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Theories of Career Development CG 521 Text Chapter

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Title: Theories of Career Development CG 521 Text Chapter


1
Theories of Career Development
  • CG 521 Text
  • Chapter 4
  • Introduction to Career Counseling in the 21st
    Century

2
Introduction to Career Theories
  • Well-formulated and empirically tested theories
    enable us to make deductions about how clients
    experience career development, make career
    decisions, and adjust to career demands
  • Such tested theories give us guidelines for
    professional practice
  • Existing theories should be viewed as
    complementary ways of understanding, not as
    fully-developed competing explanations

3
Perspectives on Career Theories
  • Regardless of theoretical orientation, career
    counselors need to remember that
  • Career development is but one aspect of overall
    development
  • Change now dictates that career decision-making
    will occur at differing points and intervals
    across the life span
  • The meaning of work in peoples lives varies, but
    some careers are a way of life

4
Trait-Factor Theory
  • Name derived from assumption that objectively
    measured traits (interests, values, aptitudes,
    achievements, etc.) could be matched to factors
    typically required for success in a given career
    area
  • This approach was an outgrowth of Frank Parsons
    concept of vocational guidance in his 1909 book,
    Choosing a Vocation

5
Parsons Steps for Career Choice
  • A clear understanding of yourself, including
    attitudes, abilities, interests, ambitions,
    resource limitations, and their causes
  • Specific knowledge concerning different lines of
    work, including requirements and conditions for
    success, advantages and disadvantages,
    compensation, opportunities and prospects
  • Rational thinking about the relationships between
    these two groups of facts
  • Assumes that traits and career factors are stable

6
Trait-Factor Theory (contd)
  • E.G. Williamson, prominent advocate of
    trait-factor theory around WWII, believed career
    clients have one of four problem types
  • No choice
  • Uncertain choice
  • Unwise choice
  • Discrepancy between interests and aptitudes

7
Counseling Modifications to Parsons 3-Step
Model
  • Assist the client to increase self-understanding,
    including probable use of psychological measures
  • Direct client to appropriate career information
    resources
  • Assist client in integrating and matching
    self-knowledge with knowledge of current career
    possibilities
  • Help client examine probable lifestyle and role
    of work in life connected to particular career
    choices

8
Modernization of Trait-Factor Theory
Person-Environment Fit
  1. Individuals seek out environments that provide
    and/or allow for expression of behavioral traits
  2. Degree of fit between individual and environment
    is related to important outcomes, both for the
    individual and the environment
  3. Process of person-environment fit is reciprocal
    the individual shapes the environment and the
    environment shapes the individual.

9
Personality Theories
  • Anne Roe based her career theory work on
    Maslowes hierarchy of needs (physiological,
    safety, belonging/love, self-esteem,
    self-actualization)
  • Roe saw needs structure as being influenced by
    childhood experiences, and needs structure as
    influencing choice of occupational categories

10
Roes Personality-Based Occupational Categories
  1. Service
  2. Business contact
  3. Organization
  4. Technology
  5. Outdoor
  6. Science
  7. Culture
  8. Arts and entertainment

11
Roes Six Classification Levels for All
Occupational Groups (by degree of responsibility
and abilities needed)
  1. Professional and managerial (independent
    responsibility)
  2. Professional and managerial (less independence or
    important responsibility)
  3. Semiprofessional and small business
  4. Skilled
  5. Semiskilled
  6. Unskilled

12
Hollands Typology of Personality Types and
Work Environments
  • Basic belief that a person expresses his/her
    personality via career choice
  • Posits six personality types in our culture and
    the same six types of work environments
    realistic, investigative, artistic, social,
    enterprising, conventional (p.65 in text)
  • Idea that individuals prefer and select
    environments that match their personality types
    empirically supported for men, women and
    minorities

13
Hollands RIASEC Hexagon
Realistic
Investigative
Artistic
Conventional
Social
Enterprising
14
Hollands Personality Types (1)
  • Realistichas mechanical ability, but may lack
    social skills. Described as
  • Asocial Inflexible Practical
  • Conforming Materialistic Self-effacing
  • Frank Natural Thrifty
  • Genuine Normal Uninsightful
  • Hardheaded Persistent Uninvolved
  • Like jobs requiring technical, mechanical,
    manual, or agricultural skills (mechanic, air
    traffic controller, surveyor, farmer, electrician)

15
Hollands Personality Types (2)
  • Investigativehas mathematical and scientific
    ability, but often lacks leadership ability.
    Described as
  • Analytical Independent Rational
  • Cautious Intellectual Reserved
  • Complex Introspective Retiring
  • Critical Pessimistic Unassuming
  • Curious Precise Unpopular
  • Work involves intellectual problem-solving
    (biologist, chemist, physicist, anthropologist,
    geologist, medical technologist)

16
Hollands Personality Types (3)
  • Artistichas artistic abilities, but often lacks
    clerical skills. Described as
  • Complicated Imaginative Intuitive
  • Disorderly Impractical Nonconforming
  • Emotional Impulsive Open
  • Expressive Independent Original
  • Idealistic Introspective Sensitive
  • Work requires creative skills in unstructured
    environment (composer, musician, stage director,
    writer, interior decorator, actor)

17
Hollands Personality Types (4)
  • Socialhas social skills and talents, but often
    lacks mechanical and scientific ability.
    Described as
  • Ascendant Helpful Responsible
  • Cooperative Idealistic Sociable
  • Empathic Kind Tactful
  • Friendly Patient Understanding
  • Generous Persuasive Warm
  • Work requires social, educational and
    therapeutic skills (teacher, religious worker,
    counselor, clinical psychiatric case worker,
    speech therapist)

18
Hollands Personality Types (5)
  • Enterprisinghas leadership and speaking
    abilities, but often lacks scientific ability.
    Described as
  • Acquisitive Energetic Flirtatious
  • Adventurous Excitement- Optimistic
  • Agreeable seeking Self-confident
  • Ambitious Exhibitionistic Sociable
  • Domineering Extroverted Talkative
  • Work involves persuasive, manipulative and
    leadership skills (sales person, manager,
    business executive, television producer, sports
    promoter, buyer)

19
Hollands Personality Types (6)
  • Conventionalhas clerical and arithmetic ability,
    but often lacks artistic abilities. Described as
  • Careful Inflexible Persistent
  • Conforming Inhibited Practical
  • Conscientious Methodical Prudish
  • Defensive Obedient Thrifty
  • Efficient Orderly Unimaginative
  • Work involves systematic organization and
    manipulation of data (bookkeeper, stenographer,
    financial analyst, banker, cost estimator, tax
    expert)

20
Developmental Theorists (1)
  • Piaget stages of cognitive development
  • Sensorimotor (0-2) from reflex to goal-directed
  • Preoperational (2-7) language, symbolic thought
  • Concrete operational (7-11) logic, seriation,
    reversibility
  • Formal operational (11-15) abstract thinking,
    scientific approach, social issues, identity

21
Developmental Theorists (2) Erikson stages of
psychosocial development
  • 0-1 Trust v. Mistrust
  • 1-3 Autonomy v. Doubt
  • 3-6 Initiative v. Guilt
  • 6-12 Industry v. Inferiority
  • 12-20 Identity v. Role confusion
  • 20-40 Intimacy v. Isolation
  • 40-65 Generativity v. Self- absorption
  • 65 Integrity v. Despair
  • Getting, giving
  • Holding, letting go
  • Going after, playing
  • Making, cooperating
  • Self, sharing self
  • Lose/find self in other
  • Taking care of
  • Being (history) facing not being

22
Developmental Theorists (3) Havighursts
Lifelong Vocational Development
  • 5-10
  • 10-15
  • 15-25
  • 25-40
  • 40-70
  • 70
  • Identification with a worker (father, mother,
    etc) Concept of working internalized
  • Acquiring basic habits of industry. Organizing
    (schoolwork, chores), work / play mix
  • Acquiring identity as worker in occup. structure.
  • Choosing/preparing for occupation, experience
  • Becoming a productive person. Mastering
    occupational skills, moving up the occ. ladder
  • Maintaining a productive society. Emphasis toward
    societal, away from individual occup. peak
    mentoring of younger workers
  • Contemplating a productive and responsible life.

23
Developmental Theorists (4)
  • Donald Super
  • Components of Supers Life-Career Rainbow
  • Life roles
  • Child
  • Student
  • Leisurite
  • Citizen
  • Worker
  • Homemaker

24
Donald Super contd (2)
  • Life-Career Rainbow Components (contd)
  • Life stages
  • Growth
  • Exploration
  • Establishment
  • Maintenance
  • Decline

25
Donald Super contd (3)
  • Life-Career Rainbow Components (contd)
  • Personal determinants
  • Psychological
  • Biological
  • Situational determinants
  • Historical
  • Socioeconomic

26
Donald Super contd (4)
  • Super also talks about
  • developing and implementing occupational
    self-concepts
  • synthesizing individual and social factors,
    self-concept and reality is a matter of
    role-playing and learning from feedback
  • cycling and recycling of occupational
    developmental tasks throughout life span

27
Sociological Theory
  • Chance theory chance (more than deliberate
    planning or steady progress) is a main
    occupational determinant
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