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Title: Conference on Chemical (Industrial) Disaster Management


1
Conference on Chemical (Industrial) Disaster
Management, Pipelines, Storage Medical
Preparedness February 11-13, 2009, FICCI, New
Delhi
  • Chlorine Production Process Safety

HARISARAN DAS, JOINT DIRECTOR (SHE) ALKALI
MANFACTRERS ASSOCIATION OF INDA 3RD FLOOR,
PANKAJ CHAMBERS, PREET VIHAR COMMERCIAL COMPLEX,
VIKAS MARG NEW DELHI-110092
2
Chlorine is a very useful but Hazardous Chemical
  • Chlorine finds versatile application in our daily
    life starting from drinking water chlorination to
    sanitation, insecticides, pesticide, agriculture,
    drugs, pharmaceuticals, automobiles, paper,
    textiles, plastic and many more.
  • Chlorine is a very useful indispensable
    chemical.
  • Chlorine is also very hazardous toxic because
    of its properties.

3
Properties of Chlorine
  • Chlorine is a gas because its boiling points is
    -340 C which is less than ambient temperature.
    Due to low boiling point (-340 C) It rapidly
    volatilizes when released from storage tanks and
    Tonners to the atmosphere.
  • Chlorine is liquefiable under pressure, because
    its critical temperature is1440 C
  • Vapour Pressure of chlorine at 550 C About 16
    Bars (absolute) and increases to about 20 Bars
    (absolute) at 650 C.
  • Toxic and Corrosive when water / moisture is
    present due to formation of Hypochlorous acid
    which further dissociates to Hydrochloric acid
    and nascent oxygen.
  • Yellow chlorine Hydrate (Cl2..8 H2O) may
    crystallize below 9.40 C at atmospheric Pressure
    and therefore chlorine pipe lines may choke in
    cold weather.
  • Chlorine has ill effect on the human health.

4
Physiological effects of various concentrations
of Chlorine Gas on Human Beings.
S.no. Effects Chlorine Concentration by Volume (ppm)
(1) (2) (3)
i) Least amount required to produce slight symptoms after several hours of exposure 1.0
ii) Least detectable odour 3.5
iii) Maximum amount that may be inhaled for 1 hour without serious disturbances 4.0
iv) Noxiousness, impossible to breathe for several minutes 5.0
v) Least amount required to cause irritation of throat 15.1
vi) Least amount required to cause coughing 30.2
vii) Amount dangerous in 30 minutes to 1 hour 40 to 60
viii) Amount likely to be fatal after few deep breaths 1000.0
5
Hazards Associated with Chlorine usage (contd)
  • Release of chlorine is usually a flashing
    (two-phase) jet with small liquid aerosols drops
    embedded since when liquid chlorine is released,
    it flashes off more and more and simultaneously
    expand to vapour creating a turbulence, which
    causes the remaining liquid to be broken up into
    an aerosols (small drops) and is carried along
    with the flashed vapour.
  • The aerosol usually evaporates within a short
    period, leaving a cold dense cloud of chlorine
    gas.
  • Usually no significant liquid pool is formed
    under the Chlorine container.

6
Hazards Associated with Chlorine usage (contd)
  • A liquid pool may form if ambient temperatures
    are cold and/or the chlorine is semi
    refrigerated.
  • For holes with diameters larger than a few mm,
    the contents of a Tonner are released very fast
    and thus very less time is available for
    emergency response.
  • Develops high hydraulic pressure in overfilled
    tonners or overfilled bullets or in liquid full
    pipelines. This hydraulic pressure is sufficient
    to cause bursting of tonners or bullets or
    pipelines with 1 to 3 degree C temperature rise.

7
Hazards Associated with Chlorine usage (contd)
  • Chlorine reacts violently with substance such as
    oils, greases, paints, some solvents etc. it will
    also react with steel wool, oil filings or pipe
    cuttings. It is, therefore, essential that
    foreign material be removed from chlorine lines
    and containers before allowing chlorine to enter
    them.
  • Wet chlorine gas may be handled in Titanium
    equipment. However, dry chlorine reacts violently
    with titanium.
  • Dry Chlorine will react violently with hot steel.
    For this reason, welding should only be done on
    Chlorine lines that have been isolated,
    depressurized and made free from chlorine gas.
    Welding leads should not be attached to such
    lines.
  • Contd..

8
Hazards Associated with Chlorine usage (contd)
  • Dry chlorine does not react with steel at normal
    temperatures. Under these conditions, steel is
    suitable for handling and storing Cl2.
  • Chlorine and hydrogen mixture can react violently
    in equivalent mixture and the rate of reaction
    increase in presence of oxygen. Ultra violet
    light can start this reaction.
  • Methyl Chloroform and other organic solvents
    should not be used to clean equipment where large
    amounts of Chlorine and its residues are present.

9
Hazards Associated with Chlorine usage (contd)
  • We must remember that Chlorine dissipates more
    rapidly on a warm, windy day than on a cold, calm
    one.
  • Causes inhalation health effects at relatively
    low concentrations.
  • Vapour pressure increases considerably with
    increase in Temperature.
  • Liquid chlorine inside tonner and bullet expands
    more and more with considerable increase in
    storage pressure with rise in Temperature.

10
Chlorine is also explosive with Hydrogen
  • Hydrogen is a Co- product in the manufacture of
    chlorine.
  • Mixture of Hydrogen becomes explosive as per the
    properties of mixtures of Hydrogen with chlorine,
    Hydrogen with air and Hydrogen with oxygen as
    tabulated.

11
The properties of mixtures of Hydrogen with
chlorine, Hydrogen with air and Hydrogen with
oxygen
Properties of Hydrogen/oxygen mixture Hydrogen/ Air Hydrogen / Chlorine Hydrogen / Oxygen
Lower Flammability Limit (LFL) P1 bar a, T20. C 4.0 V/V 3.0 V/V 4.0 V/V
Lower detonation Limit (LDL) (atmospheric condition) 18.2 V/V 17.5 V/V 9.0 V/V
Ignition (Auto ignition) temperature 5600 C 2070 C
12
Chlorine Production Use in India
  • Chlorine is a Co-Product in the manufacture of
    Caustic Soda.
  • Present installed capacity of Caustic Soda in
    India is around 28 lakh MT and the production is
    around 22 lakh MT (year 2007-2008) in 36 Plants.
  • The production facilities are spread through out
    India.
  • 8 Plants in East Zone, 15 Plants in West Zone, 4
    Plants in North Zone 9 Plants in South Zone.

13
Chlorine Production Use in India (contd)
Installed capacity Production of Caustic Soda
in India
S. No. Zone No. of Units Installed Capacity Installed Capacity Installed Capacity Production Production Production
S. No. Zone No. of Units Membrane Mercury Total Membrane Mercury Total
1. EAST 8 185410 171940 357350 136267 128734 265001
2 WEST 15 1283545 10800 1294345 1038296 8572 1046868
3 NORTH 4 409960 0 409960 303958 0 303958
4 SOUTH 9 620700 59400 680100 449012 95492 54404
TOTAL 36 2499615 242140 2741755 1927533 232798 2160331
14
Chlorine Production Use in India (contd)
  • In India, 91 of the total installed capacities
    of Caustic Soda/ Chlorine are based on Membrane
    Cell Technology which is environmental friendly
    energy efficient
  • Balance 9 is based on Mercury Cell Technology.
  • No production is based on Diaphragm Cell
    Technology
  • Out of 19 Lakh MT of Chlorine Produced
    approximately 8.5 lakh MT Chlorine was captively
    used (Year 2007-2008)
  • Approximately 10.5 lakh MT of Chlorine was
    transported from manufactures to end users.
  • Chlorine is filled in small containers (900 kgs)
    transported through trucks.

15
Chlorine Production Use in India (contd)
  • Sector wise use of Chlorine in India-
  • Vinyls (including PVC) - 18
  • Organic Chemicals - 20,
  • Inorganic Chemicals - 23,
  • Pulp Paper - 8,
  • CPW - 11,
  • Water Treatment - 2.0,
  • Pesticides/ Insecticides/ Weedicides - 5,
  • Pharmaceuticals - 0.53,
  • Dye Inks - 0.40,
  • Textiles - 0.60,
  • Exports - 0.4
  • Other Uses - 11.

16
KEY TO ACCIDENT FREE PRODUCTION HANDLING OF
CHLORINE
  • There is a potential danger during manufacture,
    storage, filling, transportation and use of
    chlorine (as discussed) and therefore necessary
    control safety measures needs to be adopted.
  • Key Factors
  • Technical Up-gradation and Innovation.
  • Inclusion of all safety control measures at the
    plant deign stage
  • Following safe operating procedures, safe
    handling and transport procedures.
  • Training of operating personnel.
  • Training of Drivers and Transporters
  • Learning from Past incidents

17
KEY TO ACCIDENT FREE PRODUCTION HANDLING OF
CHLORINE
  • Compliacence to regulation, such as
  • Gas cylinders Rule, 2004
  • Static Mobile Pressure Vessels (Unfired) Rules,
    1981 SMPV (U) Rules, 1981
  • Factories Act, 1984
  • Manufacture, storage and import of hazardous
    chemical Rules, 1989.
  • The Chemical Accidents (Emergency Planning,
    Preparedness and Response) Rules, 1996
  • The Environment (Protection) Act, 1986
  • The Public Liability Insurance Act, 1991, amended
    in 1992
  • Central Motor Vehicles Rules 1989 (amended 95)

18
Caustic Soda/ Chlorine Production Process
(Common to all Technologies)
  • Chlorine is a by product in the manufacture of
    caustic soda Technologies used for manufacture of
    caustic soda / chlorine
  • Mercury Cell Technology
  • Diaphragm Cell Technology
  • Membrane Cell Technology
  • The Caustic Soda Chlorine production process
    can be sub grouped as
  • brine treatment
  • Electrolysis
  • sodium hydroxide production, storage and handling
  • chlorine production, storage and handling
  • waste chlorine gas neutralization and production,
    storage and handling of sodium hypochlorite
  • hydrogen production, storage and handling
    (chlorine filling)

19
Caustic Soda Chlorine Production Process
(Contd)
Flow Diagram of Brine Treatment and Electrolysis
CAUSTIC SODA HYDROGEN
20
Caustic Soda Chlorine Production Process
(Contd)
Flow Diagram of Sodium hydroxide Production,
Storage and Handling
21
Caustic Soda Chlorine Production Process
(Contd)
Flow Diagram of Chlorine Production, Storage and
Handling
22

Caustic Soda Chlorine Production Process
(Contd)
Flow Diagram of Waste Chlorine Neutralization
Production of Bleach Liquor (Sodium
Hypochlorite/ Calcium Hypochlorite)
MERCURY
DIAPHRAGM
MEMBRANE
NaoH
SODIUM HYDROXIDE STORAGE
LIQUEFACTION
Chlorine
CHLORINE ABSORPTION
STORAGE
Chlorine
FILLING
Chlorine
SODIUM HYPOCHLORITE
STORAGE
USERS
23
Caustic Soda Chlorine Production Process
(Contd)
Flow Diagram of Hydrogen Production, Storage and
Handling
24
Control Safety Measures in chlorine production
  • Control Safety Measures in Brine treatment
  • Pure brine is the heart of Caustic Soda and
    Chlorine plant operation
  • In order to maintain control over the brine
    purification, a number of key process variables,
    such as brine concentration, (as Nacl,) brine
    Volume (flow), brine temperature, brine pH,
    chlorine content in brine, caustic soda
    concentration in brine, etc. are monitored at
    different stages of brine treatment.

25

Control Safety Measures in chlorine production
(Contd)
Control Safety Measures in Brine Treatment
Process (Contd.) CONTROLS ARE PROVIDED /
CONTINUOUS MONITORING DONE
  • To maintain Nacl concentration in brine between
    300 to 310 g/I salt crystallization may occur in
    the cold spots, at higher concentration.
  • To maintain feed brine temperature so that the
    products are at temperatures which will not
    affect materials of construction of
    electrolysers.

26
Control Safety Measures in chlorine production
(Contd)
  • To maintain pH of the feed brine. No acidic brine
    should enter the cell.
  • To maintain brine flow to electrolysers. Low
    brine flow can lead to excessive temperatures and
    boiling explosion hazard.
  • Raw material (salt) Tested to ensure absence of
    ammonia compounds as presence of ammonia in brine
    may lead to formation of Nitrogen Trichloride,
    which is explosive in nature.

27
Control Safety Measures in production of
Chlorine (Contd)
  • Control Safety Measures in Operation of
    Electrolysers
  • Hydrogen content in chlorine in the cell gas is
    monitored to avoid formation of explosive mixture
    of Hydrogen Chlorine.
  • Electrolysers are shut off in case of high
    hydrogen concentration in the cell gas of the
    electrolysers.
  • In case of high chorine pressure on the
    electrolysers, control is provided to switch off
    and shut down.

28
Control Safety Measures in production of
Chlorine (Contd)
  • Control Safety Measures in Operation of
    Electrolysers (contd..)
  • In the event of emergency shut down, Chlorine is
    released to the chlorine absorption unit through
    emergency relief valves. Emission of chlorine to
    the atmosphere is prevented.
  • Formation of combustible explosive mixture of
    hydrogen chlorine in the operation of
    electrolysers are prevented by suitable
    Instrument contorl and safe operation procedure.
  • Air must be excluded from the hydrogen stream so
    that it can not combine with hydrogen to form an
    explosive mixture of hydrogen and oxygen.

29
Control Safety Measures in production of
Chlorine (Contd)
  • Safety and control measures in Sodium Hydroxide
    Production, Storage Handling
  • All the caustic tanks are provided with in built
    facilities to prevent overflow or spillage of
    caustic soda. Such facilities include containment
    and mitigation.
  • It should be noted that hydrogen gas can be
    released into the vapour space above the liquid
    in storage tanks. Tanks are normally vented from
    the highest point.
  • Testing for an explosive mixture of hydrogen in
    air normally precedes any maintenance activity in
    the area.
  • Storage tanks may be lined to minimize iron
    contamination of the prouduct and to avoid stress
    corrosion cracking of the tank.

30
Control Safety Measure in production of
Chlorine (Contd)
  • Control Safety aspects in Chlorine Compression
    (contd)
  • Concentration of the H2SO4 in compressor to be
    monitored by analysis on daily basis to avoid
    corrosion. Higher moisture content in chlorine
    gas (due to inadequate drying) will corrode the
    chlorine compressor
  • Sulphuric acid mist is to be removed with glass
    wool candle filters to avoid chocking in
    liquefier pipeline.
  • Continuous PH monitoring of the chilled water of
    individual chlorine compressor coolers are to be
    done to detect any tube leakage. If the tube
    leakage of chlorine compressor cooler goes
    unnoticed, it will affect the entire chilled
    water cycle.

31
Control Safety Measure in production of
Chlorine (Contd)
  • Control Safety aspects in Chlorine Compression
  • Automatic control valves and check valves are to
    be provided to prevent the back flow of chlorine
    (in case of compressor tripping) in to the low
    pressure system.
  • Chlorine Compressors are fitted with mechanical
    seal to prevent any leakage of CL2.
  • Acid temp of the chlorine compressor is to be
    maintained below 400 C to avoid corrosion.

32
Control Safety Measure in production of
Chlorine (Contd)
  • Control Safety aspects in Chlorine Cooling,
    Drying Liquification
  • As titanium is used as a tube material for heat
    exchanger. Dry chlorine reacts violently with
    titanium. Back flow preventor is provided to
    prevent contact of Dry Chlorine with titaniunm.
  • Careful control with adequate failure warning, of
    the gas temperature from the second coolers is
    provided to prevent the formation of solid
    chlorine hydrate (9.60 C.). The chlorine hydrate
    formation may completely plug the heat exchanger
    or gas piping which will create a big hazard in
    the cell room.
  • Contd

33
Control Safety Measure in production of
Chlorine (Contd)
  • Control Safety aspects in Chlorine Cooling,
    Drying Liquification
  • Facilities for periodic or continuous washing of
    the demisters provided to prevent excess salt
    crystallization due to carryover from the cell
    room. This can lead to high pressure drops and
    stoppage of gas flow.
  • To take care of high temp of Cl2 before cooling,
    the FRP line between electrolysers to chlorine
    cooler should be of proper quality (Alpolite
    (797) resin instead of Atlac 382 (Bis-phenol
    resin)
  • Hydrogen is continuously monitored in the sniff
    gas to maintain below the explosive limit. (less
    than 4)
  • Make sure that refrigerant used for liquefaction
    does not react with Cl2 if there is a leak

34
Control Safety Measure in production of
Chlorine (Contd)
  • Control Safety aspects in Chlorine Cooling,
    Drying Liquification (Contd..)
  • Under pressure safety seal is to be provided in
    the system.
  • Alignment of the compressor motor should be
    proper as vibration damages seals and results
    gas/ acid leakage.
  • Provision to run the compressor with closed
    discharge valves in case of startup/ stoppage/
    maintenance (local by pass valve).
  • Centrifugal compressor leads to unstable
    operation at high pressure and low volume. It can
    also occurs at low chlorine density. This results
    surging. Speed control/ by pass control is
    required to ensure stable operation.
  • Initiations for trips of the chlorine compressors
    are provide, In case of abnormal chlorine
    temperature, chlorine pressure, oil pressures
    shaft vibration axial movements etc. since the
    chlorine is at the peak pressure level at the
    compression stage.
    Contd..

35
Control Safety Measure in Production of
Chlorine (Contd)
  • Control Safety aspects in Chlorine Cooling,
    Drying Liquification (Contd..)
  • The chlorine gas having moisture less than 150
    ppm by volume of water is considered to be dry
    chlorine.
  • Concentrated sulphuric (98) has to be dosed
    continuously to ensure proper drying. Maintain
    outlet concentration (of chlorine drying Tower )
    at 78 (Min)
  • The use of H2SO4 requires specific attention.
    Velocities must be kept low at 1 m/sec to prevent
    excessive erosive wear. Due to corrosive nature
    of dilute H2SO4, seals or rotating parts rapidly
    deteriorates.
  • Contd..

36
Control Safety Measure in Production of
Chlorine (Contd)
  • Control Safety aspects in Chlorine Cooling,
    Drying Liquification (Contd..)
  • Flange guards to be provided on H2SO4 pipe lines
    to avoid splashing of H2SO4.( saturated with
    Chlorine)
  • Hot work permit to be issued for maintenance work
    on dilute sulfuric acid containing vessels/ pipe
    lines etc. since H2 generates in dilute H2SO4
    system can lead to explosion with hot work. Such
    systems containing dilute sulfuric acid are to be
    washed dried before undertaking maintenance
    work
  • Re use the chlorine condensate generated in the
    chlorine cooling.

37
Control Safety Measure in Production of
Chlorine (Contd)
  • Control Safety aspects in Chlorine Cooling,
    Drying Liquification (Contd..)
  • The moisture content in Cl2 gas after drying has
    to be detected by on line measurement Instrument/
    or by Analysis to ensure chlorine gas dryness
    since wet chlorine is corrosive.
  • Instrumentation to monitor acid flow, acid
    concentration, acid temperature, for detection of
    restriction of flow with in the drying system.
  • Chlorine outlet from the drying tower should be
    at the top or immediately in line with the top
    portion to avoid accumulation of hydrogen at the
    top to avoid explosion due to electrostatic
    charge.

38
Control Safety Measure in Production of
Chlorine (Contd)
  • Control Safety Measures during Production of
    Liquid Chlorine
  • An important control parameter is moisture
    content in dried chlorine in relation to the
    materials of construction as wet chlorine is
    highly corrosive. The moisture content is
    measured before liquefaction.
  • Care needs to be taken about nitrogen trichloride
    (NCI3) as it is explosive. Procedures for
    maintaining levels of NCI3 below the explosive
    limit is available.
  • In addition, care needs to be taken to avoid high
    temperatures which could lead to a chlorine /
    iron reaction.

39
Safety Control Measures in Chlorine Storage and
chlorine filling (contd)
  • Design aspects and Material of Construction of
    chlorine storage Tanks.
  • Liquid chlorine is generally stored in horizontal
    pressure vessels.
  • Adequate distance between two storage tanks is to
    be maintained.
  • Chlorine storage tanks to be located away from
    hazardous processes or storage with potential
    fire/explosion risk to minimize risk of damage.
  • Dyke wall and impervious flooring with 1100
    slope are to be provided in the storage area.
  • Tanks are to be designed as per IS 2825.
  • Design pressure for chlorine storage tonner is
    19.9 kg/ cm2 at 650 C.

40
Safety Control Measures in Chlorine Storage and
chlorine filling (contd)
  • Corrosion allowance of 3 mm is to be provided.
  • 100 stress relieved and X-rayed.
  • Material of Construction (MOC) of chlorine
    storage Tanks is low temperature carbon steel SA
    516 grade 60/70 (-350 C to 550 C).
  • Valves are of forged carbon steel, spindle of
    monel metal or SS 316 and bellows are of
    hastalloy C 276.
  • Pressure Gauges with Haste alloy C diaphragm,
    Haste alloy C/ SS316 dip pipe.
  • Bolts, nuts studs of proper MOC is used. Stud-
    320 L7_, ( Nut A194 grade -4)

41
Safety Control Measures in Chlorine Storage and
chlorine filling (contd..)
  • Control Safety measures for storage of liquid
    chlorine (contd)
  • Provide Low and high level alarm, 20 low 80
    high.
  • Provide High low pressure alarm, 2.5 Kg/ cm2
    low and 11.5 Kg/ cm2.
  • Provide Temperature alarm -150 C low and 300 C
    high.
  • Provide Double Rupture disc, 13.5 Kg/ cm2.
  • Provide Double Safety valve which opens at 13.0
    Kg /cm2 closes at 12.7 Kg/ cm2.

42
Safety Control Measures in Chlorine Storage and
chlorine filling (contd..)
  • Control Safety measures for storage of liquid
    chlorine (contd)
  • Provide Double valve of international standards
    quality of each line.
  • Provide Remote type valve in liquid chlorine
    line.
  • Always one tank is to be kept empty for emergency
    transfer of liquid chlorine.
  • Connection of the emergency release line with the
    neutralize system.
  • Provide adequate number of CI2 detector in the
    storage area.

43
Safety Control Measures in Chlorine Storage and
chlorine filling (contd..)
  • Control Safety measures for storage of liquid
    chlorine (contd)
  • Transfer of liquid CI2 to empty tank. Time for
    transfer 2 hrs by compressed dry air at 10.8 Kg
    cm2. Tank volume 100 NM3.
  • Foam is used to contain chlorine, leakage.
  • Chilled water below 100C can be used to control
    liquid CI2 spillage.
  • Liquefied gas pool can also be controlled by
    covering with a large sheet of poly ethylene.
    Vapor evaporating from pool below the cover can
    be withdrawn by large bore hose to a
    neutralization system with on line connected
    vacuum hose.
  • Provision for Neutralization of chlorine with
    caustic soda (3 stage system).

44
Safety Control Measures in Chlorine Storage and
chlorine filling (contd..)
  • Prevent passage of liquid chlorine into drainage
    system/ effluent.
  • Dyke wall kept dry during rainy season.
  • To avoid percolation, a steep slope is provided
    leading to a sump with provision of small pumps
    or airlifts for recovery.
  • Provision for prevention of free access of wind
    and airflows to pool area.
  • The storage tanks may be fitted inside a close
    room with emergency exhaust blower. Which is
    connected to neutralization system.
  • Provide high capacity blowers in the storage and
    bottling area connected to the neutralizing
    system.

45
SAFETY MESAURES FOR CHLORINE STORAGE TANKS
  • REQUIREMETNT UNDER SMPV RULE 1981
  • License under SMPV Rules must be obtained by the
    producers.
  • Level or weight, pressure and temperature
    indicator will be provided on each chlorine
    storage tank with proper alarm system.
  • Provision for release of excess pressure with
    rupture disc will be provided at chlorine storage
    tanks.
  • It will be provided with safety valve and safety
    valve will be connected to Hypo System. Pressure
    indication between rupture disc and safety valve
    will be given to detect any damage in rupture
    disc. Alternately, two Nos. Safety Relief Valves
    to be provided on each storage tank.

46
SAFETY MESAURES FOR CHLORINE STORAGE TANKS
  • REQUIREMETNT UNDER SMPV RULE 1981
  • Provision of emergency suction hose for
    evacuation of chlorine leakage to hypo system
    will be provided.
  • Provision of On line Breathing Apparatus and
    Self contained Breathing Apparatus at different
    locations for emergency operation will be
    available at storage site.
  • Dew point of padding air will be monitored. Dew
    point should not be more than -450 C
  • Emergency Response Plan for Chlorine leakage is
    to be developed as per statutory guide lines and
    to be made operational.
  • The operation will be done by trained and
    experienced persons.

47
Safety Control Measures in the Waste Chlorine
Neutralize (Sodium Hypochlorite Production,
Storage, Handling)
  • The control parameters used in the chlorine
    neutralization process are generally redox
    monitoring and temperature measurement to ensure
    that the absorption capacity exists at all times,
    that the solution is not saturated with chlorine,
    and that the formation of salt does not occur in
    the reaction, beyond a manageable concentration.
  • Temperature monitoring ensures that the
    controlled heat exchange process is functioning
    at all times.

48
Contact Harisaran Das Ph 09717765334 Email.
hsdas_at_ama-india.org Thank you
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