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R546 Instructional Stategies for Thinking, Collaboration, and Motivation


R546 Instructional Stategies for Thinking, Collaboration, and Motivation Curtis J. Bonk, Professor, Indiana University President, SurveyShare cjbonk_at_indiana.edu – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: R546 Instructional Stategies for Thinking, Collaboration, and Motivation

R546 Instructional Stategies for Thinking,
Collaboration, and Motivation
  • Curtis J. Bonk, Professor, Indiana University
  • President, SurveyShare
  • cjbonk_at_indiana.edu
  • http//php.indiana.edu/cjbonk

Expectations List
Why is Class Important?
  • For Students
  • Variety, variety, variety
  • Address preferences
  • Provide challenges and supports
  • Allows some autonomy
  • Better prepared for changing times

Why is Class Important?
  • For Instructors
  • Get to know students better
  • More reflection on teaching
  • More confidence

My Intentions Who Targeted?
  • Update teaching methods and philosophies
  • Build collaborative teams
  • Provide labels for what already do
  • Create long-range goals
  • Design usable curricula
  • Foster interaction and collaboration
  • Stop being giant yellow highlighters

Preliminary Action Plan
Test Question 1
  • When will active learning meet active teaching?

Charles I. Gragg (1940 Because Wisdom Cant be
  • A student of business with tact
  • Absorbed many answers he lacked.
  • But acquiring a job,
  • He said with a sob,
  • How does one fit answer to fact?

Traditional Teachers
  • Supposed sage, manager, conveyer
  • Sets the agenda
  • Learner is a sponge
  • Passive learning discrete knowledge
  • Objectively assess, competitive
  • Text- or teacher-centered
  • Transmission model
  • Lack interconnections inert
  • Squash student ideas

Anyone? Anyone?
Must Statistics and Math teachers be boring?
Andie MacDowell, Bill Murray, 1993
Changes in College Campuses Today???
The NSSE (nessie)
It's an embarrassment that we can tell people
almost anything about education except how well
students are learning.
Patrick M. Callan, National Center for Public
Policy and Higher Education
What Really Matters in College Student Engagement
  • The research is unequivocal students who are
    actively involved in both academic and
    out-of-class activities gain more from the
    college experience than those who are not so

Ernest T. Pascarella Patrick T. Terenzini, How
College Affects Students
Evidence of Student Engagement
  • To what extent are students engaged in effective
    educational practices?
  • How can we obtain and best use such information?

National Survey of Student Engagement(pronounced
nessie)Community College Survey of Student
Engagement(pronounced sessie)
  • College student surveys that assess the extent
    to which students engage in educational practices
    associated with high levels of learning and

National Survey of Student Engagement(pronounced
nessie)Community College Survey of Student
Engagement(pronounced sessie)
Benchmarks of Effective Educational Practice
(Kuh, in press)
Level of Academic Challenge Challenging
intellectual and creative work is central to
student learning and collegiate quality.
Colleges and universities promote high levels of
student achievement by emphasizing the importance
of academic effort and setting high expectations
for student performance.
  • Level of Academic Challenge
  • Sample of 10 questions
  • Number of assigned textbooks, books, or
    book-length packs of course readings
  • Number of written papers or reports of 20 pages
    or more
  • Coursework emphasizes Analyzing the basic
    elements of an idea, experience or theory
  • Coursework emphasizes Synthesizing and
    organizing ideas, information, or experiences
  • Coursework emphasizes Making judgments about the
    value of information, arguments, or methods

Active and Collaborative Learning Students learn
more when they are intensely involved in their
education and are asked to think about and apply
what they are learning in different settings.
Collaborating with others in solving problems or
mastering difficult material prepares students to
deal with the messy, unscripted problems they
will encounter daily during and after college.
  • Active and Collaborative Learning
  • 7 questions
  • Asked questions in class or contributed to class
  • Made a class presentation
  • Worked with other students on projects during
  • Worked with classmates outside of class to
    prepare class assignments

  • Active and Collaborative Learning
  • 7 questions
  • Tutored or taught other students
  • Participated in a community-based project as part
    of a regular course
  • Discussed ideas from your reading or classes with
    others outside of class (students, family
    members, co-workers, etc.)

What Were Learning About Student Engagement From
NSSE George Kuh (in press). Change, Indiana
University Bloomington
Active Collaborative Learning
  • Samford University makes extensive use of
    problem-based learning (PBL) strategies to induce
    students to work together to examine complex

Active Collaborative Learning
  • Eckerd College developed Autumn Term, a month
    during which classes meet from 9 AM to noon, five
    days a week. Group projects and
    discussion-oriented pedagogies are coupled with a
    community service project.

Student-Faculty Interaction
  • Elon University added an extra hour of class
    meeting time for experiential learning. This
    allows students and faculty to dig deeper and
    promotes more frequent student-faculty contact.

See National Survey of Student Engagement (NSSE)
The College Student Report(November 2003 Annual
NSSE The College Student Report(November 2003
Annual Report)
A Paradigm Shift Happening?
Students are too often
  • Not very interested in ideas
  • Not respectful of others ideas
  • Wanting learning to seem easy
  • Not well organized

Students are too often
  • Emotionally moody and sleepy
  • Preoccupied with previous class or hour
  • Expecting entertainment
  • Unable to concentrate for too long
  • Isolated or alienated

Learning Metaphors
  • Teacher or text-centered to Student or thinking
    skill-centered to Student generated or
  • Transmission to Construction or Design to
    Discovery or Transformation
  • Boring to Active to Love of Learning
  • Sponge to Growing Tree to Pilgrim on a Journey

Smart Schools(Perkins, 1992)
  • Causes of educational shortfall
  • Trivial pursuit model
  • Ability counts most theory
  • Missing, inert, naïve, ritual knowledge
  • Poor thinking, rely on knowledge telling, cannot
    make inferences and solve problems
  • Educational Goals
  • Retention, understanding, and active use of

Consultative Teachers
  • Co-learner, mentor, tour guide, facilitator
  • Student and problem-centered
  • Learner is a growing tree and on a journey
  • Knowledge is constructed and intertwined
  • Many resources (including texts teachers)
  • Authentic, collaborative, real-world tasks
  • Subjective, continual, less formal assess
  • Display student ideas--proud and motivated
  • Build CT, CR, CL skills

Active Learning Principles
  • 1. Authentic/Raw Data
  • 2. Student Autonomy/Inquiry
  • 3. Relevant/Meaningful/Interests
  • 4. Link to Prior Knowledge
  • 5. Choice and Challenge
  • 6. Teacher as Facilitator and Co-Learner
  • 7. Social Interaction and Dialogue
  • 8. Problem-Based Student Gen Learning
  • 9. Multiple Viewpoints/Perspectives
  • 10. Collab, Negotiation, Reflection

7 Fundamental Principles of Learning (Kahn, 1993)
  1. Learning is social
  2. Knowledge is integrated into life of community
  3. Learning is an act of membership
  4. Knowing in engagement in practice
  5. Engagement empowerment are linked
  6. Failure to learn results from exclusion from
  7. We have a society of lifelong learners

Resources in a Learning Environment
  • Teachers
  • Peers
  • Curriculum/Textbooks
  • Technology/Tools
  • Experts/Community
  • Assessment/Testing
  • Self Reflection
  • Parents

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Sociocultural Ideas
  • Shared Space and Intersubjectivity
  • Social Dialogue on Authentic Problems
  • Mentoring and Teleapprenticeships
  • Scaffolding and Electronic Assistance
  • Group Processing and Reflection
  • Collaboration and Negotiation in ZPD
  • Choice and Challenge
  • Community of Learning with Experts and Peers
  • Portfolio Assessment and Feedback
  • Assisted Learning (e.g., task structuring)

Connections New Theories
  • Situated Learning--asserts that learning is most
    effective in authentic, or real world, contexts
    with problems that allow students to generate
    their own solution paths (Brown, Collins,
    Duguid, 1989).

Connections New Theories
  • Constructivism--concerned with learner's actual
    act of creating meaning (Brooks, 1990). The
    constructivist argues that the child's mind
    actively constructs relationships and ideas
    hence, meaning is derived from negotiating,
    generating, and linking concepts within a
    community of peers (Harel Papert, 1991).

The Tao of Teaching
  • A wise teacher lets other have the floor.
  • Trying to appear brilliant does not work.
  • The gift of a great teacher is creating an
    awareness of greatness in others.
  • Facilitate what is happening, rather than what
    you think ought to be happening. Silence says
    more than words, pay attention to it.

The Tao of Teaching
  • Allow time for genuine insight.
  • Instead of trying hard, be easy teach by
    example, and more will happen.
  • If you measure success in terms of praise and
    criticism, your anxiety will be endless.
  • Any over-determined behavior produces its

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Teacher Self-Assessment for active learning.
(Bonk, 1995)
  • In my classes...
  • ___ 1. students have a say in class activities
    and tests.
  • ___ 2. I help students to explore, build, and
    connect their ideas.
  • ___ 3. students share their ideas and views with
    each other and me.

Teacher Self-Assessment for active learning.
(Bonk, 1995)
  • ___ 4. students can relate new terms and concepts
    to events in their lives
  • ___ 5. students work in small groups or teams
    when solving problems.
  • ___ 6. students use computers to help them
    organize and try out their ideas.
  • ___ 7. I give hints and clues for solving
    problems but do not give away the answers.

Teacher Self-Assessment for active learning.
(Bonk, 1995)
  • In my classes...
  • ___ 8. I relate new information or problems to
    what students have already learned.
  • ___ 9. students prepare answers with a partner or
    team b/4 sharing ideas with the class.
  • ___ 10. I ask questions that have more than one
  • ___ 11. students take sides and debate issues and

Teacher Self-Assessment for active learning.
(Bonk, 1995)
  • ___ 12. students develop ideas from a variety of
    library and electronic resources.
  • ___ 13. students bring in information that
    extends across subject areas or links topics.
  • ___ 14. students suggest possible problems and
  • ___ 15. I provide diagrams or pictures of main
    ideas to make confusing info clearer.

1. Motivational Techniques
What is motivating here?
Or here?
Who has seen the movie Office Space?
Who has seen the movie Office Space (1999)?
Motivation Research Highlights (Brophy)
  • 1. Supportive, appropriate challenge, meaningful,
  • 2. Teach goal setting and self-reinforcement.
  • 3. Offer rewards for good/improved performance.
  • 4. Novelty, variety, choice, adaptable to
  • 5. Gamelike, fun, fantasy, curiosity, suspense,
  • 6. Higher levels, divergence, dissonance,
    interact with peers.
  • 7. Allow to create finished products.
  • 8. Provide immediate feedback, advance
  • 9. Show intensity, enthusiasm, interest, minimize
  • 10. Make content personal, concrete, familiar.

Classroom Motivation Tips (Alexander, class
notes, Pintrinch Schunk, 1996 Reeve, 1996
Stipek, 1998)
  • 1. Include positive before negative comments.
  • 2. Wish students good effort not good luck.
  • 3. Give flexibility in assignments and due dates.
  • 4. Communicate respect via tasks select and
  • 5. Design interactive and interesting activities.
  • 6. Use coop learning, debates, group discussions.
  • 7. Minimize social comparisons and public
  • 8. Use relevant, authentic learning tasks.

More Classroom Motivation Tips (Alexander, class
notes, Pintrinch Schunk, 1996 Reeve, 1996
Stipek, 1998)
  • 9. Use optimal difficulty and novelty.
  • 10. Use challenge, curiosity, control, and
  • 11. Give challenging but achievable tasks.
  • 12. Create short term/proximal goals vary
  • 13. Give students diff ways to demo what they
  • 14. Encourage students to give and get help.
  • 15. Attrib failure to low effort or ineffective
  • (Attrib success to effort or competence)
  • 16. Give poor performing student the role of

150 To Motivate Your Lover(Raffini, 1996)
  1. Ice Breakers (a. treasured objectsdo you have a
    treasured object, why is it impt? B. who is like
  2. Goal Cards, Goal Notebooks, Expectations (BS ST
    and LT objectives and ideas on how to achieve)
  3. Floating A, Escape Clauses, Volunteer Assignments
    (to be used on any assignment within a day)
  4. Self Report Cards, Self Evaluation (make set of
    tests available on the Web)

150 To Motivate Your Lover(Raffini, 1996)
  1. Discussion Questions, Issues, Problems (perhaps
    answer questions of another team talking chips)
  2. Team Competitions, Challenges, Puzzles
  3. Success contracts and calendars (Guarantee an A
    or B if fulfill contract provisions)
  4. Positive Statements, Self Reinforcements (Bury
    the I cants save I cans say I think I

150 To Motivate Your Lover(Raffini, 1996)
  1. Celebrations, Praises, Acknowledgements, Thank
    Yous, Put-Ups (multicultural days, trips, class
    awards, helpers, end of term events)
  2. Class Community Building (designated class Web
    Site or Class Forum, Portal, Digitized Web class
    photo, photo album, class project, teeshirts,
    field trips)

150 To Motivate Your Lover(Raffini, 1996)
  1. Democratic Voting, Student Interest Surveys,
    Class Opinion Polls
  2. Random Acts of Kindness, Service
    Learning/Teaching, Volunteerism
  3. Change Roles or Status (Random roles, assume
    expert roles, switch roles for a day)

ActivitiesMotivational Ice Breakers
  1. Expectations (flip chart)
  2. Self-Disclosures
  3. Talking String
  4. Visuals
  5. Index Card
  6. Treasure Hunt
  7. Accomplishment Hunt
  8. Psychic Massage
  9. Have You Ever Been?
  10. CR, CT, CL Web

1. (Ice Breaker) Self-Disclosure Introductions...
  • Round I Self-disclosure introductions
  • Who are you
  • Job
  • Interests
  • Hobbies

2. Self-Disclosure Introductions...
  • Round II. Self-disclosure introductions...
  • Treasured Objects--Take out two items out of your
    wallet and describe how they best represent you
    (e.g., family pictures, credit cards, rabbits'
    feet) and share.
  • Describe themselves (e.g., "I am a tightwad," "I
    am superstitious")
  • c. State name with an adjective starting with 1st
    letter of 1st name (e.g., Marvelous Mary.

2. Self-Disclosure Introductions...
  • Round II. Self-disclosure introductions...
  • d. Now intro self also by a nickname current,
    past, or potential nickname.
  • e. Brainstorm a list of questions you would like
    to ask the others...(e.g., My person I most
    admire is? The best book I ever read?)
  • F. Middle name game (state what middle name is
    and how you got it).

3. Expectations Charts
  • What do you expect from this workshop, what are
    your goals, what could you contribute?
  • a. Write short and long terms goals down on goal
    cards that can be referenced later on.
  • b. Write 4-5 expectations for this
  • c. Expectations Flip Chart share of 1-2 of

4. Treasure Hunt (Index Cards)
  • a. Favorite Sports/hobbies/past times (upper
  • b. Birthplace and Favorite cities to visit (upper
  • c. Current Job and Classes Taught (lower left)
  • d. 2 comments, things, or traits about yourself
    (e.g., team player, personable, talkative,
    opinionated, hate Purdue, like movies, move a
    lot, hate sports) (lower right)
  • e. Teaching strategies you are proud of (in the

4. Treasure Hunts
  • After completing card with interests, where born,
    would like to live, strengths, job role, hobbies,
    etc. and find a match (find one thing in common
    and one thing different with everyone)

5. Accomplishment Hunt
  • a. Turn in 2-3 accomplishments (e.g., past
    summer, during college, during life)
  • b. Workshop leader lists 1-2 of those for each
    student on a sheet without names.
  • c. Participants have to ask "Is this you?" If
    yes, get a signature.

6. Issues and Discussion Questions
  • a. Make a list of issues people would like to
  • b. Perhaps everyone brings 2-3 questions or
    issues to the meeting.
  • c. Partner off and create a list and then collect
    question cards, and,
  • d. Then distribute and your group must answer
    questions of the other groups.

7. Team Brainteasers
  • IQ tests
  • Scrambled cities
  • Crossword puzzles
  • Competitions
  • Dilemmas or Situations
  • Unscrambled sayings.

8. Coat of Arms--fill in.
  • 1 a recent Peak Performance
  • 2 something very few people know
  • 3 draw a symbol of how you spend your free
  • 4 fill in something you are really good at
  • 5 write in something that epitomizes your
    personal motto.

9. Itll Never Fly Wilbur
  • a. Introduce a new idea or concept or plan.
  • b. Everyone writes 4-5 problems they see in it.
  • c. Divide into groups of 3-4 and discuss
  • d. Each group writes down 3 roadblocks on a 3 X 5
  • e. Facilitator redistributes so each group gets a
    different card.
  • f. Subgroups think creatively of how to solve
    those problems and share with group.

10. Demographic Groupings
  • Birthday GroupingNonverbally line up by date of
    the year born and partner off with person closest
    to you and then do
  • Auto GroupingGroup by location ones vehicle was
    manufactured (US, Asia, Europe) and then divide
    into truck and car people, color of vehicle, etc.
  • High School SweetheartsGroup by location where
    they graduated from high school (Midwest, South,
    East, West, Asia, Europe, etc.)

11. Talking String
  • state what hope to gain from retreat (or discuss
    some other issue) as wrap string around finger
    next ones state names of previous people and then
    state their reasons.

12. Disclosure Interviews
  • Divide into small groups of about six people and
    then hand out prepared list of 5 questions in
    increasing order of disclosure for participants
    to ask each other and then have someone stand and
    their group must describe him or her.

13. Psychic Massage (a closer activity)
  • a. Divide in teams of 3-5.
  • b. In alphabetical order of first names have
    someone turn his or back to the group
  • c. Team members must make positive, uplifting
    statements about that person behind his or her
    back but loud enough for others to hear them.
  • d. One minute per person.

14. Positive Strokes
  • a. 2-3 times during the session, each person
    fills out a 3 x 5 card about other participants.
  • b. They must complete sentences like the thing
    I like best about (name) is and the biggest
    improvement I saw in (name) is.
  • c. At the end of the day, the folded cards are
    passed out and read aloud and then given to the
    named person.

15. Community Building
  • Create common t-shirts, take photo of group, have
    online interest groups, etc., and perhaps put up
    on the Web.
  • Put announcement of retreat on Web or newsletter.

16. Communication/Learning Visuals
  • Draw one or more of the following
  • Gun,
  • cannon,
  • noose,
  • high fives,
  • thumbs up,
  • watch,
  • toilet,
  • smiley face,
  • etc.

16. Personalizing (e.g., asking how and what
  • Ask how feel, what has happened, how might such
    and such help in the workforce, ask what-if
    things were different at work, and whats next???
  • How might they do things differently???

18a. Have you ever questions
  • Performed the Heimlich maneuver
  • Tried on a straight jacket
  • Laid down inside a casket,
  • Drunk more than 25 imported beers during your
  • Ditched a blind date (or any date),

18b. Have you ever questions
  • Been a Boy Scout or Girl Scout
  • Shaved your head,
  • Flown a plane,
  • Sky dived, bungee jumped, or whitewater rafted a
    dangerous river,

18c. Have you ever questions
  • Been in a play,
  • Milked a goat or a cow,
  • Done back-to-back all-nighters,
  • Completed a marathon,

18d. Have you ever questions
  • Made an obscene gesture at someone when driving
    your car,
  • Cheated on your income tax,
  • Run a toll booth,
  • Been above the Arctic circle or below the
    Antarctic Circle.

(Dennen Bonk, in press)
And also a sense of humor!!!
50 Fun things for Professors to do the first day
of classAlan Meiss, ameiss_at_indiana.edu
50 Fun things for Professors to do the first day
of classAlan Meiss, ameiss_at_indiana.edu
  1. Wear a hood with one eyehole. Periodically make
    strange gurgling noises.
  2. Point the overhead projector at the class.
    Demand each students name, rank, and serial
  3. Show a video on medieval torture implements to
    your class. Giggle throughout it.

Fun things for Professors to do the first day of
  1. Every so often, freeze in mid sentence and stare
    off into space for several minutes. After a
    long, awkward silence, resume your sentence and
    proceed normally.
  2. Warn students that they should bring a sack lunch
    to exams.
  3. Refer frequently to students who died while
    taking your class.

Fun things for Professors to do the first day of
  1. Sprint from the room in a panic if you hear
    sirens outside.
  2. Announce that last years students have almost
    finished their projects.
  3. Bring a CPR dummy to class and announce that it
    will be the teaching assistant for the semester.
    Assign it an office and office hours.

Fun things for Professors to do the first day of
  1. Jog into class, rip the textbook in half, and
    scream, Are you pumped? ARE YOU PUMPED? I

Fun things for Professors to do the first day of
  1. Deliver your lecture through a hand puppet. If a
    student asks you a question directly, say in a
    high-pitched voice, The Professor cant hear
    you, youll have to ask me, Winky Willy.

Fun things for Professors to do the first day of
  1. Wear a virtual reality helmet and strange gloves.
    When someone asks a question, turn in their
    direction and make throttling motions with your

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