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Church History


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Title: Church History

Church History
  • ACTS 1 to this Kinship
  • 2000 years in 40 minutes.
  • Compiled by John Ensworth,
  • West Springfield Kinship

Why Study Church History?
  • Learn the Mistakes of History ? Avoid them?
    Those who cannot learn from history are doomed
    to repeat it.
  • Discover our own roots (Restoration Movement,
  • Avoid swinging the pendulum
    Grace ? Legalism

    Doctrine ? Zeal, Emotion, Heart
    Asceticism ? Freedom

The beginning
  • Acts 1
  • Reading from Introduction to Church History

Persecution Growth
  • The Temple priests went after them in Acts 4
  • First a warning, then a beating, then murder.
  • Stephen the first martyr Acts 754-60
  • Scattered the church and spread the word world

Pauls Conversion
  • Saul of Tarsus, a devote Pharisee (present at the
    stoning of Stephen)
  • Was heading to stamp out believers in Damascus -
    Acts 9
  • Met Christ along the way
  • Annanias was sent by God to help Paul
  • Was baptized and received the Holy Spirit in
    Damascus then went to Arabia for 3 years

Gal 117-19
  • 16 to reveal his Son in me so that I might
    preach him among the Gentiles, I did not consult
    any man, 17 nor did I go up to Jerusalem to see
    those who were apostles before I was, but I went
    immediately into Arabia and later returned to
  • 18 Then after three years, I went up to Jerusalem
    to get acquainted with Peter and stayed with him
    fifteen days. 19I saw none of the other
    apostlesonly James, the Lord's brother.

Paul planted, taught and wrote
  • Worked and spent time with some of the disciples
    ((Barnabas?), Peter, James)
  • Church in Antioch
  • Cyprus and Asia Minor (Turkey)
  • Macedonia
  • Greece Philippi, Thessalonica, Berea, Corinth
  • Ephesus then imprisoned in Rome 2 years
  • Crete

(No Transcript)
Other early church planters
  • Bartholomew Armenia
  • Andrew Southern Russia and Ukraine
  • Thomas Persia and India
  • Matthew Ethiopia
  • James (younger) Egypt
  • Jude Assyria and Persia
  • Mark (not the apostle) Alexandria
  • Peter- Babylonia (? or name for Rome)

After the apostles and friends passed away
  • The Apostolic Fathers
  • Apostolic or Post-Apostolic Fathers (c. 95-105
  • The Apologists (c. 140-200)
  • The Polemicists (c. 180-225)
  • The Scientific Theologians (c. 225-460)
  • (Arbitrary periods and designations, but useful)

The Apostolic Fathers
  • Purpose To exhort and edify the church
  • Writers/Writings
  • Clement Shepherd of Hermas
  • Papias Barnabas
  • Ignatius Didache
  • Polycarp
  • (c. 95-105 AD)

The Apologists
  • Purpose To defend the Faith
  • Leaders Justin Martyr, Tatian, Tertulllian
  • (c. 140-200 AD)

Early Schisms and Heresies
  • Judaizers legalism
  • Gnostics humanity of Jesus, deep knowledge, we
    are divine souls trapped
    in material world by imperfect God/spirit,
    matter evil, our spirit good
  • Marcionites Jehovah an evil god- Hebrew bible
  • Montanists charismatic, newer prophecies
    supersede apostles,
    were possessed by God when they spoke

Early Schisms and Heresies
  • Novatianists purity of the church, back
    sliders (those who renounced Christ under
    persecution) not readmitted to the church
  • Arians deity of Jesus and different
    relationship between the
    Father and Jesus nontrinitarian
  • Ebionism opposed Paul, discounted his writings
    and teachings
  • Monarchianism rule of one- bothered by the
    trinity power of God sank into Jesus over time
  • Manicheism Gnosticism with strong Oriental
    religious elements mix of light and dark (good
    and evil). Christ came to help the light side.

The Polemicists
  • PurposeTo attack error.
  • Leaders Irenaeus, Hippolytus, Tertullian,
  • (c. 180-225 AD)

The Apostolic Church Drifts
  • Leadership/Church Organization
  • Doctrine of Baptism
  • Asceticism, Monasticism etc.
  • Creeds, Liturgy, Church Calendar, Sacramentalism
  • Sacerdotalism/Priesthood The Lords Supper
    becomes a sacrifice/supernatural
  • Hermeneutics system of studying something and
    arriving at truth

The Scientific Theologians
  • Purpose To develop scientific methods of
    biblical interpretation
  • Theologians Alexandrian Pantaenus, Clement,
    Origen, Athanasius, Cyril Western- Jerome,
    Ambrose,Augustine Eastern Theodore, John
  • (c. 225-460 AD)

More Persecution -Rome
  • Earliest official persecution 64-100 AD
  • blame for fire of Rome July 19, 64 AD
  • 95AD originally directed at Jews who didnt pay
  • Imperial Policy 111-161 AD
  • response to many leaving paganism
  • mobs called for Christian blood and this was
    discouraged by Rome at first

More Persecution -Rome
  • Marcus Aurelius 161-180 AD
  • Sent spies out to find Christians (didnt wait
    for mobs or reports)
  • Riots and mobs not checked
  • 1000s thrown to lions and beheaded including
    Justin Martyr
  • Still not considered an all out war on
    Christianity empire wide

More Persecution -Rome
  • Persecution across the empire 249-305 AD
  • 1000th year anniversary of Rome celebrated
  • Looked back on earlier glory and wondered what
    messed it upChristianity?
  • Decius 249-251 AD state religion needed
  • Valerian 253-260 AD was favorable towards
    Christians at first many Christian leaders
    killed later on
  • 260-303 AD quiet period
  • 303-305 AD Diocletian(east) /Maximian (west) -
    Destruction of Christian places of worship and
    holy books decreed.

More Persecution -Rome
  • Toleration under Constantine from 313 AD
  • Holy Roman Church becomes legal 313 AD
  • Fall of Roman Empire September 4, 476 AD

The Canon
  • First (messed up Gnostic) cannon Marcion 140
  • Destruction of scared writings by the Romans in
    303 AD showed need to know what is worth dying

What is Canon?
  • Writings inspired by God. (Which ones?)
  • Apostle writings.
  • Those close to the apostles.
  • Moral and doctorial elements match apostle
  • Satisfied Hebrew Bible prophecy.
  • The four gospels and Acts.

Canon and Paul
  • Paul's letters were circulated with the first NT
  • 250 AD Had the four gospels, 13 epistles of
    Paul 4 books not in the NT today.
  • Hebrews was disputed author unknown
  • Given to Constantine in 330 AD

Councils of Carthate
  • 393 AD (St. Augustine was bishop) apparently set
    the current NT canon
  • 397 AD no additions or subtractions will be

Approaching the Middle Ages
  • 325-681 AD
  • Theological controversy and the Fall of Rome
  • The Roman Catholic Church forms reference to it
    in 107 AD
  • Catholic the one church formed by Jesus and
    the apostles
  • Legalized under Constantine 313 AD

Pope Gregory the Great
  • 540-604 A.D.
  • Transformed the bishopric of Rome into a papal
  • Introduced major changes in the liturgy and
    standardized it (though didnt actually create
    Gregorian chants)
  • Helped bring together the branches of Roman
    Catholic theology that were developing
  • Penned famous commentary on Job which defined how
    commentaries were to be done.

Clarified ideas
  • Original Sin
  • Forgiveness through baptism
  • Purgatory
  • Converted the Eucharist from a sacrament into a
    sacrifice for redemption

Islam Created
  • Islam came into existence 622 AD
  • Mohammad traveled to the Christian world to find
    a religion to unite the Arab world
  • Was rejected
  • Took elements from Judaism, Christianity and
    Arabian heathenism
  • Preached 13 years in Mecca against polytheism,
    then flight to Medina in 622AD.

Islam Created
  • Conquered Mecca in 629 AD
  • Died 632 AD ruler of the Arabian peninsula
  • Quran formed about 650 AD
  • Major schism Sunni (largest 90) and Shiite
    (7 to 15 of Muslims) late 600s
  • Now 1/5th of the world (.9 to 1.4 billion)
  • (Christianity 1.9 billion presently)

Present percentage of population that is Muslim
by country.
Present percentage of population that is
Christian by country.
Middle Ages and the Catholic Church
  • Charlemagne was crowned emperor of the Romans
    by Pope Leo III 800 AD
  • Took this to mean he was the leader of all
    Christendom as well
  • ? The Holy Roman Empire 800 AD
  • Was Christianity for almost 200 years.
  • (Napoleon abolished the empire in 1806 ? 1000
    years later!)

Schism 1054 AD
  • The 1st great rift.
  • The western (Latin) branch
  • The eastern (Greek) branch
  • Today The worldwide Catholic Church is made up
    of 1 Western Latin and 22 Eastern Catholic
    autonomous particular churches, all of which look
    to the Bishop of Rome (the Pope), alone or along
    with the College of Bishops, as their highest
    authority on earth for matters of faith, morals
    and church governance.

  • Crusades 1095AD - to the Holy Land to
    contain/push back Islam failed ultimately
  • Inquisition 1184 to 1230s sought to assure
    religious and doctrinal unity within Christianity
    through conversion, and sometimes prosecution, of
    alleged heretics.
  • Spanish 1478-1834, Portuguese 1536-1560
  • Roman 1542-mid 1800s (including Galileo Galilei

Decline of the Medieval Church 1305-1517 AD
  • Rise of nationalism
  • Backlash against the Inquisition
  • Reaction against money-raising efforts of the
    Church (indulgences, oppressive taxes)
  • Moral Laxity (especially 1400s)
  • Secularization of the church (the Renaissance)
  • The Crusades
  • Babylonian Captivity of the papacy (the pope was
    a virtual prisoner of the king of France
  • Papal Schism Incompetent Pope Urban VI

The Protestant Reformation
  • The 2nd great rift.
  • Germany in 1517 with Martin Luther
  • Concluded with the Peace of Westphalia in 1648.
    (ended the 30 and 80 years war, France, Germany,
    Sweden, Dutch, and the Holy roman Empire
    Christians could worship freely wherever they
  • Martin Luther nailed his Ninety-Five Theses On
    the Power of Indulgences to the door of the
    Wittenberg Castle Church, which served as a pin
    board for university-related announcements. These
    were points for debate that criticized the Church
    and the Pope.

The Protestant branches
  • The most important Protestant groups to emerge
    directly from the reformation were the Lutherans,
    the Reformed/Calvinists/Presbyterians, the
    Anabaptists, and the Anglicans. Subsequent
    Protestant denominations generally trace their
    roots back to the initial Reformation traditions.
    It also accelerated the Catholic or Counter
    Reformation within the Roman Catholic Church.

Christian Branches
The thread of True Christianity in the Middle
  • Paulicians 650-900s Asia Minor Some Gnostic
    elements, but accepted the OT, Gospels, Pauls
    letters and condoned the prophetic and tongues
  • Arnold of Brescia 1100 Italy gave his
    possessions away, land to the government, opposed
    the pope taught of the trinity (also Héloïse)

The thread of Christianity in the Middle Ages?
  • Peter of Bruys 1110 Northern Italy taught in
    opposition to the Roman Catholic Church
  • Taught children younger than the age of
    understanding cannot be saved by baptism, ornate
    churches do not make the Church, the cross should
    not be a Christian symbol, there is no
    transubstantiation, you cant sacrifice and pray
    or give alms for the dead good deeds cannot
    profit the dead.
  • Waldensians 1175-1500s Peter Waldo,
    Switzerland taught the value of poverty, public
    preaching and the personal study of scriptures
    (Mennonites and Baptists trace their roots
    through the Waldensians)

The Reformation
  • John Wycliffe England, 1324-1384
  • John Huss Bohemia, 1374-1415
  • Martin Luther Germany, 1483-1546
  • Ulrich Zwingli Switzerland, 1484-1531
  • William Tyndale England, 1494-1536
  • John Calvin France, 1509-1564
  • John Knox Scotland, 1505-1572

John Wycliffe 1324-1384
  • Translated Vulgate into English
    indulgences, idols, priesthood
    The Pope is the antichrist
    (later years)
    Followers known as Lollards
  • Declared heretic 1401 The Anti-Wycliffite

John Huss 1374-1415 Bohemia
  • Influenced by Wycliffe
    the only authority
    Only God can
    forgive sin
    Burned at the stake

    Hussites virtually wiped out by the
    Inquisition Brethren
    and Moravian Churches (Anabaptist and/or Pietist

John Huss Burned at the stake, 1415
A quick Review
  • God and His Spirit started the Church Acts 1
  • Jewish then Roman persecution spread it
  • The Holy Roman Church traces its roots to the
    apostles and was the main show in town until
    the reformation from 1517 to 1648.

Martin Luther 1483-1546
Augustinian Monk 95 Theses in Wittenburg Studied
Romans Salvation by Faith Only Scripture Only to
know about God Predestination believed in, but
shouldnt be discussed Book of James a book of
straw. (will burn up and not remain canon over
time) Kept much of Catholic worship practices
Ulrich Zwingli (1484-1531)
Swiss Reformer More radical than Luther Rejected
almost all Catholic forms of worship. Differed on
the Lords Supper set a table down the isle and
men and women sat bread and wine served on
boards and wooden cups His influence led to the
Anabaptists Principle influence on John Calvin
William Tyndale 1494-1536
Protestant reformer Translated the Bible into
Early Modern English First to use the new medium
of print Arrested and jailed in 1535 in the
castle of Vilvoorde outside of Brussels,
Belgium Was tried for heresy and treason, was
strangled and burnt at the stake in the castle
courtyard. Much of his translation made it into
the King James Version in 1611
The Anabaptist Movement (1530s and later) The
Radical Reformation
Menno Simmons 1496-1561
Martyrdom of Anabaptists
The Anabaptist Movement
  • Baptism by immersion of adults after confession
    of faith for salvation.
  • Bible the only authority.
  • Separation of church and state.
  • Emphasized both life and doctrine
  • Pacifists (usually)
  • Many became martyrs
  • Began evangelistic, but became exclusive and
    withdrawn. (Mennonites, Amish, Hutterites)
  • Tended to be very schismatic

John Calvin 1509-1564
  • Influenced most strongly by Zwingli
  • Strongly influenced by theology of Augustine
  • Most influential theologian of the Reformation
  • Emphasized Historical/Covenantal Theology
  • Wrote Institutes of Christian Religion
  • Established an autocratic theocracy in Geneva
  • Best known for his strong emphasis on

  • Total depravity of mankind
  • every person is this by default
  • Unconditional election
  • God decides who will be saved ultimately
  • Limited atonement
  • The atonement of Christ applies only to those
  • Irresistible grace
  • The Holy Spirit CAN overcome all resistance
    and save
  • final Preservation of the saints
  • If you are saved, you are saved. If you return
    to willful sinning/evil etc. you never were
    saved or you will return to Him before the end.

The Church of England
  • Traces its roots to 597 AD
  • Is the officially established Christian church in
    England, and acts as the "mother" and senior
    branch of the worldwide Anglican Communion
  • Reformed insofar as many of the principles of the
    early Protestants as well as the subsequent
    Protestant Reformation have influenced it, and
    does not accept Papal authority.
  • Catholic in that it views itself as the unbroken
    continuation of the early apostolic and later
    medieval universal church, rather than as a new
    formation. In its customs and liturgy it has
    retained more of that tradition than most other
    reformed churches.

Other Important Figures in the Reformation
  • John Knox 1505-1572. Brought Calvinism to
    Scotland. Became the Presbyterian Church
  • Puritans. 1559 England. Congregational
    autonomy. Became the Congregational Church

Other Important Figures in the Reformation
  • Baptists. 1612 (Anabaptist origins) Added
    believers baptism to Calvinism.
  • Quakers. 1648 Literally quaked. A charismatic,
    emotional movement.

Other Important Figures in the Reformation
  • Anglicans 1560s The Church of England a
    doctrinal system of worshipping God falling
    somewhere between Roman Catholicism and
    Protestantism adopt the Apostles Creed and
    Nicene Creed for example. King James Bible. Book
    of Common Prayers.
  • Methodists John Wesley started it near 1730
    reacting to apathy in the Church of England.
  • Formed in Oxford, England
  • Anglican Church roots

Christian Branches
Gods Big Corrections
  • A number of revivals has reoriented the Church to
    God and his plan this might be a good topic
    for a future kinship
  • Fast Forward to the late 1800s in the western

International Church of the Foursquare Gospel
  • An evangelical Pentecostal denomination
  • (evangelical personal conversion and authority
    of the Bible preaching and proselytizing)
  • (Pentecostal direct personal experience of God
    through the baptism of the Holy Spirit similar
    but different from the Charismatic movement.)
  • (denomination a religious group sharing a
    common name, tradition, identity, doctrine,
    theology, philosophy, religious pluralism or even

International Church of the Foursquare Gospel
  • Foursquare Gospel from revival in Oakland Co.
  • Aimee Semple McPherson (1890-1944) was a
    controversial female evangelist founded
    Foursquare church in 1927 in LA.
  • Parents were Methodist, but she was an atheist
    when young
  • L.I.F.E. Bible College
  • Has grown to 1,844 churches in the US
  • More than 30,000 churches worldwide

International Church of the Foursquare Gospel
  • The Bible as the inspired word of God
  • The Trinity
  • The atoning death of Christ for sinners
  • Salvation through the grace of God by Faith Alone
    in the Lord Jesus Christ
  • The necessity of sincere repentance and
    acceptance of Christ
  • The new birth (Sanctification)
  • The daily growth through power, prayer, love and

International Church of the Foursquare Gospel
  • Baptism by immersion
  • The memorial of The Lord's Supper as church
  • The baptism of the Holy Spirit with evidence of
    Speaking In Tongues
  • The Gifts and Fruits of the Spirit
  • Divine healing
  • The imminent return of Jesus Christ
  • Final judgment
  • Evangelism
  • Tithing and Offerings

Foursquare and other denominations
  • Foursquare Church formed the "Pentecostal
    Fellowship of North America" in 1948 in Des
    Moines, Iowa together with the Assemblies of God,
    the Church of God, the Open Bible Standard
    Churches, the Pentecostal Holiness Church, and
  • In 1994, the Fellowship reorganized as the
    Pentecostal/Charismatic Churches of North America
    after reconciliation with African Americans,
    particularly the constituency of the Church of
    God in Christ.

Calvary Chapel nondenominational churches
  • Started in 1965 in Southern California
  • Calvary Chapel Costa Mesa
  • Broke away from the Foursquare Gospel
    denomination, Santa Anna California over Does
    the Holy Spirit speak through prophecy today?.
  • Became associated with the Jesus Movement
    (Christian element of the hippie element late
    1960s and early 1970s west coast U.S. then
    worldwide until it faded out in the early 1980s)
  • 1000 churches worldwide

Calvary Churches
  • Nondenominational / Protestant
  • A mostly Episcopal church governance (tracing
    roots to Anglicanism)
  • Tongues and prophecy not normal part of Sunday
    service but are doctrinally valid
  • Often teach Genesis to Revelation verse by
    verse, chapter by chapter, book by book.
  • Topical studies may be misleading.

The Vineyard
  • Considered an Evangelical church in-between
    Charismatic and Pentecostal denominations.
  • In 1974 a fellowship began in West Los Angeles
    with Kenn and Joannie Gulliksen, which was led to
    take the name of the "Vineyard" (Isaiah 272-3
    John 155.)

John Wimber
  • When John was conscripted by God he was, in the
    words of Christianity Today, a "beer-guzzling,
    drug-abusing pop musician, who was converted at
    the age of 29 while chain-smoking his way through
    a Quaker-led Bible study" (Christianity Today,
    editorial, Feb. 9 1998).
  • He began church planting and became the pastor at
    Calvary Chapel church Yorba Linda, California
    in 1997.

Influences on John Wimber
  • George Eldon Ladds (1911-1982 Baptist minister
    and Fuller Theological Seminar professor)
    theological writings on the kingdom of God
    convinced John intellectually that the all the
    biblical gifts of the Holy Spirit should be
    active in the church.

Influences on John Wimber
  • Encounters with Fuller missiologists Donald
    McGavaran and C. Peter Wagner (Global Harvest
    Ministries, co-founder of the World Prayer Center
    former New Life Church member Colorado Springs)
    and seasoned missionaries and international
    students gave him credible evidence for combining
    evangelism with healing and prophecy.

Vineyard Roots
  • In 1982 John Wimbers church became a Vineyard
    and other pastors and leaders from the handful of
    Vineyard churches began looking to John for
  • The Vineyard movement was born and spread quickly
    around the world.

Vineyard Core Principles
  • 1. God the King and the Holy Trinity
  • 2. God the King The Creator and Ruler of All
  • 3. Counterfeit Kingdom Satan and Demonic Hosts
  • 4. The Kingdom in the Creation of Man, the Fall
    and The Doctrine of Original Sin
  • 5. God's Providence, Kingdom Law and Covenants
  • 6. Christ the Mediator and Eternal King

Vineyard Core Principles
  • 7. The Ministry of the Holy Spirit
  • 8. The Sufficiency of Scripture
  • 9. The Power of the Gospel Over the Kingdom of
  • 10. The Church Instrument of the Kingdom
  • 11. Baptism and the Lord's Supper
  • 12. The Kingdom of God and the Final Judgment

Vineyard Today
  • John Wimber passed away November 16, 1997.
  • The Association of Vineyard churches include
    1,500 churches worldwide.

The Woodbridge Vineyard
  • The churchs founding pastor, Jim Robb, along
    with his wife Beverly, moved to the Northern
    Virginia area in the winter of 1987, following
    completion of his studies at Fuller Theological

Woodbridge Vineyard
  • Jim and Beverly began the process of gathering
    people to form the core of a new Vineyard church
  • They met in homes until they had their first
    public meeting at Fred Lynn Middle School (next
    to our future church location).
  • The church grew rapidly and was able to move into
    its current facility (at 13550 Jefferson Davis
    Highway) in May of 1990.

Woodbridge Vineyard in Change
  • March 2002, Jim Rob died of a heart attack in
    California (he was attending a distance learning
    class at the Jack Hayford School but he had to go
    to the actual school once a quarter for 1-2 weeks
    in California)
  • After a search, Rick Frantz was called as the new
    senior pastor July 2002.

Woodbridge Vineyard in Change
  • May 2006, Rick Frantz resigned.
  • Dan Davis (the associate pastor at the time)
    became the current pastor.
  • The church is poised to move to its own facility
    sometime Fall 2007.

VCF Woodbridge Core Values
  • Worship
  • Word
  • Prayer
  • Fellowship
  • Training
  • Ministry

  • We use the acronym W.A.L.K. as a framework for
  • W Worship (Putting God first in all that we do
    and recognizing his sovereignty)
  • A Align (Making the necessary adjustments to
    line ourselves up with Gods will and to live as
    Jesus lived)
  • L Look Listen (Looking to see where God is at
    work and listening to know how to respond)
  • K Kommit (Committing to step out in faith to
    respond as the Lord directs taking risks to
    make a difference)

Our Kinship?
  • Formed April 18th,2007 as a planned split of the
    Smith Kinship.
  • It was created to serve a number of Vineyard
    families in Springfield, VA.
  • Both kinships are getting large again.

Putting it all together
  • God and His Spirit started the Church Acts 1
  • Jewish then Roman persecution spread it
  • The Holy Roman Church traces its roots to the
    apostles and was the main show in town until
    the reformation from 1517 to 1648.
  • Our church doctrine traces to the reformation,
    then Anglican, Methodist, Four Square Churches,
    Calvary Chapel, and John Wimber and the Vineyard

  • Based on a presentation by John Oakes, PhD
    Apologetics Research Society Link
  • Nelsons Quick Reference Introduction to Church
  • Wikipedia

(No Transcript)
Additional Information
  • didnt have a place for this in this thread.

Lessons Learned From the Early Church
  • Avoid convenient but unscriptural organizational
  • Resist the trend toward ritualism in our worship.
  • Do not overreact to false doctrines.
  • Avoid relying on creeds to defend truth.
  • Do not overemphasize the importance of physical
    sacrifice, prayer or any other good spiritual
  • Stress good methods of Bible exegesis