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Composite Materials

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Composite Materials By: Engr. Rizwan Nasir B.Sc. Chemical Engineering 13 October, 2009 Definition The word 'composites' has a modern ring. But using the high strength ... – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: Composite Materials


1
Composite Materials
  • By
  • Engr. Rizwan Nasir
  • B.Sc. Chemical Engineering
  • 13 October, 2009

2
Definition
  • The word 'composites' has a modern ring.  But
    using the high strength of fibres to stiffen and
    strengthen a cheap matrix material is probably
    older than the wheel. almost all natural
    materials which must bear load--wood, bone,
    muscle--are composites.
  • The composite industry, however, is new.  It has
    grown rapidly in the past 30 years with the
    development of fibrous composites..."

3
Composite materials Introduction
  • Definition a material composed of 2 or more
    constituents
  • Reinforcement phase (e.g., Fibers)
  • Binder phase (e.g., compliant matrix)
  • Advantages
  • High strength and stiffness (rigidity)
  • Low weight ratio
  • Material can be designed in addition to the
    structure
  • Can manufacture structures and eliminate joints

4
Natural composites
  • Fish fins
  • Muscles
  • Bird wings
  • Wood

5
  • Composite materials are like sandwiches.  A good
    sandwich contains a variety of ingredients to
    yield a taste that no single ingredient could
    provide by itself. 
  • Similarly, composite materials are those which
    are formed from two or more materials producing
    properties or characteristics that could not be
    obtained from any one material. 
  • Composites consist of one or more discontinuous
    phases fixed in a continuous phase. The
    discontinuous phase is usually harder and
    stronger than the continuous phase and is called
    the reinforcement or reinforcing material,
    whereas the continuous phase is termed the
    matrix.

6
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7
Applications
  • Aerospace industry
  • Sporting goods
  • Automotive
  • Construction

8
Types of Composites
MMCs CMCs PMCs Metal Matrix
Composites Ceramic Matrix Comps.
Polymer Matrix Comps
9
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10
Fibers - Glass
  • Most widely used fiber
  • Uses piping, tanks, boats, sporting goods
  • Advantages
  • low cost
  • Corrosion resistance
  • Low cost relative to other composites
  • Disadvantages
  • Relatively low strength
  • High elongation
  • Moderate strength and weight
  • Types
  • E-Glass - electrical, cheaper
  • S-Glass - high strength

11
Fibers - Aramid (Kevlar, Twaron)
  • Uses
  • High performance replacement for glass fiber
  • Examples
  • shield, protective clothing, industrial, sporting
    goods
  • Advantages
  • Higher strength and lighter than glass
  • More ductile than carbon

12
Fibers - Carbon
  • 2nd most widely used fiber
  • Examples
  • aerospace, sporting goods
  • Advantages
  • high stiffness and strength
  • Low density
  • Intermediate cost
  • Properties
  • Diameter 5-8 microns, smaller than human hair
  • Fibers grouped into tows or yarns of 2-12k fibers

13
PAN (Polyacrylonitrile)
  • Carbon fiber composite material are produced by
    PAN with the help of these processing stages
  • Stabilization
  • Carbonization
  • Graphitization

14
Stabilization
  • In this process PAN fiber are stretched to align
    the fiber network with each network.
  • Then they are oxidize in air at temperature about
    200 220oC while holding in tension.

15
Carbonization
  • In this process the high strength carbon fiber is
    carbonized.
  • The stabilized PAN fiber are heated until they
    become transformed into carbon fibers by the
    elimination of oxygen, nitrogen and hydrogen.
  • The carbonization process is carried out at the
    temperature of 1000 1500oC

16
Graphitization
  • It is used if we desired the product of high
    elasticity.
  • This process is carried out at the temperature of
    1800oC.

17
Aramids Fiber
  • Aramid fiber is the name for aromatic poly amide
    fibers.
  • Aramid fibers are available under the name of
    Kevlar.
  • At the present time there are two commercial
    types are available.
  • Kevlar 29
  • Kevlar 49

18
Kvelar 29
  • It is the low density high strength aramid fiber
    such application as cables, ropes and missiles.

19
Kevlar 49
  • It is a useful fibre as reinforcement plastic in
    composite material for aerospace, automobile,
    industrial application and also shipping industry
    .
  • Its density is higher than Kevlar 29.
  • In general Kevlar aramid is used for high
    performance composite application where light
    weight, high strength, resistance to stress.

20
  • An education isn't how much you have committed to
    memory, or even how much you know. It's being
    able to differentiate between what you do know
    and what you don't.
  • Anatole France

21
Thank You!
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