamic of urban life in most countries
  • migration and mass mediation

27
GEOGRAPHIES OF IDENTITY PUBLIC
PRIVATE/DOMESTIC SPHERES/PLACES
  • opposition between domestic (reproduction),
    private, public (production) provides the basis
    of a framework to identify and explore place
  • Domestic/private public sphere clearly drawn in
    societies where division of labor encompasses
    more than age sex differentiation
  • mobility not just through geographic space but
    social space (associations)

28
Home and Street
  • The term street children refers to children for
    whom the street more than their family has become
    their real home.
  • It includes children who might not necessarily be
    homeless or without families, but who live in
    situations where there is no protection,
    supervision, or direction from responsible
    adults.

29
Stigma
  • The public view of street children in many
    countries is overwhelmingly negative.
  • The public has often supported efforts to get
    these children off the street, even though they
    may result in police round ups, or even murder.
  • There is an alarming tendency by some law
    enforcement personnel and civilians, business
    proprietors and their private security firms, to
    view street children as almost sub-human.

30
Children in the U.S.
  • The United States is one of only two countries in
    the world that have not ratified the United
    Nations Convention on the Rights of the Child
    (CRC).
  • Somaliaa country without an internationally-recog
    nized governmentis the other.

31
Abuse as Deviance
  • deviance destroys the credibility of the
    normative
  • Conformity (cultural social) and the family as
    normative behavior interactions
  • Deviant behavior interactions expectations
  • Damages the expectations of cultural conformity
  • Family as site of emotional life learning
  • Damages the character of the individuals

32
Abusive Family Life to Street Life
  • The emphasis on idealized, normative identity and
    conduct limits the ability of the discredited
    individual to achieve full acceptance by the
    population that he or she is forced to assimilate
    into.
  • For the discreditable individual who attempts to
    "pass" and employ "disidentifiers" to establish
    him/herself as "normal" (44), feelings of
    ambivalence and alienation emerge as a result of
    limited social intercourse.

33
Street Life as Normative
  • idealized, normative identity and conduct of
    street life provides another social milieu for
    the individual to achieve full acceptance by the
    population that he or she chooses to assimilate
    into.
  • Can "pass" and employ "identifiers" to establish
    him/herself as "normal" (44)
  • Loss of feelings of ambivalence and alienation
    emerge as a result of changing context of social
    intercourse.
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