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LABORATORY AND FIELD SAFETY Millie Tran and Sheryl Mansou

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Title: LABORATORY AND FIELD SAFETY Millie Tran and Sheryl Mansou


1
LABORATORY AND FIELD SAFETY
  • Millie Tran and Sheryl Mansour
  • Environmental Health and Safety Department
  • San Diego State University
  • (619) 594-6778

2
Areas of Regulatory Oversight for Laboratory
Safety
  • Radiation Safety
  • Radiation Safety Committee RUA
  • Mitch Lanahan RSO - (619) 594-6879
  • Biological Safety
  • Institutional Biosafety Committee BUA
  • Millie Tran, Sheryl Mansour BSO (619)
    594-2865/6965
  • Chemical Safety
  • Environmental Health Safety Department
  • Alvin Shoemaker, Charles Adkins (619)
    594-6098/2857 HazMat/HazWaste
  • Millie Tran, Sheryl Mansour (619) 594-2865/6965
    Chemical Hygiene

3
Work with Hazardous Chemicals
  • Welcome!
  • This Laboratory and Field Safety Training is for
    employees who work in a laboratory or out in the
    field where hazardous chemicals are being handled
    or stored.

4
Cal OSHA Occupational Exposure to Hazardous
Chemicals in the Laboratories Regulation
  • Cal OSHA Occupational Exposure to Hazardous
    Chemicals in the Laboratories
  • The California Occupational Safety Health
    Administration (Cal OSHA) has determined that lab
    or field work typically differ from industrial
    operations in the handling and use of hazardous
    chemicals thus, establishing the Occupational
    Exposure to Hazardous Chemicals in the
    Laboratories Regulation to protect lab or field
    workers.
  • The key elements of this regulation are as
    follow
  • A written Chemical Hygiene Plan must be created
    and accessible to employees when hazardous
    chemicals or hazardous operations are involved.
  • Employees shall be protected from occupational
    exposure to hazardous chemicals.
  • Employees shall be provided and informed of the
    Material Safety Data Sheets (MSDSs) and other
    reference material.
  • Employees shall be informed of the hazardous
    chemicals present in the lab/field or of the
    hazardous operations in which they are involved.
  • Employees handling hazardous chemicals must be
    appropriately trained before doing any work
    involving hazardous chemicals or hazardous
    operations.
  • Engineering controls and personal protective
    equipment must be provided, maintained, and
    replaced when necessary.
  • Employees must be informed of the procedures to
    follow to respond to emergencies.

5
  • Basically, this CalOSHA regulation requires the
    following provisions to ensure health and safety
    of lab/field employees handling hazardous
    chemicals
  • Avoid underestimation of risk
  • Minimize all chemical exposures
  • Observe exposure limits
  • Institute chemical hygiene plan

6
Chemical Hygiene Plan
  • The Chemical Hygiene Plan is a chemical safety
    manual for laboratory workers that contains
  • Basic standard operating procedures (SOPs).
    (Lab-specific SOPs must be created.)
  • Criteria used to determine and implement control
    measures from exposure to hazardous chemicals.
  • Circumstances requiring prior approval before
    application of hazardous lab operation, procedure
    or activity.
  • Provision for additional employee protection for
    work with particularly hazardous substances such
    as select carcinogens, reproductive toxins, and
    highly acute toxins.

7
Standard Operating Procedures (SOPs)
  • Standard Operating Procedures (SOP's) are written
    procedures explaining how to safely work with
    hazardous chemicals.
  • Lab-specific SOPs are required for any work with
    hazardous chemical or any application of
    hazardous operations specific to the protocol or
    if not already developed in the chemical hygiene
    plans general standard operating procedures.
  • The Chemical Hygiene Plan (CHP) contains basic
    SOPs for
  • Handling Common Hazardous Chemicals
  • Labeling of Chemicals
  • Storing of Chemicals
  • Responding to Small Lab Spills
  • However, labs must create SOPs for
    procedures/chemicals not in CHP such as
  • Select Carcinogens
  • Highly Toxic Chemicals

8
  • Question
  • The Occupational Exposure to Hazardous Chemicals
    in the Laboratories Regulation is a CalOSHA
    regulation requiring that lab employees shall be
    protected from occupational exposure to hazardous
    chemicals, be informed of the hazardous chemicals
    present in the lab/field, and be trained before
    doing any work involving hazardous chemicals in
    academic and research labs.
  • True
  • False

9
  • Question
  • Which statement about the Chemical Hygiene Plan
    is correct?
  • It is a campus policy.
  • It contains general Standard Operating Procedures
    (SOP) that must be supplemented with lab-specific
    SOPs.
  • All lab staff must be familiar with it.
  • All of the above.

10
Hazard Identification/Assessment
  • In order to incorporate safety aspects of
    handling and storage into your standard operating
    procedures, you must understand and recognize the
    hazards associated with the
  • materials,
  • equipment used, and
  • procedures performed.

11
Physical Hazards
  • Chemicals that release energy in a violent
    fashion either by their natural chemical
    composition or by the manner they are handled can
    become a physical hazard. These materials can be
    safely used if the specific hazard(s) are
    understood. The main physical hazards at SDSU
    are
  • Flammable and Combustible Liquids
  • Oxidizers
  • Peroxidizable chemicals
  • Explosives
  • Reactive materials
  • Pyrophoric
  • Compressed gases

12
Flammable Combustible Liquids
  • Flammable combustible liquids are some of the
    most commonly used hazardous chemicals at SDSU.
  • The National Fire Protection Agency (NFPA) places
    flammable liquids and combustible liquids in
    different classes based on their flash points.
  • Flammable liquid has a flash point below 100 F.
    Combustible liquid has flashpoints over 100 F.
  • Examples of common flammable/combustible liquids
  • Alcohols- ethanol, methanol, isopropanol
  • Ketones acetone
  • BTX benzene, toluene, xylene
  • ethyl ether, ethyl acetate
  • Most organic chemicals are also flammable or
    combustible.

13
Flammable Combustible Liquids
  • To safely work with flammables observe the
    following guidelines
  • Keep flammables/combustible materials away from
    sources of ignition, open flames, hot surfaces,
    electrical equipment and static electricity. Do
    not store with acids or bases.
  • Store flammable liquids in NFPA approved
    containers or inside cabinets or storage rooms
    designed for flammable materials.
  • Small squirt bottles containing a volume of less
    that one-liter can be stored on the bench top.
    Larger volumes (gt1 liter) need to be stored
    appropriately.
  • Assure fire extinguishers are in the area.

14
Oxidizing Chemicals
  • Oxidizers are materials which can react with
    other substances promoting combustion by giving
    off electrons and undergoing reduction. These
    reactions can result in a fire or an explosion.
  • Examples of common oxidizers are
  • Nitrous oxide
  • Hydrogen peroxide
  • Nitric acid
  • Perchloric acid
  • Nitrates
  • Oxygen
  • Sulfuric acid

15
Oxidizing Chemicals
  • To safely work with oxidizers observe the
    following guidelines
  • Oxidizers are incompatible with organics. Store
    oxidizers separate from organics.
  • Use oxidizers with extreme care and consult the
    MSDS for specific guidelines.

16
Peroxidizable Chemicals
  • Peroxidizable chemicals can undergo auto
    oxidation to form organic peroxides that can
    become explosive with impact, heat or friction.
  • These chemicals may become more hazardous as
    they age peroxides may form even when the
    container has not been opened.
  • Examples of common peroxide formers in SDSU labs
    include
  • Ether
  • Dioxanes
  • Isopropyl ether
  • Tetrahydrofuran

Never open a bottle that has solid formation
around the lid. (Friction caused by unscrewing
the cap can lead to explosion.) Contact the EHS
for safe disposal.
17
Peroxidizable Chemicals
  • Good management of peroxidizable materials starts
    with
  • Dating all peroxide formers upon receipt and
    again after opening
  • Dispose of, or test for peroxide formation at the
    expiration date or 18 months if the container has
    not been opened.
  • To safely work with oxidizers observe the
    following guidelines
  • Never open a bottle that has solid formation
    around the lid. (Friction caused by unscrewing
    the cap can lead to explosion.) Contact EHS for
    safe disposal.

18
Reactive and Pyrophoric
  • Reactive materials can release heat or a toxic
    or flammable gas upon contact with water.
  • Safe handling of these materials will depend on
    the specific materials and the conditions in
    which this material is handled.
  • Consult the MSDS for the specific chemical for
    safe handling instructions and to develop an SOP
    for the operation. 
  • Examples
  • Sodium metal
  • Lithium aluminum hydride
  • Pyrophoric materials can react with air and
    ignite spontaneously at or below 113F.
  • Pyrophoric materials should be handled and stored
    in inert environments.
  • Examples
  • silane
  • white or yellow phosphorous

19
  • Question
  • Peroxides and peroxide-forming chemicals
  • Must be dated when received and when opened.
  • Can explode if subject to heat, shock or
    friction.
  • Should be tested for peroxide formation at the
    expiration date because they become more
    hazardous as they age.
  • All of the above.

20
Compressed Gases
  • Compressed gases may pose a physical and/or
    health hazard depending on the gas being used.
  • Restraint
  • Gas cylinders with regulators must be
    individually secured.
  • Only cylinders with safety caps can be group
    chained.
  • Individually Secured Group Chained
  •   
  • When transporting a cylinder don't forget to
  • Use appropriate cart
  • Secure cylinder in an upright position
  • Make sure safety cap is in place

21
  • Compressed gas containers must be handled with
    care and should be stored taking into account the
    property and hazard of the gases contained. This
    information can be found in the MSDS of the
    material.
  • Store in areas separate from external heat
    sources such as flame impingement, intense
    radiant heat, electric arc, or high temperature
    steam lines.
  • Store at least 20 feet from highly combustible
    materials such as oil or grease.
  • Store or transport in a manner to prevent them
    from tipping, falling or rolling.

22
  • Flammable gases (i.e. propane, hydrogen) must be
    stored in areas away from sources of ignition and
    kept separate from oxidizing gases (i.e. oxygen).
  • Poison/toxic gases (NFPA H3 or 4) i.e. chlorine,
    carbon monoxide, phosgene or ammonia can pose
    serious potential hazards to personnel and
    therefore special storage and handling measures
    are required.
  • Poison gases must be stored as follows
  • Small size cylinders (fit inside hood)
  • Use and storage in hood
  • Large size cylinders (regular use)
  • Use and store in ventilated cabinets with
  • air monitoring and alarm system

23
  • Health Hazards
  • A person must be exposed (inhalation, skin
    absorption, ingestion) to a health hazard for it
    to cause harm or health effect.
  • The level and duration of exposure determines
    the severity of the health effect.
  • The effects of exposure to hazardous chemicals
    vary with the amount of exposure or "dose."

24
Health Hazard
  • We will discuss basic toxicology principles, then
    specific health effects that a chemical exposure
    will cause.
  • The dose-response relationship is important in
    understanding the cause and effect relationship
    between chemical exposure and health effects.
  • All chemicals are toxic at a high enough dose
  • Dose- Response Relationship
  • 1- No-effect range (Safe region) 2- Range
    of increasing effect with increasing dose 3-
    Maximum effect range
  • Our goal is to reduce workplace exposures to the
    level where no adverse effects are observed, into
    the safe region of the dose-response relationship.

25
Lethal Dose 50
  • One of the most commonly used measures of
    toxicity is the LD50. The LD50 is one way to
    measure the short-term poisoning potential (acute
    toxicity) of a material.
  • The LD50 is the single dose that is lethal to 50
    of the animals tested. A chemical with a low
    LD50, like osmium tetroxide is highly toxic.
  • The LD50 however, says nothing about the
    non-lethal toxic effects of chemicals. Some
    chemicals may have a high LD50, but may produce
    toxic effects at very small exposure levels,
    Sulfuric acid has an oral (rat) LD50 of 2,140
    mg/kg, but may be corrosive at concentrations as
    low as 15, causing severe burns at very low
    quantities.

26
  • LD50 values for substances tested in the rat
  • Substance LD50 (mg/kg, oral, rat)
  • Vitamin C 11,900
  • Ethyl alcohol 7,060
  • Bromine 2,600
  • Osmium tetroxide 162 (mouse)
  • DDT 100
  • Nicotine salts 50
  • How should an LD50 value be used?
  • As an aid in developing emergency procedures in
    case of a major spill or accident.
  • As an aid in developing guidelines for the use of
    appropriate safety clothing and equipment. For
    example, if the dermal LD50 value for a chemical
    is rated as extremely toxic, it is important to
    protect the skin with clothing and gloves made of
    the right chemical-resistant material.
  • As part of the Material Safety Data Sheets.
    Remember, the LD50 is only an approximate figure
    so that lethal toxicity can be compared. It says
    nothing about levels at which other acute toxic,
    but non-lethal effects might occur.

27
Permissible Exposure Limit (PEL)
  • PELs are regulatory limits on the amount or
    concentration of a substance in the air. PEL's
    are based on an 8-hour adult time weighted
    average (TWA) exposure.
  • PEL's refer to airborne concentrations of
    substances that may be inhaled.
  • When working with materials that have a low PEL
    (lt 50ppm), use administrative and engineering
    controls to minimize the generation of a vapors
    or dust in the first place. If these controls are
    not sufficient, use appropriate personal
    protective equipment.

28
Carcinogen
  • Substances associated with the occurrence of
    cancer in animals or humans are called
    carcinogens.
  • In the research laboratory, chemicals that have
    been deemed to be carcinogens will be labeled as
    such on the manufacturer's bottle. As with other
    chemicals, MSDS will provide further detail about
    the chemical hazards, means of exposure and
    necessary precautions. Further, a list of
    carcinogens can be found in the CHP.
  • Carcinogens are a chronic hazard. That is, they
    do not cause harm upon initial exposure, but
    rather take repeated exposures over many years.
  • Common lab carcinogens and their uses are
  • Chloroform - laboratory solvent
  • Formaldehyde - tissue preservation
  • Carbon tetrachloride - laboratory solvent

29
Carcinogens
  • Safe Work Practices
  • In general, keep exposure as low as possible by
  • Using engineering controls, such as fume hoods or
    glove boxes.
  • Using PPE such as eye protection, lab coat and
    gloves.
  • Keeping quantities to a minimum.
  • Labeling bottle and storage area with the words
    carcinogen or cancer hazard.
  • Developing an SOP.

30
Sensitizers
  • Sensitizers are a group of chemicals that will
    cause, through an immune response, the exposed
    person to become allergic to the chemical. Upon
    sensitization, small exposures will illicit
    abnormally severe responses.
  • A common lab example is formaldehyde. Exposure to
    formaldehyde/formalin can cause a sore throat and
    other respiratory problems if inhaled, and
    eczema-like symptoms upon repeated skin contact.
  • Sensitization can occur either from skin contact,
    or from inhalation.
  • Note that a person who has allergic reactions to
    a chemical upon the first exposure is considered
    a sensitive individual.
  • Sensitizers are also chronic health hazard.
  • Examples of sensitizers
  • Formaldehyde/Formalin
  • Latex

31
Reproductive Hazards
  • Reproductive toxicity is a sub-chronic hazard
    that some research chemicals have. These can be
    either mutagens or teratogens.
  • Mutagens can cause damage to the genes, causing
    heritable mutations and abnormalities in the
    offspring.
  • Examples
  • Ethidium bromide
  • Formaldehyde, nicotine
  • Teratogens cause harm to the fetus or embryo
    during pregnancy, but the mother does not show
    any signs of toxicity.
  • Examples
  • Ethyl alcohol
  • Mercury compounds

32
Corrosives and Irritants
  • Corrosives has a low or high pH (lt2.0 or gt12.5).
    Therefore, acids and bases are corrosive. If
    corrosive chemicals come in contact with skin or
    eyes, they cause irreversible and visible damage
    at the site of contact. The damage will be acute.
  • Examples
  • Hydrochloric acid
  • Ammonium hydroxide
  • Acetic acid
  • Irritants will cause reversible, but still
    painful, inflammation when in contact with the
    skin, eyes, nose or respiratory tract.
  • Examples
  • Chlorine and ammonia containing products
  • Diluted acids
  • Halogens
  • Nitrogen dioxide
  • Alkaline dusts and mists
  • Ozone
  • Phosphorus chlorides
  • Hydrogen chloride
  • Phosgene
  • Arsenic trichloride
  • Hydrogen fluoride

33
  • Question
  • The LD50 of a material refers to dose or amount
    of material that will cause toxic effects in test
    animals.
  • True
  • False

34
  • False
  • The LD50 is the single dose that is lethal to
    50 of the animals tested. However, the toxic
    effects of a chemical are not determined by the
    LD50.

35
Minimizing Contact with Chemicals
  • The risk of exposure to particularly hazardous
    substances can be reduced by
  • Substituting whenever possible for less toxic
    /hazardous materials
  • Using as little material as possible
  • Handling inside a fume hood
  • Minimizing contact by the use of Personal
    Protective Equipment
  • Developing a written SOP for operations involving
    highly toxic materials

36
Chemical Storage Guidelines
  • The storage area and cabinets should be labeled
    to identify the hazardous nature of the products
    stored within.
  • Ensure that all chemicals are stored according
    to compatibility. (e.g., oxidizers such as
    sulfuric and nitric acid away from organics such
    as acetic acid and acetone).

37
  • Flammables storage
  • Flammable materials kept outside a cabinet should
    be in safety cans.
  • Flammable liquids (gt1L) must be stored inside
    flammable cabinets. Never store flammable liquids
    in a standard (non-explosion/fire proof) cabinet.
    Example i.e. acetone, hexane, acetic acid,
    phenol, and chloroform
  • Flammables include organic liquids, combustibles,
    organic acids and halogenated solvents.
    Halogenated solvents are not flammable, but this
    is the appropriate place to store them.

38
  • Acids Storage
  • Store by acid class in separate secondary
    containment
  • Organic
  • Acetic Acid
  • Formic Acid
  • Citric Acid
  • Benzoic Acid
  • Butyric Acid
  • Propionic Acid
  • Inorganic
  • Hydrochloric Acid
  • Hydrofluoric Acid
  • Hydrobromic Acid
  • Phosphoric Acid
  • Chromic Acid
  • Oxidizing
  • Nitric Acid
  • Perchloric Acid
  • Sulfuric Acid

39
  • Bases Storage
  • Store in secondary containment
  • Store away from acids and solvents
  • Cannot be stored at or above eye level.
  • Examples
  • Hydroxides
  • Amines
  • Ammonia
  • Bleach

40
  • Corrosive and flammable materials should be
    stored below eye level.
  • Dry chemicals can be stored on shelves.
  • Chemicals should not be stored on the floor
    except in approved shipping containers.

41
  • Concentrated perchloric acid should be stored
    alone in a cabinet by itself.

42
Hazard Control Methods
  • Hazard control methods must be implemented by
    the lab supervisor to reduce employee exposure to
    hazardous chemicals in the laboratory.
  • This section covers the three types of hazard
    control methods to reduce employee exposure to
    workplace hazards
  • Administrative controls
  • Engineering controls
  • Personal protective equipment

43
Administrative Controls
  • One way to control worker exposure to workplace
    hazards is through policies and procedures. Some
    examples of the administrative controls used in
    labs are
  • The SDSU CHP.
  • Standard Operating Procedures.
  • Lab-Specific SOP Training.
  • Chemical Labeling.
  • Material Safety Data Sheets.
  • Security Training.

44
  • Lab Security
  • Some points to consider are
  • Recognize that laboratory security is related to
    but different from laboratory safety and develop
    a site-specific security policy.
  • Control access to areas where hazardous materials
    are used and stored.
  • Know who is in your laboratory area.
  • Know what materials are being brought into your
    lab.
  • Know what materials are being removed from your
    lab.
  • Have a protocol for reporting security incidents.

45
  • Material Safety Data Sheets
  • A Material Safety Data Sheet (MSDS) is a
    valuable reference. It is important to consult an
    MSDS before introducing a new chemical into a lab
    protocol or working with hazardous substances.
  • MSDS shall be received with incoming shipments
    of hazardous chemicals and shall be readily
    accessible to lab employees.
  • Prepared by its manufacturer, an MSDS provides
    information to help you understand the intrinsic
    hazards of the chemical including
  • Physical and chemical properties
  • Reactivity and stability information
  • Physical and Health Hazards
  • Acute and chronic toxicity information
  • Permissible exposure limits
  • Exposure control measures
  • Handling and storage information
  • Waste disposal

46
Engineering Controls
  • Engineering Controls include devices such as
    fume hoods, glove boxes or other enclosures that
    reduce exposure or remove contaminants from the
    work environment.
  • Fume hoods work by moving air from the lab, into
    the hood, and exhausting to the outside
    atmosphere.
  • Use a chemical fume hood anytime your work
    involves
  • Toxic volatile materials (chloroform,
    formaldehyde)
  • with a PEL lt50 mg/kg.
  • Carcinogens or particularly hazardous substances.
  • A procedure that may create an aerosol of a toxic
    substance.
  • Reactive or explosive materials or chemicals that
    may spatter.
  • Toxic gases (NH3, CO, F).

47
  • Safe Operation of Chemical Fume Hoods
  • To ensure that airflow is not interrupted, and
    that the fume hood offers as much protection as
    possible
  • Keep sources of emission at least 6 inches
  • inside the fume hood (behind sash).
  • Minimize storage of chemicals in the hood.
  • Avoid blocking off baffle exhausts.
  • Ensure that blower is working
  • (some hoods have an on/off switch).
  • Work with sash at proper operating level
  • (between your face and materials in the fume
    hood).
  • NOTE Laminar flow hoods and biosafety cabinets
    do not provide any protection from chemicals.

EHS inspects fume hood performance regularly, and
at times may put "Match arrows for proper
ventilation" stickers on the hood. Use the hood
sash at or lower than the sticker to assure that
air speed is adequate.
48
Personal Protective Equipment (PPE)
  • Personal protective equipment includes any
    devices or clothing worn by the worker to protect
    against the hazards in the environment.
  • Examples are
  • Lab coats,
  • protective gloves,
  • safety glasses,
  • goggles,
  • and face shields.
  • Before Entering the Lab
  • Make sure that you minimize exposed skin at all
    times by wearing the appropriate clothing (long
    sleeves/pants, close toed shoes). The appropriate
    personal protective equipment must be used at all
    times in the lab when chemical, radioactive, or
    biohazardous materials are being handled.
  • It is advised to wear PPE even if not working
    with hazardous material, because you can be
    injured by someone else's accident!

49
  • Glove Selection and Use
  • Protective gloves are an important aspect of
    protection against hazardous materials. The use
    of protective gloves can reduce the risk of a
    hand injury by 40.
  • It is critical that users select the correct
    glove material based on the chemicals used and
    the permeation data.
  • The natural rubber proteins found in latex gloves
    may produce an allergic reaction with sensitive
    individuals. Some people may develop an allergy
    from latex after repeated use of latex products.
    The use of powdered gloves may take the allergic
    reaction much worse because the powder becomes
    airborne, carrying latex proteins, which are then
    inhaled.
  • To reduce the risk of latex allergy
  • Substitute non-latex gloves when ever possible or
    use powder free, reduced protein content.

50
  • Glove Use
  • Protective gloves must be worn when there is a
    potential for a hand injury or skin contact with
    chemicals, extreme temperatures or abrasives.All
    protective gloves have limitations. Chemicals
    will eventually permeate gloves, however they can
    be safely used for specific time periods when the
    conditions and use of the chemicals are known.
  • Protective Glove Recommendations
  • For prolonged chemical contact or immersion use
    reusable gloves
  • Neoprene - Recommended for corrosives (pH lt2.0or
    gt12.5), solvents and alcohols.
  • Nitrile (Blue or green) - Recommended for
    non-halogenated solvents
  • such as hexane, methanol and puncture or abrasion
    hazards.     
  • Nomex or Zetex - Recommended for temperature
    extremes
  • such as handling cryogenic fluids like liquid
    nitrogen.
  • Viton - Recommended for chlorinated and aromatic
    solvents
  • such as carbon tetrachloride and benzene.

51
Chemical Storage
  • General Rule
  • Food containers MUST NEVER BE USED for chemical
    storage.

52
Chemical Storage
  • Provide earthquake restraints for all shelving
    where chemicals or glassware are stored.
  • Provide secondary containment if there is a risk
    or spill or release.

53
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