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Motivation I: Needs, Job Design and Satisfaction

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Chapter Six Motivation I: Needs, Job Design and Satisfaction Job Satisfaction and Work-Family Relationships The Causes of Job Satisfaction The Consequences of Job ... – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: Motivation I: Needs, Job Design and Satisfaction


1
Chapter Six
Motivation I Needs, Job Design and Satisfaction
2
Chapter Six Outline
  • The Fundamentals of Employee Motivation
  • A Job Performance Model of Motivation
  • Need Theories of Motivation
  • Motivating Employees Through Job Design
  • The Mechanistic Approach
  • Motivational Approaches
  • Biological and Perceptual- Motor Approaches

3
Chapter Six Outline (continued)
  • Job Satisfaction and Work-Family Relationships
  • The Causes of Job Satisfaction
  • The Consequences of Job Satisfaction
  • Work-Family Relationships

4
Motivation Defined

Motivation Psychological processes that cause
the arousal, direction, and persistence of
voluntary actions that are goal directed.
  • Implications Associated with This Definition
  • Behavior is purposive rather than random - People
    exhibit both positive (work done on time) and
    negative (arrive late for work) behavior for a
    reason
  • Motivation arouses people to do something -
    People are unlikely to change a behavior or do
    something different unless they are motivated to
    do so
  • Motivation causes people to focus on a desired
    end-result or goal
  • Motivation fuels the persistence needed to
    exhibit sustained effort on a task

5
A Job Performance Model of Motivation
Individual Inputs
Skills
Ability, Job knowledge Dispositions
Traits Emotions, Moods, Affect Beliefs Values
Motivational Processes
Arousal Attention Intensity

Direction Persistence
Motivated Behaviors
Job Context
Physical Environment Task Design Rewards
Reinforcement Supervisory Support
Coaching Social Norms Organizational Culture
Enable, Limit
6
A Job Performance Model of Motivation (cont.)
Skills
Individual Inputs
Motivated Behaviors
Focus Direction, What we do Intensity Effort,
how hard we try Quality Task
strategies, the way we do
it Duration Persistence, how
long we stick to it
Motivational Processes
Performance
Job Context
Enable, Limit
7
Need Theories

Needs are physiological or psychological
deficiencies that arouse behavior.
8
Approaches to Job Design

9
Herzbergs Motivator-Hygiene Model
No Satisfaction Satisfaction Jobs that do
not Jobs offering offer achievement achievement,
recognition, recognition, stimulating
work, stimulating work, responsibility, responsi
bility, and advancement. and advancement.
Motivators
10
Herzbergs Motivator-Hygiene Model (cont.)

Dissatisfaction
No Dissatisfaction Jobs with poor
Jobs with
good company policies,
company policies, and administration,
and
administration, technical supervision
technical supervision, salary,
interpersonal
salary, interpersonal relationships with
relationships
with supervisors, and
supervisors, and working conditions.
working conditions.
Hygiene Factors
11
The Job Characteristics Model
12
Skills and Best Practices Applying the Job
Characteristics Model
  1. Diagnose the level of employee motivation and
    job. satisfaction and consider redesigning jobs
    when motivation ranges from low to moderate.
  2. Determine whether job redesign is appropriate in
    a given context.
  3. Redesign jobs by including employees input.

13
Foundation of Intrinsic Motivation
  • Intrinsic positive feelings associated with
    doing well on a task or job
  • Extrinsic desire to avoid or achieve some type
    of consequence for his or her behavior
  • Model of intrinsic motivation Fig 6-4

14
Causes of Job Satisfaction
  • Need Fulfillment Satisfaction is based on the
    extent to which a job satisfies a persons needs.
  • Discrepancies Satisfaction is determined by the
    extent to which an individual receives what he or
    she expects from a job.
  • Value Attainment Satisfaction results from the
    extent to which a job allows fulfillment of ones
    work values.
  • Equity Satisfaction is a function of how
    fairly an individual is treated at work.
  • Trait/Genetic Components Satisfaction is partly
    a function of personal traits and genetic factors.

15
Correlates of Job Satisfaction
  • Variables Related Direction
    of Strength of
  • with Satisfaction
    Relationship Relationship

Motivation Positive
Moderate Job Involvement
Positive Moderate
Organizational Citizenship behavior Positive
Moderate
Organizational Commitment Positive
Strong Absenteeism
Negative
Weak Tardiness
Negative
Weak Turnover
Negative
Moderate Heart Disease
Negative
Moderate Perceived Stress
Negative
Strong Pro-Union Voting
Negative Moderate Job
Performance
Positive Weak Life
Satisfaction
Positive Moderate Mental
Health
Positive Moderate
16
Hypotheses Regarding Work-Family Relationships
  1. Compensation Effect
  2. Segmentation Hypothesis
  3. Spillover Model
  4. Work-Family Conflict

17
Exercise employee surveys (p 147)
  • Describe the two surveys in the example
  • Pros and cons
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