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Blood Typing Forensic Science History of Typing 190

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Blood Typing Forensic Science History of Typing 1901: Austrian, Karl Landsteiner discovered human blood groups Mixing 2 different kinds of blood that were ... – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: Blood Typing Forensic Science History of Typing 190


1
Blood Typing
  • Forensic Science

2
History of Typing
  • 1901 Austrian, Karl Landsteiner discovered
    human blood groups
  • Mixing 2 different kinds of blood that were
    incompatible resulted in agglutination
    (clumping), which would kill the patient.

3
Blood Anatomy
4
  • red blood cells contain hemoglobin, a protein
    that binds oxygen. Red blood cells transport
    oxygen to, and remove carbon dioxide from, the
    body tissues.
  • white blood cells fight infection
  • platelets help the blood to clot, if you get a
    wound for example.
  • plasma (liquid) contains salts and various kinds
    of proteins.

5
Blood magnified 400x
6
Enhanced image of RBCs
7
What are the different blood groups?
  • The differences in human blood are due to the
    presence or absence of certain protein molecules
    called antigens and antibodies.
  • The antigens are located on the surface of the
    red blood cells and the antibodies are in the
    blood plasma.

8
  • There are more than 20 genetically determined
    blood group systems known today, but the ABO and
    Rh systems are the most important

9
ABO Blood Grouping
  • there are four different kinds of blood types A,
    B, AB or 0 (null).

10
Blood Group A
  • If you belong to the blood group A, you have A
    antigens on the surface of your red blood cells
    and B antibodies in your blood plasma.

11
Blood Type B
  • If you belong to the blood group B, you have B
    antigens on the surface of your red blood cells
    and A antibodies in your blood plasma.

12
Blood Type AB
  • If you belong to the blood group AB, you have
    both A and B antigens on the surface of your red
    blood cells and no A or B antibodies at all in
    your blood plasma.

13
Blood Type O
  • If you belong to the blood group 0 (null), you
    have neither A or B antigens on the surface of
    your red blood cells but you have both A and B
    antibodies in your blood plasma

14
  • Time out!!!
  • Construct a simple chart to help organize this
    information

15
The Rh Factor
  • (Rhesus factor named after the Rhesus Monkey)

16
Antigens and Antibodies again!
  • Rh Postitive Having Rh anitgens and no
    antibodies
  • Rh Negative No Rh antigens but Rh antibodies
    will build up if blood is exposed to Rh positive
    blood.

17
How to do Blood Typing
  • 1. You mix the blood with three different
    reagents including either of the three different
    antibodies, A, B or Rh antibodies.

18
  • 2. Take a look at what has happened. In which
    mixtures has agglutination occurred?
    Agglutination indicates that the blood has
    reacted with a certain antibody and therefore is
    not compatible with blood containing that kind of
    antibody. If the blood does not agglutinate, it
    indicates that the blood does not have the
    antigens binding the special antibody in the
    reagent.

19
  • 3. If you know which antigens are in the person's
    blood, it's easy to figure out which blood group
    he or she belongs to!

20
Animation of Agglutination
21
Time Out!!!
  • Now figure out who could give/receive blood from
    whom. Make a chart to show which blood types can
    give blood and what blood types they can receive.

22
Play the Blood Typing Game
  • http//www.nobel.se/medicine/educational/landstein
    er/index.html
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