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Fishing for a Secure Future: Opportunities for Reforming Fisheries Governance

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Latin America: Amazon River system ... SE Asia: Mekong River Basin. Largest SE Asia river with a fish diversity upwards of 1,700 species. Sub-Saharan Africa: ... – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: Fishing for a Secure Future: Opportunities for Reforming Fisheries Governance


1
Fishing for a Secure Future Opportunities for
Reforming Fisheries Governance
  • Robert Pomeroy
  • University of Connecticut-Avery Point
  • and
  • Patrick Christie
  • University of Washington

2
Presentation Outline
  • Why Care About Fisheries
  • Issues and Threats
  • US Foreign Assistance Framework
  • Recommendations and Opportunities

3
Purpose of Assessment
  • Identify specific opportunities for investment in
    near-shore small-scale marine and freshwater
    capture fisheries to encourage
  • economic growth
  • democracy and governance
  • poverty reduction
  • food and livelihood security
  • biodiversity conservation
  • Regions ANE, AFR, LAC

4
Methodology
  • Literature-based research (not a GAP analysis)
  • Stakeholder consultations
  • USAID operating units
  • U.S. government agencies (such as State, NOAA,
    DOI)
  • NGOs
  • International organizations and donor community
  • Universities
  • Collective experience of the report team

5
Assessment Team
  • Patrick Christie Co-team leader
  • Robert Pomeroy Co-team leader
  • Gene Helfman University of Georgia
  • Brian Crawford University of Rhode Island
  • Nancy Diamond Diamond Consulting
  • Tom Grasso - WWF
  • Gareth Porter - WWF
  • Don Jackson Mississippi State University
  • Ann Gordon WorldFish Center
  • Patrick Dugan WorldFish Center
  • Catrin Egerton WorldFish Center
  • Adaoma Wosu WorldFish Center
  • Natan Vinhateiro WorldFish Center

6
Why Care About Small-Scale Fisheries?
7
Importance of Fisheries to Developing Countries
  • 1.5 billion people depend upon fish for food,
    income livelihood
  • 2.6 billion people receive more that 20 of
    their animal protein from fish, compared to 8 in
    developed countries
  • Up to 50 of animal protein in some countries
  • Fisheries contribute to
  • Secure livelihoods (commercial
    small-scale/artisanal)
  • Human health (food security and nutrition)
  • Economic and community development
  • Regional international trade, export earnings
  • Environmental health and biodiversity
    conservation
  • Security

8
Importance of Fisheries to Developing Countries
  • Fish are the most heavily traded food commodity
    and fastest growing international agricultural
    commodity
  • Developing countries provide 77 of global
    fishing production
  • Supply-demand relationship is south to north
  • Net exports of fish in 2002 earned 17.4 billion
    in foreign exchange for developing countries
  • Greater than combined net exports of rice,
    coffee, sugar tea!

9
Small-Scale Fisheries
  • Labor-intensive, non-mechanized, small boats,
    traditional fishing gear
  • Activities take place nearshore during trips of
    one day or less
  • Small-scale fishers account for 96 of the
    worlds fishers
  • They catch 58 of the global fish catch
  • 12-50 million men and women are estimated to be
    directly involved in small-scale capture
    fisheries (full-time, increasingly part-time,
    seasonal)
  • 87 of worlds fishers are in the Asia-Pacific
    region
  • At least 20 of those employed in fisheries earn
    lt 1/day
  • Far more people have become involved in fishing
    than agriculture since 1950 (total growth rate of
    400 vs. 35)

10
  • Small-Scale Fisheries
  • 50 Million people directly employed
  • People involved in fisheries-related
    occupations 150 M
  • Fishing household dependents 250 M
  • Annual catch for food is 20-30 M tons
  • Large-Scale Fisheries
  • 500,000 people directly employed
  • People involved in fisheries-related
    occupations 1.0 M
  • Fishing household dependents 2.0 M
  • Annual catch for food is 15-40 Million tons

11
Gender Fisheries
  • Fishing (and gleaning) part of a household
    livelihood strategy
  • Wide range of mens womens fisheries
    occupations (e.g., catching, growing, processing,
    trading)
  • Household gender division of labor varies by
    place
  • Womens and girls contributions less often
    recognized

12
Trends
  • Capture fisheries are in a state of decline that
    began in the 1980s (and earlier for some
    fisheries)
  • Causes overfishing, habitat loss and other
    environmental degradation
  • Example South and SE Asia demersal stocks have
    been fished down to 530 of unexploited levels
    88 of SE Asia coral reefs are threatened by
    human activities
  • Impacts Livelihoods and employment, reduced
    incomes, vulnerability to poverty, food security
    and nutrition, export revenue, loss of resource
    rent, social stability and security

13
Importance of Fisheries to Developing Countries
  • Decline in per capita availability and
    increasing prices leading to a widening gap
    between supply and demand, and disproportionate
    impact on developing countries the poor
  • Capture fisheries may not meet the increasing
    global demand for seafood products (1.5 annually
    through 2020 and 2 annually for Asia) unless
  • Improved resource management
  • Sustainable aquaculture

14
Marine and Freshwater Biodiversity
  • Serious threats to fisheries from declining
    levels of aquatic biodiversity
  • Serious threats to biodiversity from poorly
    managed fisheries
  • Developing countries have the most significant
    areas of marine and freshwater biodiversity and
    fisheries

15
Areas of Significant Marine Biodiversity and
Fisheries
  • Highest diversity of marine fish species is the
    Indo-Malay-Philippines Archipelago
  • Global center of marine fish biodiversity is the
    central Philippine islands
  • A second center or peak between peninsular
    Malaysia and Sumatra

16
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17
Freshwater Biodiversity and Fisheries
  • Latin America Amazon River system
  • Richest fish fauna in the world, 3,000 species,
    with at least 30 different families represented
  • SE Asia Mekong River Basin
  • Largest SE Asia river with a fish diversity
    upwards of 1,700 species
  • Sub-Saharan Africa Rift Valley Lakes Congo
    River Basin
  • Support similarly high numbers of fish species

18
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19
Issues and Threats Weak Governance
  • Overfishing and excess fishing capacity
  • Open access
  • Illegal, unreported and unregulated (IUU)
    fishing
  • Lack of information
  • Enforcement and compliance
  • Low participation in decision making
  • Conflict
  • Weak management institutions and corruption
  • Inappropriate policies

20
Issues and Threats Socioeconomic Conditions
  • Poverty
  • Poorly managed globalization of trade and market
    access
  • Technological advances
  • Rapid population growth
  • Health HIV AIDS, nutrition
  • Political and economic marginalization
  • Gender inequity and inequality

21
Issues and Threats Large Ecosystem Changes
  • Climate change SLR, elevated SST, acidification
  • Habitat loss and pollution (coastal development)
  • Removal of key species, introduction of exotics
  • Altered freshwater inflows

22
Opportunities in Small-Scale Fisheries
  • The fisheries sector has great potential to
    contribute to poverty reduction and economic
    growth
  • Moderate scope for increased benefits to poor
    fishers and consumers and resource rents to
    society, with responsible equitable governance
  • Some indication that fishing is no longer the
    employment of last resort, and that fishing
    households are actively diversifying livelihoods.
  • Increasing successes with a range of new
    management approaches

23
Management Responses
  • Ecosystem-based management
  • Integrated coastal management
  • Precautionary approach
  • Adaptive management
  • Stakeholder participation via co-management
    CBNRM
  • Rights-based management (use rights limiting
    access)
  • Marine protected areas
  • Data less management in information-limited
    situations
  • Markets and certification
  • Livelihoods approach

24
Strategy
  • Address underlying factors of vulnerability
  • Build resilience of fishing communities
  • Understand the diversity of fisheries
  • Utilized in a cross-sectoral manner to address
    the complexity of issues and threats

25
Relationship of Fisheries to the New U.S. Foreign
Assistance Framework
  • Framework Goal
  • Helping to build and sustain democratic,
    well-governed states that respond to the needs of
    their people and conduct themselves responsibly
    in the international system.

26
Fisheries the Framework Components
  • 1. Governing Justly and Democratically
  • Weak governance
  • Enforcement problems
  • Lack of stakeholder participation in
    decision-making
  • 2. Economic Growth
  • Political and economic marginalization
  • Trade and market access
  • Loss of economic rents
  • Poverty and livelihoods

27
Fisheries the Framework Components
  • 3. Peace and Security
  • Maritime security
  • Leaky borders (piracy, smuggling)
  • Conflict and fish wars
  • 4. Investing in People
  • Food security, nutrition, health (HIV/AIDS)
  • Rapid population growth
  • Loss of biodiversity and ecosystem health
  • 5. Humanitarian Assistance
  • Vulnerability to disaster

28
Small-Scale Fisheries and US Government
Leadership
  • A new fisheries initiative
  • SECURE FISHING COMMUNITIES
  • and
  • SUSTAINABILITY

29
Recommendations
  • National
  • Regional
  • Global

30
National Assistance Overview
  • Improve assessment capacity
  • Reform fisheries governance
  • Reduce excess fishing capacity and improve
    access management
  • Reduce IUU fishing
  • Develop human and institutional capacity
  • Build appropriate trade capacity
  • Conserve biodiversity for enhanced
  • sustained productivity

31
National Improve Assessment Capacity
  • Work with governments to conduct national
    assessment of small-scale fisheries leading to
    national fisheries and development plans
  • Assess characteristics and state of fishers and
    fisheries, socio-economics gender analysis,
    current policies, etc.
  • Use information as platform for developing
    appropriate policies and monitoring change over
    time

32
National Reform Fisheries Governance
  • Changing the mindset
  • Acknowledge overfishing build political and
    public will for reform
  • Moving from production orientation to
    sustainable management
  • Manage access
  • Manage different types of fisheries in an
    integrated manner, especially for shared stocks

33
National Reform Fisheries Governance
  • Encourage transparency and accountability
  • Reduce corruption
  • Promote co-management including women and
    minorities
  • Sustainable fisheries concept encoded in law
  • Integrate fisheries with other sectors and
    planning processes
  • Build alliances with private sector other
    partners
  • Adaptive management

34
National Reduce excess fishing capacity
  • National and local plans of action
  • Managing access to fisheries resources
  • Alternative livelihoods to support transition
    out of fishery sector

35
National Develop Human and Institutional
Capacity
  • Developing champions for sustainable fisheries
    within government
  • Reform fisheries education
  • Create lifelong learning opportunities for
    government policy makers and technicians, both
    women and men
  • Institutional reform

36
National Build Appropriate Trade Capacity
  • Improve phyto-sanitary measures
  • Increase value of fisheries products via
    processing, improving value chains, increasing
    competitiveness
  • Engaging women traders in market and trade
    reforms
  • Ensure that international trade does not
    undermine local food security

37
National Conserve biodiversity for enhanced
sustained productivity
  • Mainstream conservation policies
  • Maintaining ecosystem health and functions
  • Move toward ecosystem-based management as
    appropriate

38
Example The Philippines
  • PROJECT FISH (www.oneocean.org)
  • Increased fish stocks through ecosystem-based
    fisheries management
  • Tools
  • Fishing effort regulation
  • Marine protected area networks
  • Monitoring (scientific participatory)
    progress metrics
  • Improved enforcement
  • Next steps
  • Regional scaling up
  • National educational program

39
Example Nicaragua/Honduras
  • Reform of spiny lobster conch fisheries
  • Create public-private sector alliance
    (governments, restaurant chains, importers and
    exporters, NGOs, foundations)
  • Consider moving toward certification scheme
  • Link to US-Central America Free Trade Agreement
    (CAFTA)

40
Regional
  • Regional workshops for donor coordination and
    sharing lessons learned
  • Transboundary fisheries management

41
Global Alliance Development
  • Energize donor interest in small-scale fisheries
  • Public-private partnerships
  • Two emerging alliances
  • PROFISH/World Bank
  • Resilient Small-Scale Fisheries Campaign/World
    Fish Center

42
USG Leadership Presidential Initiative
  • Justification US Commission of Ocean Policy and
    US Administrative Response called for leadership
    on sustainable fisheries
  • Build from globally recognized USG leadership
    in
  • Integrated approaches
  • Capacity development
  • Integrated science
  • Improving governance
  • Build coalition around secure fishing communities
    and sustainability
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