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Colonization of Africa

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Colonization of Africa 19th Century Dutch Landing in 1652 Shaka Zulu (1785 1828) Boers Clash With the Xhosa Tribes Boer Farmer The Great Trek, 1836-38 Afrikaners ... – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: Colonization of Africa


1
Colonization of Africa
  • 19th Century

2
Colonialism
Colonialism is forced control of one nation by
another nation.
Colony is when a nation establishes a government
under its rule in a foreign territory.
Imperialism is empire building by taking over
other countries governments trade, and culture.
  • Beginning in the early 19th Century, Europeans
    aggressively tried to establish colonies in
    Africa.
  • European civilization experienced a period of
    unprecedented rapid expansion around the globe
    during the last third of the nineteenth century.

3
Reasons for Colonialism
  • Despite Europeans involvement in the Slave Trade
    Europeans usually relied on Africans to trade
    slaves instead of colonizing the continent.
  • By the 1880s every major nation in the world had
    abolished the institution of slavery.
  • Europeans found a new interest in Africa.
  • Africa is a continent of vast wealth.

4
Positive EuropeanReasons for Colonialism
  • Colonies provided Europe with strategic military
    and economic advantages.
  • Open up new trading markets for European goods.
  • Europe received minerals and other natural
    resources (diamonds, gold, cotton, ivory, and
    rubber) which fed the Industrial Revolution
  • Spread Christianity throughout the continent.
  • Europeans had access to cheap labor

5
When most European nations ended slavery in the
early______, they shifted their focus to trading
goods such as gold, ivory, and____________. Soon
after, the European powers divided up most of
Africa. They used ______________to keep power.
This is a policy of taking over other countries
governments trade, and culture.
1800s
rubber
imperialism
6
Negative EuropeanReasons for Colonialism
  • European powers had to fight against rebellions.
  • Colonial rule in many places, especially the
    Congo, was morally nauseating (sickening).

7
The Berlin Conference
In 1884 at the request of Portugal, German
chancellor Otto von Bismark called together the
major western powers of the world to negotiate
questions and end confusion over the control of
Africa. Bismark appreciated the opportunity to
expand Germany's sphere of influence over Africa
and desired to force Germany's rivals to struggle
with one another for territory. At the time of
the conference, 80 of Africa remained under
traditional and local control.
8
Berlin Conference (1884)
Berlin Conference in 1884 led by Otto Von
Bismarck, German Chancellor
Series of Meetings in Berlin, Germany, held by
European nations, Africas rulers not in
attendance.
Met to discuss how to divide Africas land.
  • 20 of the Europeans already controlled.
  • By the end of Colonialism most of Africa was
    under its control.

9
The Berlin Conference
"The Berlin Conference was Africa's undoing in
more ways than one. The colonial countries
superimposed or forced their powers on the
African continent. By the time independence
returned to Africa in 1950, Africa had developed
a condition or custom of political division that
could not be eliminated or made to work properly
as a government for the people.
10
What type of Political boundaries existed before
the Berlin Conference in 1885?
11
Political Boundaries after Berlin Conference.
12
Impact of Colonial Period/ Partitioning of Africa
Negative Effects for Africa
African tribes lost control of their own
countries.
Land was confiscated for farms for the European
colonies.
Wars, revolts, and protests were common.
Starvation and disease became widespread.
NEW BORDERS were drawn that separated families
and tribes.
  • Conflicts broke out between tribes that were once
    friendly.

13
Impact of Colonial Period/ Partitioning of Africa
Positive Effects for Africa
  • Schools and hospitals built.
  • Economy was improved by new governments.
  • Roads and railroads were built.
  • Health was improved (Health systems, etc)
  • Berlin Conference set a specific date for the end
    of the slave trade.
  • New technology elevated the standard of living.

14
Colonization of Africa
  • Effects on Individual Countries and Regions

15
South Africa
  • Mid-1600s, the Dutch established a small colony
    at the Cape of Good Hope (southernmost tip of
    Africa).
  • to serve as a trading post for ships on their
    way to Asia.
  • The Cape grew into a large colony, Dutch
    government began awarding Dutch settlers
    territories occupied by the native Africans.
  • In 1795 the Dutch Monarch invited Great Britain
    to take over South Africa.

16
The Struggle for South Africa
17
South Africa
  • Exacerbated tensions between British colonists
    and Afrikaners (white colonists of Dutch
    descent).
  • The British and Afrikaners, however, oppressed
    the black Africans.
  • Gold and Diamonds discovered in South Africa, led
    to violent conflicts between both groups.
  • From 1899 1902 they fought one another in the
    Boer War.
  • Both groups used black Africans.
  • Many blacks and Afrikaners died in British
    concentration camps and suffered due to Britain's
    scorched earth warfare.

18
The Great Trek, 1836-38
Afrikaners
19
Diamond Mines
Raw Diamonds
20
Boer-British Tensions Increase
  • 1877 Britain annexed the Transvaal.
  • 1883 Boers fought British in the
    Transvaal and regained its
    independence. - Paul Kruger becomes
    President.
  • 1880s Gold discovered in the
    Transvaal

21
Boer War
  • Scorched earth tactics caused devastation and
    starvation among much of the black population as
    well.
  • Britain's brutal tactics still remain a source of
    resentment between Afrikaners and
    English-speaking whites in South Africa.

22
Boer War
23
The Boer War 1899 - 1900
The British
The Boers
24
The British implementing the scorched earth
policy - Boer warThe British found themselves at
a disadvantage, due to the size of the territory,
lack of familiarity with the terrain and the
mobility and skills of the "Boers". In an effort
to bring the war to an end, the British responded
with a scorched-earth policy. This included
burning down the farms and homes of the "Boers",
and putting their women and children in
concentration camps. Some 26,000 "Boer" women and
children and 14,000 black and colored people were
to die in appalling conditions.
25
European Powers involved in Colonization
  • Belgium
  • King Leopold II claimed much of the African
    Congo.
  • African Congo became best known for their rubber
    plantations and ivory.
  • East Africa

26
The _______controlled much of East Africa. Large
numbers of Europeans settled in Kenya. But most
colonial rulers used African deputies to control
the countries. Many deputies were traditional
chiefs. They often favored their own peoples.
This caused conflict between ethnic groups.
British
27
These conflicts have made it hard for
governments to influence feelings of national
identity. Most East African countries gained
independence in the early 1960s.________,
however, was never colonized. Independence did
not solve all the problems of the former
colonies. New challenges faced the newly
independent countries.
Ethiopia
28
HISTORY OF WEST AFRICA
European countries claimed colonies in West
Africa in the late 1800s and kept control until
after___________. They built schools, roads, and
railroads, but many Africans gave up farming and
worked for low wages. All the countries in West
Africa became independent by 1974.
World War II
29
HISTORY OF NORTH AFRICA
European
In the 1800s _________ countries began
invading North Africa. By 1912 Spain and France
controlled Morocco, France also controlled
Tunisia and Algeria, Italy controlled Libya, and
the British controlled Egypt.
30
The countries gradually gained independence in
the mid-1900s. _______ was the last country to
win independence in 1962. Today the countries of
North Africa are trying to build stronger ties to
other Arab countries.
HISTORY OF NORTH AFRICA
Algeria
31
Name the European colonial powers.
Some of the Central African countries became rich
from trading with the Europeans. But they were
all weakened in time Why?
France
Britian
Belgium
Spain
Germany
Portugal
32
The people of Central Africa speak hundreds of
different languages. They also speak regional
varieties of the same language or ____________.
Dialects
The reason for the for the great variety is that
each ethnic group speaks its own native languae
or dialect of one such as _________. However
each country has an offical language as well.
Bantu
33
Religion in Central Africa draws heavily from its
colonial history. Many of the countries that
were once part of the former French, Spanish, and
Portuguese colonies are Roman Catholic while
Protestant Christians can be found in former
British Colonies.
34
Dutch Landing in 1652
35
Shaka Zulu (1785 1828)
36
Boers Clash With the Xhosa Tribes
Boer Farmer
37
The Great Trek, 1836-38
Afrikaners
38
Diamond Mines
Raw Diamonds
39
The Struggle for South Africa
40
Cecil Rhodes (1853-1902)
The Colossus of Rhodes
41
Uncle Sam The Colossusof the Pacific (A
Parody)
42
Paul Kruger (1825-1904)
43
Boer-British Tensions Increase
  • 1877 Britain annexed the Transvaal.
  • 1883 Boers fought British in the
    Transvaal and regained its
    independence. - Paul Kruger becomes
    President.
  • 1880s Gold discovered in the
    Transvaal

44
The Boer War 1899 - 1900
The British
The Boers
45
A Future British Prime Minister
British Boer War Correspondent, Winston Churchill
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