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Benito Mussolini

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Title: Benito Mussolini


1
Benito Mussolini
http//www.library.wisc.edu/libraries/dpf/Fascism/
Mussolini.html
2
Italian Fascism
  • The term comes from the Italian fascio, derived
    from the ancient Latin fasces, which referred to
    the bundle of lictors, or axe-headed rods, that
    symbolized the sovereignty and authority of the
    Roman Republic. From approximately the 1870s, the
    term fascio was used in Italy in the names of
    radical new social and political organizations,
    normally of the left. Thus the revolutionary
    nationalists who sought to create a new left
    nationalist league in 1919, in the aftermath of
    World War I, formed a Fascio di Combattimento,
    transformed two years later into the new Fascist
    Party, and so a radical new "ism" was born.

source
3
Socialist Editor
  • Mussolini went south to the Po Valley. Here he
    helped the farmers in their efforts to get a
    better wage. He became the secretary of the local
    socialist party in Forli and became the editor of
    the socialist newspaper "The Class Struggle" (La
    Lotta di Classe).
  • In 1911, the Italians attacked Libya in North
    Africa. Mussolini led demonstrations against this
    attack in Forli. He was arrested and sent to
    prison for five months. However, his action had
    got him noticed by socialist movements outside of
    Forli. He was rewarded with the job of editor of
    "Avanti" (Forward) the socialist newspaper an
    appointment he got in April 1912. Most of the
    contents in the paper he did himself. The
    popularity of the paper increased and his views
    reached many people and thus expanded his
    influence.
  • "Let a single cry arise from the vast multitudes
    of the proletariat and let it be repeated in the
    squares and streets of Italy down with war! The
    proletariat provides raw material, cannon fodder
    with which states make their history."

4
World War I Change of Mind
  • Many socialists had supported the government s
    stand in keeping Italy out of the war in 1914.
    The nationalists, however, were horrified. To
    start with, Mussolini was against the war
  • "Down with the war. Down with arms and up with
    humanity." (July 1914)
  • However, by October 1914, he had changed his mind
    and referred to the war as "a great drama".
  • "Do you want to be spectators in this great
    drama? Or do you want to be its fighters?
  • Mussolini was kicked out of the Socialist Party
    in Italy but many young socialists agreed with
    Mussolini and left the party and followed him.
    Therefore, they greeted the news of April 26th
    1915, the entry of Italy into the war.

5
Problems after WWI
  • 460,000 soldiers killed
  • Heavy debt
  • Britain and France did not give Italy the land
    they promised
  • Governments were all coalitions that couldnt
    make decisions
  • Rising unemployment led to unrest in cities

www.hfcsd.org/ww2/WW20220Timeline/Road20to20Wa
r/The20Rise20of20Mussolini20in20Italy.ppt
6
A Definition of Fascism
Fascism is the totalitarian philosophy of
government that glorifies the state and nation
and assigns to the state control over every
aspect of national life.
The State not only is authority which governs and
molds individual will with laws and values of
spiritual life, but it is also power which makes
its will prevail abroad.For the Fascist,
everything is within the State andneither
individuals nor groups are outside the
State...For Fascism, the State is an absolute,
before which individuals or groups are only
relative.Liberalism denied the State in the name
of the individual Fascism reasserts the rights
of the State as expressing the real essence of
the individual.
-- Enciclopedia Italiana, 1932
http//www.pptpalooza.net/PPTs/EHAP/ItalianFascism
.ppt
7
The Fasces Symbol
  • Comes from the Latin word fasces.
  • In ancient Rome, the fasces were cylindrical
    bundles of wooden rods, tied tightly together
    around an axe.
  • They symbolize unity and power.

http//www.pptpalooza.net/PPTs/EHAP/ItalianFascism
.ppt
8
Ideology
  • A form of extreme right-wing ideology.
  • It celebrates the nation or the race as an
    organic community transcending all other
    loyalties.
  • Powerful and continuing nationalism.
  • Constant use of patriotic mottos, slogans,
    symbols, songs, etc.
  • Flags are seen everywhere.

http//www.pptpalooza.net/PPTs/EHAP/ItalianFascism
.ppt
9
Subordination to the State
  • Fascism seeks forcibly to subordinate ALL aspects
    of society to its vision of organic community
    usually through a totalitarian state.
  • It uses organized violence to suppress
    opposition.
  • Glorification of force.
  • Accepts the tenets of Social Darwinism.
  • Is anti-democratic.

http//www.pptpalooza.net/PPTs/EHAP/ItalianFascism
.ppt
10
The Fasci de Combattimento
  • Called up for military service, he was wounded in
    grenade practice in 1917 and returned to edit his
    paper.  Fascism became an organized political
    movement in March 1919 when Mussolini founded the
    Fasci de Combattimento.
  • After failing in the 1919 elections, Mussolini
    at last entered parliament in 1921 as a
    right-wing member.
  • The Fascisti formed armed squads to terrorize
    Mussolini's former Socialist colleagues. The
    government seldom interfered.
  • In return for the support of a group of
    industrialists and agrarians, Mussolini gave his
    approval to strikebreaking, and he abandoned
    revolutionary agitation.

http//www.cartage.org.lb/en/themes/Biographies/Ma
inBiographies/M/mussolini/2.html
11
The March on Rome
  • "Either the government will be given to us or
    will shall seize it by marching on Rome."
  • The plan was grandiose if naïve. The military in
    Rome far out-numbered the Fascists who were
    poorly armed. Many Fascists only had tools
    brought with them from farms. Many had the wrong
    clothing for a party that was trying to seize
    power.
  • Victor Emmanuel was convinced that any form of
    conflict would lead to a civil war and he was not
    willing to contemplate that.
  • Victor Emmanuel also knew that his cousin, the
    Duke of Aosta, was a Fascist supporter. He was
    fearful that his cousin would replace him if he
    stood up to Mussolini and failed.
  • On October 29th, 1922, Mussolini was summoned to
    meet the king in Rome.
  • Mussolini arrived on October 30th and was sworn
    in as Prime Minister. Only then were the Fascists
    who had gathered outside of Rome allowed to march
    in triumph through Rome. Just five years earlier,
    Mussolini had been a corporal in the Italian Army
    fighting in World War One.

http//www.historylearningsite.co.uk/march_on_rome
.htm
12
March on Rome, 1922
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13
http//i4.photobucket.com/albums/y110/headwideopen
/mussocd.jpg
14
Quote
  • Fascism conceives of the State as an absolute,
    in comparison with which all individuals or
    groups are relative, only to be conceived in
    their relation to the State. Benito Mussolini

www.hfcsd.org/ww2/WW20220Timeline/Road20to20Wa
r/The20Rise20of20Mussolini20in20Italy.ppt
15
The Fascist State
  • In February 1923, Mussolini and the Fascist Grand
    Council introduced the Acerbo Law. This law
    changed election results. Now if one party got
    just 25 (or more) of the votes cast in an
    election, they would get 66 of the seats in
    parliament.
  • The gallery in the hall in which the politicians
    voted was filled with armed fascist thugs who had
    a good view of anybody who spoke out against the
    law. The threat was clear and real. If you voted
    for the law, you would be fine. If you did not,
    then you were certainly in danger from fascist
    thugs.
  • Mussolini did say in the spring of 1924 that "a
    good beating did not hurt anyone."

http//www.historylearningsite.co.uk/mussolini_dic
tatorship.htm
16
Fascism under Mussolini
www.hfcsd.org/ww2/WW20220Timeline/Road20to20Wa
r/The20Rise20of20Mussolini20in20Italy.ppt
17
Mussolini Comes to Power
  • 1921 election ? Fascists included in the
    political coalition bloc of P. M. Giovanni
    Giolittis government they win 35 seats.
  • October, 1922 ? Mussolini threatened a coup
    detat.
  • March on Rome ? 25,000 Black Shirts staged
    demonstrations throughout the capital.

http//www.pptpalooza.net/PPTs/EHAP/ItalianFascism
.ppt
18
Mussolini Forms a Government
  • King Victor Emmanuel III refused to sign a law
    giving the Italian military the ability to
    quell the chaos and arrest the Fascists.
  • He invited Mussolini to joina coalition
    government withGiolitti.
  • 1925 ? Mussolini seized dictatorial powers
    during a political crisis Black Shirts murdered
    one of Mussolinis chief Socialist critics,
    Giacomo Matteotti.

http//www.pptpalooza.net/PPTs/EHAP/ItalianFascism
.ppt
19
The Italian Fascist State under Mussolini
POLITICAL Acerbo Law Assassination of Giacomo
Matteotti Censorship of the Press Secret
Police Il Duce
ECONOMIC Corporative State
SOCIAL AND CULTURAL Lateran Act Role of
Women Dopolaravo
http//teacherweb.com/OH/ChardonHighSchool/MrMicha
elWMosnik/Totalitarianism.ppt
20
The Fascists Consolidate Power(1925-1931)
  • New laws passed to create the legal basis for
    Italys official transformation into a
    single-party state
  • Independent political parties trade unions were
    abolished.
  • Freedom of the press was curbed.
  • Special courts created to persecute any political
    opposition.
  • National police force created with a secret
    police component.

http//www.pptpalooza.net/PPTs/EHAP/ItalianFascism
.ppt
21
State Corporatism
  • 1926 ? The National Council of Corporations
    created.
  • Guilds of employers and employees established to
    manage the 22 sectors of the economy.
  • Supported by small capitalists, low-level
    bureaucrats, and the middle class
  • They all felt threatened by the rise of Socialist
    power!
  • The goal ? harmonize the interests of workers,
    managers and the state by abolishing class
    warfare.
  • The reality ? This system retarded technological
    progress and destroyed workers rights.

http//www.pptpalooza.net/PPTs/EHAP/ItalianFascism
.ppt
22
The Lateran Accords (1929)
  • This settled a long-running dispute over the
    Catholic Churchs role in Italian politics ? this
    was the 1st time in Italian history that the
    Church and the government agreed on their
    respective roles!
  • Terms
  • The Papacy was granted temporal sovereignty over
    Vatican City.
  • The Papacy was guaranteed the free exercise of
    Roman Catholicism as the sole state religion
    throughout Italy.
  • The Papacy accepted Italian sovereignty over the
    former Papal States.

http//www.pptpalooza.net/PPTs/EHAP/ItalianFascism
.ppt
23
The Lateran Treaty
http//www.pptpalooza.net/PPTs/EHAP/ItalianFascism
.ppt
24
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25
Cult of State Worship
  • The individual had no significance except as a
    member of the state.
  • The fascists were taught
  • Credere! to believe
  • Obbedire! to obey
  • Combattere! to fight

http//www.pptpalooza.net/PPTs/EHAP/ItalianFascism
.ppt
26
Militarism
http//www.pptpalooza.net/PPTs/EHAP/ItalianFascism
.ppt
27
Sexism
  • Almost exclusively male-dominated.
  • Traditional gender roles are made more rigid.
  • Divorce, abortion homosexuality are suppressed.
  • The state is represented as the ultimate guardian
    of the family institution.

http//www.pptpalooza.net/PPTs/EHAP/ItalianFascism
.ppt
28
Benito Mussolini (1883-1945)
  • His editorial positions
  • The war was a turning point for Italy.
  • The returning combat soldiers would form a new
    elite and bring about a new type of state.
  • This new elite would transform Italian politics
    and society!

http//www.pptpalooza.net/PPTs/EHAP/ItalianFascism
.ppt
29
The Fascist Family
  • The Fascists encouraged the development of large
    families.

http//www.pptpalooza.net/PPTs/EHAP/ItalianFascism
.ppt
30
Controlled Mass Media
http//www.pptpalooza.net/PPTs/EHAP/ItalianFascism
.ppt
31
Education
  • The first sentence pronounced by children at
    school was Let us salute the flag in the Roman
    fashion hail to Italy hail to Mussolini.
  • Textbooks emphasized
  • The glorious pat of the ancient Romans.
  • The limitations imposed upon the present
    inhabitants by geography and the West.
  • The imperial destiny that awaited Italys future
    development.

http//www.pptpalooza.net/PPTs/EHAP/ItalianFascism
.ppt
32
Emphasis on Physical Fitness
http//www.pptpalooza.net/PPTs/EHAP/ItalianFascism
.ppt
33
Economic Policy
  • Part of the selling point of fascism is a promise
    of economic success and self-sufficiency
  • He was determined to push Italy into a state of
    autarky, self-sufficiency. He went on a series of
    domestic conquests which are commonly referred to
    as the "Battles".
  • Battle for Grain
  • The problem was while grain production rose
    farmers forgot about the harvesting of other
    crops (meat, dairy, etc.) and while grain imports
    dropped by 75 every other crop and animal
    product's import rose. Subsequently the Italian
    diet suffered. Italy did become nearly self
    sufficient in cereals but not in fertilizers
  • Battle for the Lira
  • it harmed the economy by hitting exports as now
    Italian goods cost more money abroad.
  • Although this policy seems like a failure, it
    forced Italy into autarky and helped to
    centralize Italian industry and thereby the
    Italian economy
  • Economic Assessment
  • As Mussolini's ambitions grew domestic policy was
    subsumed by foreign policy, especially the push
    for autarky after the 1935 invasion of Ethiopia
    and subsequent trade embargoes. The push for
    independence from foreign strategic materials was
    both expensive, ineffective, and economically
    wasteful.
  • In terms of economic growth, Italy did not have
    the expanse of industry to bolster her farming
    based economy. Whereas Germany had its industrial
    power house in the Ruhr and Britain had South
    Wales, the North-East, Midlands and North-West,
    Italy had relatively few of these industrial
    zones. Though laudable in theory, Mussolini's
    plans for Italy's economic growth were based on
    weaknesses he could not overcome.

http//www.historylearningsite.co.uk/economy_in_fa
scist_italy.htm
http//ibhistoryhlwiki.wikispaces.com/MussolinisI
taly
34
Mussolinis Foreign Policy
  • 1922-1932 Decade of Good Behavior

35
  • Restored Relations w/ the Pope in 1929
  • Roman Catholicism recognized as the only state
    religion
  • Independence of the Vatican City
  • Policy of Mare Nostrum (Our Sea) desire to
    control the Mediterranean
  • Policy of imperialistic expansion led to invasion
    of Ethiopia in 1935 Albania in 1939
  • Alliance with Nazi Germany Rome-Berlin Axis of
    1936
  • Heavy involvement in the Spanish Civil War
    (1936-39) on the side of the Fascist rebels
  • Italy withdrew from the League of Nations in 1937
  • accomplishments prevented communism restored
    patriotism

http//www.cobb.k12.ga.us/kennesawmountain/Social
_studies/sisino/Powerpoints/WWII/Fascist20Italy2
0and20Mussolini.ppt
36
Mussolinis Execution
Mussolini was taken prisoner by the partisans and
was joined by his mistress, Clara Petacci. A few
days later they were shot to death. In April of
1945, their bodies were hung at an Esso gas
station along with the bodies of other fascist
leaders.
Mussolini and his mistress
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