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Latin America in the 19th Century

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Mr. Millhouse AP World History Hebron High School What events facilitated independence movements in Latin America in the early 19th century? Creoles 3.5 million ... – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: Latin America in the 19th Century


1
Latin America in the 19th Century
  • Mr. Millhouse
  • AP World History
  • Hebron High School

2
Focus Question
  • What events facilitated independence movements in
    Latin America in the early 19th century?

3
Latin American Independence
  • Creoles
  • 3.5 million creoles in Latin America by 1800
  • Only 30,000 peninsulares
  • Resent tight government and economic regulations
  • Want to replace peninsulares but retain their
    privileged position
  • American Revolution
  • Napoleons Invasion of Spain Portugal

4
Latin American Independence
  • 1810 Miguel de Hidalgo begins uprising in
    Mexico
  • Independence gained by Augustine de Iturbide in
    1821
  • 1819 Simon Bolivar (right) gains independence
    for Columbia
  • Liberates South America with help from Jose de
    San Martin
  • Attempt for a unified northern South America
    fails in 1830
  • 1821 Brazil gains independence

5
Problems After Independence
  • Caudillos
  • Juan Manuel de Rosas (Argentina)
  • Machiavelli of the pampas
  • Kills over 22,000 people
  • Latin America had little experience with
    self-government
  • Creoles dominate politics
  • Only 5 of male population participated in
    politics
  • Role of the Catholic Church
  • Poor treatment of natives

6
Mexico (1821-1857)
  • 1821-1850s marked by political instability
  • Went from monarchy to republic to caudillo rule
  • Antonio Lopez de Santa Ana (left) dominates
    politics prior to 1850
  • Church remains influential
  • Owns almost 50 of all productive land in Mexico
  • Nationalism grows after Mexican-American War

7
Benito Juarez (1861-1872)
  • Liberal mestizo
  • First Mexican ruler without a military background
  • Institutes La Reforma
  • Focus on land redistribution to improve the
    condition of natives
  • Confiscates church lands
  • Speculators and large landowners buy land instead
    of natives
  • Most of Mexicos peasants were landless by 1900
  • Creates a backlash from Mexican conservatives

8
Porfirio Diaz (1876-1910)
  • Industrialized Mexico
  • Built railroads
  • Improved banking system
  • Focused on oil mining
  • Depended on foreign investment
  • Increasingly autocratic
  • Oppressed political opposition

9
Economic Problems
  • Monroe Doctrine (1823)
  • Economic Imperialism?
  • Britain replaced Spain as the dominant economic
    force in Latin America
  • Economy depended heavily on exports
  • Britain dominated until 1860
  • Modernization theory vs. Dependency theory

10
U.S. Imperialism
11
U.S. Intervention in Latin America
  • Mexican-American War (1846-1848)
  • Spanish-American War
  • U.S. gains Puerto Rico, the Philippines, Guam
  • Independence for Cuba
  • Roosevelt Corollary
  • Panama Canal

Mexican Cession as part of the Treaty of
Guadalupe-Hidalgo (1848)
12
U.S. Imperialism
13
U.S. Imperialism
14
U.S. Imperialism
15
Big Stick foreign policy
16
Argentina
  • After independence dominated by caudillos
  • Politically stabilized after 1862
  • Economic growth based on exports
  • Primary export is beef
  • Dependent on foreign capital
  • Large numbers of immigrants from Europe
  • 3.5 million from Italy, Germany, Russia, etc.
  • Golondrinas

17
Latin American Society
  • Few changes for women in Latin America
  • Remained under the control of their fathers and
    husbands
  • Lower class had more economic freedoms
  • Gained more access to education
  • Racial castes were formally abolished
  • Racial and ethnic tensions continued
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