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Theories of Learning: Constructivist Theories Dr. K. A. Kor

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Theories of Learning: Constructivist Theories Dr. K. A. Korb University of Jos 19 May 2009 Outline Overview of Constructivism Schema Theory Situated Cognition Dr. K ... – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: Theories of Learning: Constructivist Theories Dr. K. A. Kor


1
Theories of LearningConstructivist Theories
  • Dr. K. A. Korb
  • University of Jos
  • 19 May 2009

2
Outline
  • Overview of Constructivism
  • Schema Theory
  • Situated Cognition

Dr. K. A. Korb University of Jos
3
Assumptions of Constructivism
  • Knowledge is constructed as learners make sense
    of their experience
  • Knowledge constructions may not match reality
  • Learners actively seek meaning in the environment
  • In the learning process, learners create and test
    theories until a satisfactory explanation is
    known
  • Knowledge is context-dependent
  • Social interactions are vital to learning

Dr. K. A. Korb University of Jos
4
Types of Constructivism
  • Psychological Constructivism Learning as
    improving individual knowledge and cognitive
    abilities
  • Many cognitive theories of learning can also be
    classified as Psychological Constructivist
    theories

Dr. K. A. Korb University of Jos
5
ConstructivismProcess of Learning
SchemaTypically a misconception
Develop new schema (Accommodate)
Test Schema
No
Expected Results?
Yes
Assimilate
Dr. K. A. Korb University of Jos
6
Schema
  • Schema Structure for representing concepts in
    memory
  • Schema Theory Theory of how knowledge is
    represented and how the representation of
    knowledge guides the application of knowledge
  • Incoming information from the environment is
    organized around previously developed schema
  • Gist Central idea

Dr. K. A. Korb University of Jos
7
Schema
  • Schemas are like
  • Dramas Schemas provide the script where the
    variables (aka characters, setting, and action)
    are unique to each performance
  • Theories Interpret phenomenon and make
    predictions about unobserved events
  • Procedures/Algorithms Evaluate new information
    to determine the fit to the schema and then
    directs future behavior

Dr. K. A. Korb University of Jos
8
Properties of Schemas
  • Schemas are developed by prior knowledge and
    experience
  • Actively build schemas and revise in light of new
    information
  • Information from the environment is processed and
    transformed depending on prior schemas
  • Schemas help people understand, interpret, and
    remember incoming information
  • Facilitates memory because it is easier to
    remember schema than details
  • Culture influences schemas
  • Memory for knowledge or an event is determined by
    the cultural context in which it takes place

Dr. K. A. Korb University of Jos
9
Functions of Schema
  • Organize knowledge
  • Assist recall
  • Guide behavior
  • Enable predictions
  • Make sense of current experiences

Dr. K. A. Korb University of Jos
10
Learning New Knowledge
  • Three reactions to new information
  • Accretion Incorporate new information to
    existing schemata without making changes to the
    schemata
  • Tuning Modify schemata to be more consistent
    with experience
  • Restructuring Create a new schemata because of
    inconsistency between old schemata and new
    information

Dr. K. A. Korb University of Jos
11
Benefits of Schema
  • Benefits of connecting new information to prior
    knowledge
  • Better retention of information
  • Better ability to access information in authentic
    situations

Dr. K. A. Korb University of Jos
12
Schema Theory in Education
  • Students construct and apply appropriate schema
    to solve practical problems in various domains
  • Become expert problem solvers in school courses
  • Instructional Strategies
  • Reduce extra cognitive load Irrelevant tasks
  • Increase relevant cognitive load

Dr. K. A. Korb University of Jos
13
Identifying Students Schemas
  • Observe
  • Ask for explanation
  • Ask to make predictions
  • Ask to teach another student

Dr. K. A. Korb University of Jos
14
Classroom Implications
  • Prior knowledge influences what and how a student
    learns
  • What is remembered is largely a function of what
    was understood to begin with
  • Students learn best when they link new
    information with related existing ideas
  • Information is forgotten unless integrated into
    existing schemata
  • The schemas of students are different from each
    other and from the teacher
  • Both understanding and memory are driven by
    meaning
  • Learning should occur in the context in which it
    will be used

Dr. K. A. Korb University of Jos
15
Types of Constructivism
  • Social Constructivism Learning as increasing the
    ability to participate with others in activities
    meaningful within the culture
  • Culture influences thinking when a more skilled
    person uses tools and practices from the culture
    to instruct another toward valued cultural goals
  • Thinking influences culture when members generate
    new practices and solutions to add to the
    cultural groups repertoire

Dr. K. A. Korb University of Jos
16
Situated Cognition
  • Situated Cognition Skills and knowledge are tied
    to the situation where they were learned
  • Knowledge learned outside of a meaningful context
    is useless
  • Focus on apprenticeships
  • Expert guides novice, beginning with simple tasks
    and move to more complex tasks

Dr. K. A. Korb University of Jos
17
Situated Cognition
  • Situated Cognition Cognition is adapted to the
    environment
  • Learning develops in a social context
  • Other theories of learning assume that learning
    occurs within the learner
  • Learners internalize knowledge
  • Individual person is on the learner
  • Situated Cognition A culture is the learner
  • Knowledge Effective living practices within the
    culture
  • Learning Developing the ability to use the tools
    and skills valued by ones society

Dr. K. A. Korb University of Jos
18
Principles of Situated Cognition
  • Cognition is social
  • Other learning theories assume knowledge is out
    there so learning is the process of
    internalizing knowledge
  • Situated Cognition Learning requires social
    participation.
  • Cognition takes place in the social environment
  • Minds are not separate from the culture
  • Knowledge is distributed across the cultural
    environment
  • Tools, books, and communities
  • Knowledge is effective participation in socially
    valued endeavors
  • Education should aim to help students to engage
    meaningfully with the environment

Dr. K. A. Korb University of Jos
19
Most Learning Theories
Situated Cognition
Culture
Knowledge
Determines
Knowledge
Internalize
Effectively engage in culture
Influences
Dr. K. A. Korb University of Jos
20
Situated Cognition
  • What is a community that you participate in?
  • What is your role in that community?
  • What are the tools you use in that community?
  • What is the language that you use in that
    community?

Dr. K. A. Korb University of Jos
21
Situated Cognition in Education
  • Knowledge does not transfer between tasks
  • Teaching by abstracting concepts is not effective
    because learning only occurs in authentic
    situations
  • Inert Knowledge Knowledge that a student has
    acquired but is not able to be applied to
    relevant situations
  • Authentic Learning Students learn a subject in a
    manner similar to how an expert in that domain
    practices
  • Create an environment that is as similar as
    possible to the context where knowledge and
    skills will be applied

Dr. K. A. Korb University of Jos
22
Situated Cognition in Education
  • Learning in formal education should focus on
    acquiring knowledge and skills in contexts that
    reflect how the knowledge and skills will be
    useful in real life (Collins, 1988)
  • Students learn subjects by becoming historians,
    mathematicians, scientists, etc. by cognitive
    apprenticeships

Dr. K. A. Korb University of Jos
23
Benefits of Situated Cognition in Education
  • Students are more likely to
  • Learn about the conditions for applying knowledge
  • Engage in creativity and problem solving
  • Understand the implications of their knowledge
  • Organize knowledge in ways that enable them to
    apply knowledge to later use

Dr. K. A. Korb University of Jos
24
Revision
  • What are the assumptions of a constructivist view
    of learning?
  • What is the difference between psychological
    constructivim and social constructivism?
  • What are schemas and how do they influence
    learning?
  • What are the three ways that schemas are
    developed?
  • What is the major proposition of situated
    cognition?
  • What implications does situated cognition have
    for education?

Dr. K. A. Korb University of Jos
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