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Introduction to Animal Science

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Introduction to Animal Science Competency 1.00 ANIMAL DOMESTICATION Adapting animal behavior to fit the needs of people. REASONS FOR DOMESTICATION To ensure a ... – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: Introduction to Animal Science


1
Introduction to Animal Science
2
Competency 1.00
  • Investigate agriculture animals in order to build
    a foundational knowledge for advanced animal
    science studies

3
ANIMAL DOMESTICATION
  • Adapting animal behavior to fit the needs of
    people.

4
REASONS FOR DOMESTICATION
  • To ensure a steadier supply of food and clothing
  • Companionship
  • Assist in labor

5
RESULTS OF DOMESTICATION
  • Less dependence on hunting and wild plants for
    food
  • A surer source of food and clothing
  • A more settled way of life
  • Selective breeding

6
WHAT IS SELECTIVE BREEDING?
  • Selecting animals with certain desirable
    characteristics to use for breeding purposes

7
ORIGIN OF CATTLE
  • Bos taurus- European cattle
  • Bos indicus- Humped cattle from tropical
    countries.
  • India
  • First brought to the U.S. by Columbus

8
Cattle
Bos taurus
Bos indicus
9
ORIGIN OF CATTLE
  • Major growth of large herds in great plains
    states because of grazing.
  • Midwest and north central states became the main
    area for finishing cattle because of grain.

10
US Cattle
Finishing
Grazing
11
ORIGIN OF SWINE
  • Sus scrofa and Sus vittatus.
  • Chinese were first to tame pigs
  • Brought to new world by Columbus
  • DeSoto took hogs westward
  • Midwestern cornbelt states became largest hog
    producing area

12
Swine
Sus scrofa
Sus vittatus
13
ORIGIN OF SHEEP
  • One of the first animals tamed by humans
  • Brought to new world by Columbus
  • Used by colonists mainly for wool
  • Northeast and Western states are main sheep
    producing areas

14
Sheep
4000 BC
15
ORIGIN OF GOATS
  • Pasang and Grecian Ibex- Wild goats found in Asia
    Minor
  • Goats brought to new world for milk and hair

16
Goats
Western Asia
17
ORIGIN OF HORSES
  • Evolved from Eohippus
  • First tamed in Asia or Persia
  • Brought to new world by Columbus
  • Horses were left behind by explorers
  • Brought to new world for work animals

18
Horses
Asia and Persia
19
ORIGIN OF POULTRY
  • Gallus gallus- Wild jungle fowl, ancestor of tame
    chickens
  • Turkeys were probably tamed by people originally
    living in America

20
Poultry
Egypt
India and China
North America
21
Objective
  • 1.01
  • Define terms used to identify animals by sex,
    age, physical traits in the beef, swine, and
    poultry industry

22
Terms
  • Cattle Swine Poultry
  • Not castrated Bull Boar Rooster
  • Castrated (young) Steer Barrow Capon
  • Castrated (old) Stag Stag
  • Young female Heifer Guilt
  • That has not given birth
  • Older female Cow Sow
  • That has given birth
  • Baby Calf Pig Chick

23
Objective
  • 1.02
  • Identify the major breeds of beef, swine, and
    poultry

24
Angus
25
Beef Breeds
  • Angus
  • Black
  • Polled
  • Originated in Scotland
  • It is the most registered purebred
  • High in carcass quality

26
Hereford
27
Beef Breeds
  • Hereford
  • Red and White face
  • Horns
  • Originated in England
  • Docile
  • Gentle temperament
  • Good foragers
  • Efficient converters of forage crops

28
Charolais
29
Charolais
30
Beef Breeds
  • Charolais
  • White to light straw colored
  • Naturally Horned
  • Breeding-up has created polled animals
  • Large framed
  • Originated in France

31
Brahman
32
Brahman
33
Beef Breeds
  • Brahman
  • Light Gray to Black or Red
  • Originated in India
  • Pronounced hump
  • Loose Dewlap
  • Insect tolerant
  • Disease tolerant

34
Polled Hereford
35
Polled Hereford
  • Developed from the horned Hereford breed
  • Originated in 1901
  • Warren Gammon
  • Des Moines, Iowa

36
Limousin
37
Limousin
  • Native to the
    south central part of France
  • Golden-red cattle

38
Beefmaster (Bull)
39
Beefmaster
  • Developed from
  • Brahman
  • Hereford
  • Shorthorn
  • Developed by Ed Lasater in 1908

40
Shorthorn
41
Texas Longhorn
42
Chianina (pronounced kee-a-nee-na)
43
Dairy Breeds
44
Holstein
45
Dairy Breeds
  • Holstein
  • 90 of the dairy cattle in the US
  • Black and white
  • Leading producer of milk
  • Produce about 18,000 lbs. Of milk per cow per year

46
Jersey
47
Guernsey
48
Other Dairy Breeds
  • Jersey
  • Cream to light fawn to almost black
  • Number one in milk fat
  • Guernsey
  • Fawn and white
  • Ayrshire
  • Cherry red and white
  • Brown Swiss
  • Solid brown

49
Ayrshire
50
Brown Swiss
51
Identifying Breeds of Swine
52
American Landrace
  • White
  • Long Body
  • Big loped forward ears
  • Large litters
  • Good mothering ability
  • Originated in Denmark

53
American Landrace
54
Duroc
  • Red
  • Drooped ears
  • Good growth rate
  • Excellent feed conversion

55
Duroc
56
Hampshire
  • Black with a white belt
  • Erect ears
  • Good muscle
  • Carcass leanness

57
Hampshire
58
Yorkshire
  • White
  • Erect ears
  • Large litters
  • Good feed efficiency
  • Excellent growth and mothering ability
  • Long carcass

59
Yorkshire
60
Poland China
  • Drooped ears
  • Black and white
  • Sound in its feet and legs

61
Poland China
62
Chester White
  • Chester County, Pennsylvania
  • Intermingled English breeds

63
Chester White
64
Tamworth
  • English breed
  • Ireland
  • Bacon-type

65
Tamworth
66
Berkshire
  • Black and white
  • Erect ears
  • Fast and efficient growth
  • Reproductive efficiency
  • Cleanness
  • Meatiness

67
Berkshire
68
Spotted Swine
  • Popular with farmers and commercial swine
    producers for their ability to transmit their
    fast-gaining, feed efficient, meat qualities to
    their offspring

69
Spotted Swine
70
Assignment
  • Read pages 239 to 268 in the Livestock and
    Companion Animals textbook
  • Answer the following questions and turn in on
    notebook paper

71
Assignment (p. 239-248)
  1. What is a new breed of pig that looks like the
    Hereford Cattle Breed?
  2. Explain what a hybrid hog is.
  3. What is the current consumer trend in swine type?
  4. How many piglets are produced on average at each
    birth?
  5. How do you accurately measure backfat?

72
Total Confinement
73
(No Transcript)
74
Farrowing Crate
75
(No Transcript)
76
Identifying Breeds of Poultry
77
Breeds, Varieties, Types Classes
  • Breed- group of related fowl that breed true for
    a specific trait
  • Type- purpose for which it is breed (meat or egg
    type)
  • Classes- geographic origin (Mediterranean,
    American, English and Asiatic)

78
Egg Producers
  • Layers- chickens that produce eggs
  • White egg producers- small in size
  • White Leghorns- white plumage
  • Brown egg producers- larger birds that are not as
    economical as Leghorns
  • Rhode Island Reds- dark red plumage
  • New Hampshires- red plumage
  • Plymouth Rocks- white plumage

79
White Leghorns
80
Barred Rock
81
Rhode Island Red
82
Layer Cages
83
(No Transcript)
84
Meat Producers
  • Chickens used for meat production are called
    Broilers
  • Birds used for meat production are usually
    commercial crosses
  • Example White Plymouth Rock females mated to
    Cornish (English class) males

85
Confinement Broiler House
86
Confinement Broiler House
87
Turkeys
  • Broad Breasted White
  • White plumage
  • Shanks, feet, and beak is white to pink
  • White pinfeathers
  • Increases the value of the carcass
  • Can survive better in hotter climates
  • Good body confirmation but smaller than other
    breeds

88
Broad Breasted White
89
Turkeys
  • Broad Breasted Bronze
  • Black plumage
  • Dark colored pinfeathers
  • Largest of the turkey varieties
  • Poor fertility and reproductive problems
  • Males are not good breeders

90
Broad Breasted Bronze
91
Turkeys
  • Beltsville Small Whites
  • Developed by the USDA
  • Similar to the Broad Breasted Whites
  • Averages about 10 lbs. less in mature body weight

92
Beltsville Small Whites
93
Commercial Livestock
  • Used in the livestock and poultry industry
  • Crosses of more than one breed or strain of
    breeds
  • Adds in genetic diversity
  • Livestock have more desired traits
  • Undesirable traits can be lessened
  • Used by most producers

94
Livestock External Anatomy
95
Objective
  • 1.03
  • Recognize the major parts of cattle, swine and
    poultry

96
Cattle Parts
97
Cattle Parts
98
Cattle Parts
  • In your notebook draw a diagram of a beef cow
    labeling 20 different parts including the 11 red
    stars in the class diagram

99
Cattle Parts
100
Swine Parts
  • In your notebook draw a diagram of a swine
    labeling 15 different parts including red stars
    in the class diagram

101
Swine Parts
102
Poultry Parts
Diagram a chicken in your notes labeling these
parts (use the diagram in your textbook for help)
  • comb
  • wattles
  • beak
  • eye ring
  • ear lobe
  • vent
  • hock

toes breast back abdomen body shank
103
Poultry Parts
104
External Parts
  • Anatomy
  • The science of body structure
  • Modified skin
  • horns
  • hooves
  • feathers
  • fur
  • wool
  • hair

105
Selective Breeding
  • Only the best animals are chosen as breeding
    stock
  • Confirmation
  • Breed character
  • Structural soundness of feet and legs
  • Body capacity

106
Structural Soundness
107
Structural Soundness
108
Structural Soundness
109
Structural Soundness
110
Competency 2.00
  • Recognize the benefits and importance of
    agricultural animals

111
Objective
  • Breeds 2.01
  • State the importance of livestock products and
    by-products

112
Livestock Products
  • Work in groups of three and write down as many
    animals products and by-products as you can.
  • You have 10 min. to complete this task!

113
Livestock Products
  • 1. Food
  • meat, milk, cheese, eggs
  • 2. Clothing
  • wool, leather from hides
  • 3. Shelter
  • tents from hides
  • 4. Power
  • work in less developed countries

114
Livestock Products
  • 5. Recreation
  • horse back riding, rodeos
  • 6. Fuel
  • burn dry animal manure
  • 7. Animals are converters
  • eat stuff humans will not eat and convert these
    materials into food
  • meat, eggs, milk, etc.

115
Which of the following was not made from animals
116
(No Transcript)
117
Answer!
118
By-Products
  • 1. Wool
  • 2. Leather
  • 3. Candy and chewing gum from animal fat
  • 4. Gelatin - from horns, hooves, bones, and hides
  • 5. Glue, cosmetics, waxes, soap, lubricants,
    brushes, etc.

119
Wool
120
By-Products
  • 6. Animal feeds from scrap meat and bones and
    blood meal
  • 7. Insulin
  • for diabetics
  • from livestock pancreas

121
By-Products
  • 8. Heparin
  • for blood clotting
  • from livestock lungs
  • 9. Candles
  • 10. Fertilizer

122
Trends in Animal Science
123
Objective
  • 2.02
  • Describe the economic importance and trends for
    each major classes of livestock and poultry
    produced in North Carolina

124
(No Transcript)
125
Swine
126
Trends in NC Swine
  • The top agriculture commodity in North Carolina
  • found mostly in the eastern 1/2 of the state
  • North Carolina ranks 2nd nationally
  • Iowa is 1st

127
(No Transcript)
128
Trends in NC Swine
  • The swine industry brings in over 1.5 billion
    dollars to the state
  • The number of swine farms is decreasing
  • The size of farms is increasing

129
Poultry
130
(No Transcript)
131
(No Transcript)
132
Trends in NC Poultry
  • Broilers are Cleveland Countys top agriculture
    commodity
  • Broilers are NCs second rank commodity
  • Broilers bring in over 1.3 billion dollars in
    cash receipts to NC agriculture

133
Trends in NC Poultry
  • Recent health concerns has increased the
    consumption of poultry products
  • less fat
  • subcutaneous fat layer

134
Animal Agriculture
  • North Carolina livestock commodities brings in
    twice as much money as other agriculture products

135
Livestock, Dairy and Poultry Cash
Receipts from Farm Marketing, 2001
136
Cleveland County Livestock Rank Within State,
(2002 estimates)
  • Hogs- 61st (1,500) (4,100 in 2004)
  • Cattle- 7th (23,500)
  • Beef Cattle 6th
  • Milk Cattle 23rd (800)
  • Broilers- 23rd (7,200,000)
  • All chickens- 30th

137
Statistics
  • Charts and statistics provided by
  • NCDA
  • http//www.ncagr.com/stats/index.htm
  • USDA
  • http//www.usda.gov/nass/
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