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Nationalism: Italian and German Unification


Nationalism: Italian and German Unification Emergence of realpolitik: Failure of 48 for liberals and Romantics demonstrated that strong idealism not enough to ... – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: Nationalism: Italian and German Unification

Nationalism Italian and German Unification
Emergence of realpolitik
  • Failure of 48 for liberals and Romantics
    demonstrated that strong idealism not enough to
    accomplish revolutionary goals
  • After 1850 age of realism replaced Romanticism
    as dominant philosophy
  • A political representation of realism is the
    notion of realpolitik accomplishing ones
    political goals via practical means (as opposed
    to idealism driving political decisions).
  • Nationalist goals were achievesd step by step.
    Who does this sound like from the past?
  • Yes, him. Ital. Unificcation, Germ. Unification,
    Hungarian autonomy

Italian Unification
  • Story of three men
  • Giuseppe Mazzinipublicist The Heart
  • Camillo Cavourstateman The Head
  • Giuseppe Garibaldisoldier The Sword
  • Until 1850 Italy was dominated by outsiders
  • Austrian Empire and Pope led opposition
  • Many different visions of a united Italy
  • Mazzini centralized dem-rep based on univ. male
    suffr. and will of the people
  • Gioberti Cath priest.federation of existing
    states under presidency of a progressive pope
  • Sardinia-Piedmont (autocratic kingdom) ala
    Germans and Prussia
  • Many were apathetic to idea

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  • Movement spread by a secret societyCarbonari(coal
  • Influenced by French Revolution
  • Led revolts in 1820 and 1831
  • Giuseppe Mazziniprophet of Italian Nationalism
  • Formed new group called Young Italy
  • Campaigns for national Italian dialect

  • Unification comes by military and diplomatic
  • Primarily under the leadership of the one state
    in Italy under Italian control, the Kingdom of

Count Camillo Cavour
  • Prime Minister of Kingdom of Sardinia under King
    Vic E.
  • Build Sardinia/Piedmont into modern economically
    sound state
  • Clear objectives for Sardinia- Politics of
  • Northern Italy under Sardinias control
  • Not interested in Southern Italy
  • Too different-poor and agrarian
  • Establish kingdom as a serious European power
  • Fights in Crimean war
  • Negotiates French support in war with Austria

Creation of a Unified Northern Italy
  • Prompted by Piedmonts victory over Austria,
    several Italian revolt.
  • Tuscany, Modena, Parma and Romagna revolt and
    vote to join Piedmont.
  • By 1869, Italy consists of three region, a
    northern Italian Kingdom, the Papal States and
    the Kingdom of Two Sicilies

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Giuseppe Garibaldi
  • Leader of a guerilla movement
  • Expedition of the Thousand (Red Shirts)
  • Venture south into Sicily to bring about
  • Quickly overthrow the corrupt government of the
    Two Sicilies
  • Cavour now invades the south and takes (or is
    it unites?) the prize from Garibaldi.

  • By 1861, all of Italy except Rome and Venetia are
  • Leadership under King Victor Emmanuel II of
  • Venetia will be added in 1866
  • Rome seized in 1870.

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Problems after Unification
  • Italypoor w/ large illiterate population
  • Division between church and state
  • Economic divisions between the North and South
  • Localism too strong in many areas
  • Development of local strongmen
  • Little knowledge of and participation in govt

Solutions to problems?
  • Industry and trade were fostered by
  • Improved agricultural methods developed
  • Govt encouraged emigration to USease over-popn
    due to high birthrate
  • High taxes pd to support growing Army and Navy

German Unification
  • The last big unification piece of the 19th
  • Most important in Europe from 1848 to 1914
  • Transformed the economic, military and diplomatic
    balance of power
  • The question of German unification would center
    around the two dominate German speaking countries
    of the periodPrussia and Austria
  • After 1848, Prussia was the increasing dominant

Otto von Bismarck
  • Comes to dominate Prussian, then German politics
    from 1962-1890
  • Prussian Chancellor from 1862
  • One of most remarkable leaders of 19th century
  • Came from Junker class (noble landlord) in East
  • Practiced realpolitik, little faith in liberalism
    or nationalism. Practical, pragmatic. By any
    means necessary
  • Conservative, but willing to work with middle
    class liberals
  • Iron and Blood speech(1862)willing to use force
    to unify Germany, strengthen Prussia

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Early Steps to Unification
  • Existing Pieces
  • Zollvereincustoms union
  • Maintained economic links
  • Excluded Austria
  • Frankfurt AssemblyAssembly of all German states
    to exchange ideas
  • Bismarck needed to establish dominance in the
    Prussian government
  • Weaken power of liberals
  • Issue of taxation for expanded army

Wars of Unification
  • War with Denmark(1864)
  • Dispute over Schleswig-Holstein
  • Supported by Austria
  • Joint occupation
  • War with Austria(1866)
  • Seven Weeks War (Austro-Prussian War)
  • Quickly defeated Austria and German allies
  • Austria forced to give up role within Germany

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North German Confederation
  • Formation of the North German Confederation
  • Prussia annexes Hanover, Hesse, Nassau and
  • Sets up basis of political structures
  • Appearance of liberalism but in reality a
    military monarchy
  • 2 House Legislature-- Bundesrat and Reichstag
  • Little real power
  • Liberalism defeated by dream of unification

Franco-Prussian War
  • In many ways can be viewed as the first shots of
    World War I.
  • Napoleon III realizes after Prussian victories in
    Denmark and Austria that he must prevent German
  • Bismarcks goal was to complete unification by
    bringing into union the Catholic South German

Ems Telegram
  • Bismarck finds an diplomatic issue as excuse for
  • Question of member of German Royal Family
    assuming Spanish throne
  • France opposes for strategic purposes
  • Pressures Wilhelm I to refuse
  • Pushes issue too far
  • Bismarck edits telegram from Kaiser makes it
    appear as a German insult to France
  • Popular press forces France to declare war on
    Prussiamatter of honor

  • France is ill-prepared for conflict
  • Technologically backward compared to Prussia
  • War was over in 6 months
  • The states of Southern Germany joined the
    Northern German Confederation against France.
  • Prussians strike a devastating defeat on the
    French at Sedan
  • Captured 100,000 French troops
  • Take Napoleon III prisoner

Peace Terms
  • France forced to pay a humiliating price for
  • 5 billion franc reparations
  • Alsace and Lorraine turned over to Germany
  • Important industrial region of France
  • Northern France occupied for three years
  • Plants the seeds for future year
  • French will vow revenge for embarrassment

Creation of a German Empire
  • Bismarck and William I proclaim a German Empire
    at Versailles.
  • Another insult to France
  • German Princes remained heads of their respective
    states within the Empire.
  • Culmination of Bismarcks activities
  • Consolidated German Empire uniform currency and
    legal code
  • Suppress Catholics in South Kulturkampfrestrict
    church , esp. in ed and clergy

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  • Fact and manner of German unification produced
    long term effects on Europe
  • New German Empire far stronger than Prussia alone
  • Militarily, economically it is strongest nation
    in Europe
  • Blow to European liberalism
  • New state is a conservative monarchy
  • Major impact on Balance of Power
  • France and Austria weakened
  • Simmering French hatred
  • Germany will now become a defender of the status

Other Actions of Bismarck
  • Tried to suppress the socialists
  • Socialists appealed to urban workers who resented
    low pay and bad working conditions.
  • Bismarck tried to suppress them forcibly 1878 w/
    anti-socialist laws, but failed.
  • By the 1880s, Bismarck began to undermine them
    by supporting social legislation to gain the
    support of the workers.
  • These programs incl. unemployment insurance
    workers comp., and soc. Sec. payments for
    retired Germans.

  • 1888 William II (defender of divine right)
    became king and Bismarck remained the chancellor,
    until he was dismissed by William.
  • William II did the following
  • Built up a strong army navy
  • Encouraged industry commerce
  • Encouraged imperialism and annexation

  • Emperor Francis-Joseph tried to solve problems,
    they were too great for one ruler
  • Problems faced by the empire included
  • The great number of national minorities which
    were living in the empire
  • Over-extension of the empire into areas, such as
  • Failure to compete with the growing power of
  • Absolutist, dynastic and agrarian? liberal,
    nationalistic and industrial

Dual Monarchy
  • Revolts occurred in the Hungarian part of the
    empire between 1861 1867.
  • Defeat by Prussia and losses in Italy cause
    Austria to decl. in influence and power
  • 1867 Ausgleich
  • Austria and Hungary under one monarch--Dual
    Monarchy (Austro-Hungarian empire)
  • Hungary given control of its own affairs and
    control over its own minorities, make its own
  • the Hungarians (Magyars) dominant over other
    nationalities in region?does not give autonomy to
    other minorities\
  • Hungarians recogd the emperor and accepted
    common policies for finances foreign policy.
  • Austria faced many revolts between 1860 1914

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