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Title: Montclair State University Department of Anthropology Anth 140: Nonwestern Contributions to the Western World Professor Richard W. Franke


1
Montclair State University Department of
Anthropology Anth 140 Nonwestern Contributions
to the Western World Professor Richard W. Franke
  • Native Americans in the History of the World
    Economy
  • Week 02
  • Weatherford, chapters 13,
  • Pages 138
  • In second edition, pages 1-50

2
Montclair State University Department of
Anthropology Anth 140 Non Western Contributions
to the Western World Dr. Richard W. Franke
  • Native Americans in the World Economy
  • The learning objectives for week 02 are
  • to understand how the city of Potosí came to be
    the first city of capitalism
  • to consider a new theory about why Europe was the
    center of the development of the modern economy
  • to discover the surprising role Native Americans
    played in helping to foster the industrial
    revolution
  • to learn why Native Americans were replaced by
    Africans in the slave trade continued on next
    slide

3
Montclair State University Department of
Anthropology Anth 140 Non Western Contributions
to the Western World Dr. Richard W. Franke
  • Native Americans in the World Economy
  • The learning objectives for week 02 are (contd)
  • to understand how Native Americans influenced the
    development of European art
  • To understand the strange and unexpected role the
    potato played in conjunction with cotton to help
    create the industrial revolution

4
Montclair State University Department of
Anthropology Anth 140 Non Western Contributions
to the Western World Dr. Richard W. Franke
  • Native Americans in the World Economy
  • Week 02 terms you should know
  • PotosÍ
  • El Dorado
  • Cerro Rico
  • Francisco Pizarro
  • Baroque
  • Voyageur

5
Montclair State University Department of
Anthropology Anth 140 Non Western Contributions
to the Western World Dr. Richard W. Franke
  • Native Americans in the World Economy
  • Sources (in addition to Weatherford)
  • Mann, Charles C. 2005. 1491 New Revelations of
    the Americas Before Columbus. New York Alfred A.
    Knopf.
  • Mann, Charles C. 2012. 1493 Uncovering the New
    World Columbus Created. New York Random House.
  • http//en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Baroque

6
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7
  • Montclair State University
  • Department of Anthropology Richard W. Franke
  • Anth 140 Nonwestern Contributions to the Western
    World
  • History of the World Economy 2
  • Question
  • What caused Europe after 1400 AD to suddenly end
    a millennium of feudal stagnation and develop the
    modern economy we experience today? Why did these
    stages occur?

8
Montclair State University Department of
Anthropology Anth 140 Nonwestern Contributions
to the Western World Professor Richard W. Franke
  • Indian Gold and Silver in the History of the
    World Economy
  • (Source Weatherford, chapter 1)

9
Montclair State University Department of
Anthropology Anth 140 Nonwestern Contributions
to the Western World Professor Richard W. Franke
  • Potosí
  • worlds highest city at 13,680 ft.
  • 1545 Cerro Rico (rich hill) silver mine. See
    map of South America on slide 12.
  • Two thousand foot mountain of silver

10
Montclair State University Department of
Anthropology Anth 140 Nonwestern Contributions
to the Western World Professor Richard W. Franke
  • 1a. More on Potosí
  • 2012 Update
  • To read a 2012 report on the mines of the Cerro
    Rico, click here.
  • See map of South America on slide 12.

11
Montclair State University Department of
Anthropology Anth 140 Nonwestern Contributions
to the Western World Professor Richard W. Franke
  • 1b. More on Potosí
  • 2013 Update
  • For a recently published account of the Potosí
    mines and a description of life in Potosí city,
    see Mann, Charles C. 2012. 1493 Uncovering the
    New World Columbus Created. New York Random
    House. Pages 182 et seq.
  • Mann bases his account on Potosís main onsite
    chronicler, Bartolomé Arzáns de Orsúa y Vela who
    published an account of life in Potosí in 1736.
    under the title Historia de la Villa Imperial de
    Potosí. For full reference, go to the
    Supplementary Readings.
  • See map of South America on next slide.

12
  • Potosí?
  • Montclair State University
  • Department of Anthropology
  • ANTH 140 Nonwestern Contributions to the
    Western World
  • Dr. Richard W. Franke

13

14
Montclair State University Department of
Anthropology Anth 140 Nonwestern Contributions
to the Western World Professor Richard W. Franke
  • 2. Gold
  • Before 1492 Europe got it from West Africa.
  • Moslem merchants monopolized the trade
    controlled the routes across the Sahara Desert

15
Montclair State University Department of
Anthropology Anth 140 Nonwestern Contributions
to the Western World Professor Richard W. Franke
  • 1520 Hernando Cortés conquered Aztecs demanded
    gold led to la noche triste
  • legend developed of El Dorado, the Golden Man
  • Francisco Pizarro kidnapped Inca emperor
    Atahualpa in 1532 demanded ransom of a room
    filled with gold

16
Montclair State University Department of
Anthropology Anth 140 Nonwestern Contributions
to the Western World Professor Richard W. Franke
  • From 1500 to 1650 Indian 180200 tons of Indian
    gold taken to Europe worth 2.8 billion today
  • Indian gold led to European baroque and rococo
    art and architectural styles. See file Baroque
    and Rococo

17
Montclair State University Department of
Anthropology Anth 140 Nonwestern Contributions
to the Western World Professor Richard W. Franke
  • Baroque
  • After the Italian painter Frederigo Baroccio (d.
    1612). An artistic style of the 16th to 18th
    centuries marked by curved and plastic figures
    and by elaborate and grotesque ornamentation and
    by flamboyance and extravagance.
  • Also a musical style marked by stark contrasts
    and elaborate ornamentation.

18
Montclair State University Department of
Anthropology Anth 140 Nonwestern Contributions
to the Western World Professor Richard W. Franke
  • Baroque
  • For an alternative origin of the word baroque,
    click here.

19
Montclair State University Department of
Anthropology Anth 140 Nonwestern Contributions
to the Western World Professor Richard W. Franke
  • Rococo
  • A style of artistic expression characteristic of
    18th century European furniture, porcelain, and
    tapestry with fanciful and frivolous use of
    curved lines and unsymmetrical ornamentation,
    sometimes using pierced shellwork.
  • Synonyms ornate, outmoded, quaint,
    old-fashioned.
  • ______________________________________
  • Source Webster's Third New International
    Dictionary, Unabridged. 1993.

20
Montclair State University Department of
Anthropology Anth 140 Nonwestern Contributions
to the Western World Professor Richard W. Franke
  • 3. Indian Silver
  • In first 50 yrs of European conquest, silver
    supply in Europe tripled by 1600 AD might have
    increased 8-fold by 1770 increase was 16-fold
  • This the greatest increase in supply of precious
    metals in all of history

21
Montclair State University Department of
Anthropology Anth 140 Nonwestern Contributions
to the Western World Professor Richard W. Franke
  • Gold but especially silver replaced land as the
    basis for power thus undermined feudal
    land-based power system
  • Sudden influx of money stimulated trade, led to
    mercantile basis of capitalism in Europe
  • (Note industry comes later)

22
Montclair State University Department of
Anthropology Anth 140 Nonwestern Contributions
to the Western World Professor Richard W. Franke
  • African gold centers (such as Timbuktu) and
    cross-Sahara traders suffered economic decline
    beginnings of European economic dominance of
    world

23
Montclair State University Department of
Anthropology Anth 140 Nonwestern Contributions
to the Western World Professor Richard W. Franke
  • Indian Gold and Silver in the History of the
    World Economy
  • 4. Gold, Silver and Slavery (beginnings)

24
Montclair State University Department of
Anthropology Anth 140 Nonwestern Contributions
to the Western World Professor Richard W. Franke
  • Declining African gold trade led to political and
    military weakness helped make slave trade
    possible
  • First slaves brought to Potosí but died in high
    altitude Spaniards then imposed feudal labor
    rules on Indians almost like slavery

25
Montclair State University Department of
Anthropology Anth 140 Nonwestern Contributions
to the Western World Professor Richard W. Franke
  • 4 of 5 miners died in first year of employment
    up to 8 million might have died
  • Even though the Indians made possible the
    greatest economic boom in the history of the
    world and even though this boom gave rise to the
    great capitalist world economy, they still
    languish in poverty. (page 18 second edition
    page 24)

26
Montclair State University Department of
Anthropology Anth 140 Nonwestern Contributions
to the Western World Professor Richard W. Franke
  • Cerro Rico now the Huakajchi the mountain that
    cried. See the photo of the Cerro Rico on the
    next two slides.
  • Bolivia today one of the poorest countries in the
    world

27
Montclair State University Department of
Anthropology Anth 140 Nonwestern Contributions
to the Western World Professor Richard W. Franke
28
Montclair State University Department of
Anthropology Anth 140 Nonwestern Contributions
to the Western World Professor Richard W. Franke
29
Montclair State University Department of
Anthropology Anth 140 Nonwestern Contributions
to the Western World Professor Richard W. Franke
  • Week02 Topic03 Piracy, Slavery and the Birth of
    Corporations
  • (Source Weatherford, chapter 2)

30
Montclair State University Department of
Anthropology Anth 140 Nonwestern Contributions
to the Western World Professor Richard W. Franke
  • Hudsons Bay Company
  • worlds oldest corporation running since 1670
  • originally based mostly on the fur trade
  • by 1700 AD most Europeans could afford a few
    items of fur clothing Note the connection with
    the influence of Native American gold and silver
    from the previous chapter

31
Montclair State University Department of
Anthropology Anth 140 Nonwestern Contributions
to the Western World Professor Richard W. Franke
  • beaver fur the most prized easy to dye, held
    shape when wet
  • muskrat, wolf, fox, rabbit, mink, bear,
    wolverine, otter, raccoon, and squirrel also used
    to line coats
  • frontiersmen or voyageurs not as independent as
    in romantic Davy Crockett etc. stories actually
    they were contract laborers controlled by Eastern
    businesses

32
Montclair State University Department of
Anthropology Anth 140 Nonwestern Contributions
to the Western World Professor Richard W. Franke
  • Spanish conquistadores killed so many Indians as
    to create a labor shortage Spanish ships too
    busy hauling precious metals and Spaniards so
    Dutch, French and British ships supplied the
    slaves
  • English pirates like Francis Drake robbed Spanish
    ships and New World cities
  • 1672 King Charles II of England chartered the
    Royal African Company to sell slaves for profit

33
Professor Richard W. Franke ANTH 140 Nonwestern
Contributions to the Western World
  • Jamestown founded by the Virginia Company
    sought Potosí silver wealth but eventually turned
    to furs then to crops.

34
Professor Richard W. Franke ANTH 140 Nonwestern
Contributions to the Western World
  • Charleston, South Carolina
  • More important was Charleston founded to compete
    with Spanish controlled Florida (and St.
    Augustine settlement) traded in deerskins
  • British traders and settlers able to make more
    money more quickly because they did not have to
    worry about converting the Indians to
    Christianity French and Spanish under more
    constraints.

35
Professor Richard W. Franke ANTH 140 Nonwestern
Contributions to the Western World
  • Charleston, South Carolina
  • Charleston not cut off from US Midwest as were
    more northern cities could trade and conquer
    more inland areas
  • Charleston became the great slave market
    ancestors of possibly 2/3 of all African
    Americans entered through this port, bought and
    sold with the coins of Mexico and Potosí

36
Professor Richard W. Franke ANTH 140 Nonwestern
Contributions to the Western World
  • Earliest use of slaves in North America was for
    rice production See later in the course in Week
    11 then tobacco and cotton
  • On Caribbean islands, slaves produced sugar

37
Professor Richard W. Franke ANTH 140 Nonwestern
Contributions to the Western World
  • Joint Stock Companies
  • Early royal charters from Spain, France, Holland
    and England evolved into modern corporations
    banks and stock exchanges developed to manage the
    wealth of the New World

38
Professor Richard W. Franke ANTH 140 Nonwestern
Contributions to the Western World
  • Adam Smith called the two most important events
    in world history
  • Opening of trade with Asia Vasco da Gamas
    arrival in Calicut India in 1498
  • European discovery of the New World that had
    created a revolution in commerce.

39
Professor Richard W. Franke ANTH 140 Nonwestern
Contributions to the Western World
  • Karl Marx made the same point in a different way
    emphasizing the looting, killing and enslavement
    as the basis for the modern capitalist system

40
Professor Richard W. Franke ANTH 140 Nonwestern
Contributions to the Western World
  • Weatherford sees the Hudsons Bay Company as the
    constant element in this historically changing
    scene
  • Native American gold and silver provided the
    standardized values for currencies to facilitate
    European-dominated international trade and
    corporate development

41
Professor Richard W. Franke ANTH 140 Nonwestern
Contributions to the Western World
  • The American Indian Path to Industrialization
  • (Source Weatherford chapter 3)

42
Professor Richard W. Franke ANTH 140 Nonwestern
Contributions to the Western World
  • The industrial revolution did not begin in
    villages such as Kahl, in the workshops of
    skilled urban craftsmen, or even in the factories
    of Manchester and Liverpool it began in the
    mines and on the plantations of America.
  • Weatherford, page 49 second edition page 64

43
Professor Richard W. Franke ANTH 140 Nonwestern
Contributions to the Western World
  • Sudden leap to modern industry hard to explain
  • Why couldnt the Greeks do it with all their
    sophistication?
  • Why not the Romans? page 41 second edition
    pages 5354
  • Economic historians look for a leading industry
    to explain rise and continuation of industrialism
    this not in the book

44
Professor Richard W. Franke ANTH 140 Nonwestern
Contributions to the Western World
  • Textiles

45
Professor Richard W. Franke ANTH 140 Nonwestern
Contributions to the Western World
  • Textiles based on American cotton in the 18th
    and 19th centuries were the industry that set
    off the industrial revolution.

46
Professor Richard W. Franke ANTH 140 Nonwestern
Contributions to the Western World
  • A historical conjuncture unique in human history
    brought together
  • Accumulated wealth from American gold and silver
  • Accumulated wealth from the slave trade
  • European water wheel technology
  • American long grained cotton
  • The dual effects of the American potato

47
Professor Richard W. Franke ANTH 140 Nonwestern
Contributions to the Western World
  • A historical conjuncture is when two or more
    significant historical events or processes occur
    close enough together in time to combine and
    create a new force more powerful than the sum of
    the two events themselves.
  • The term historical conjuncture itself does not
    appear in Weatherfords book

48
Professor Richard W. Franke ANTH 140 Nonwestern
Contributions to the Western World
  • First element of the conjuncture
  • The accumulated wealth of Indian gold and silver
    combined with the wealth from the early slave
    trade gave Europe a population with some money to
    spend that is, a consumer market.

49
Professor Richard W. Franke ANTH 140 Nonwestern
Contributions to the Western World
  • Second element
  • Europe had a fairly advanced water wheel
    technology from the Middle Ages that provided
    power to turn the grain mills.

50
Professor Richard W. Franke ANTH 140 Nonwestern
Contributions to the Western World
  • Third Element
  • American cotton has long strands of up to 2½
    inches.
  • Asian Indian cotton that had been the basis of
    calico cloth from Calicut, India was more
    difficult to spin into thread.
  • Eli Whitneys cotton gin invented in 1793 might
    not have been valuable without slavery and long
    grained cotton.

51
Professor Richard W. Franke ANTH 140 Nonwestern
Contributions to the Western World
  • 2013 Update
  • In England the power of the water mills was
    supplemented by the power of the newly invented
    steam engine.
  • Cotton Imports to England in 1771 to 1775 were 5
    million pounds In 1841 it was 58 million pounds
  • Exports of woven cotton from England in 1834 were
    556 million yards
  • No one had ever seen production and output like
    this before in all of human history.
  • Source Crosby, Alfred W. 2006. Children of the
    Sun A History of Humanitys Unappeasable
    Appetite for Energy. New York W. W. Norton and
    Company. Page 78.

52
Professor Richard W. Franke ANTH 140 Nonwestern
Contributions to the Western World
  • Fourth Element
  • The potato (a double element)
  • As the potato spread into north Europe, it
    raised the health standards of the population to
    new highs.

53
Professor Richard W. Franke ANTH 140 Nonwestern
Contributions to the Western World
  • The Potato
  • became so popular that people ate much less
    grain the mills had nothing to grind.

54
Professor Richard W. Franke ANTH 140 Nonwestern
Contributions to the Western World
  • Cotton
  • then entered the scene to provide the mill
    owners a use for their water power they could
    use it to run looms to mass manufacture cloth,
    making cheap clothes available to ordinary people
    for the first time in human history.

55
Professor Richard W. Franke ANTH 140 Nonwestern
Contributions to the Western World
  • The textile industry stimulated innovations in
    technology and raised such large amounts of
    surplus value (profits) as to stimulate later
    stages of the industrial revolution in steel,
    chemicals and medicine.

56
Professor Richard W. Franke ANTH 140 Nonwestern
Contributions to the Western World
  • Most economic historians agree that Britain was
    the leading nation in developing the industrial
    revolution.
  • By 1850 more than 50 of British exports were
    cotton cloth including cloth forced on Asian
    Indians to undermine their local calico industry.

57
Professor Richard W. Franke ANTH 140 Nonwestern
Contributions to the Western World
  • In those further stages Native Americans made
    additional important contributions, teaching
    Europeans and their North American counterparts
    how to find and/or process
  • Dyes
  • Sisal
  • Rubber
  • Tar and asphalt
  • Petroleum

58
Professor Richard W. Franke ANTH 140 Nonwestern
Contributions to the Western World
  • Dyes
  • Native American dyes were superior to those of
    the Europeans
  • Brazilwood a reddish purple
  • Cochineal the red of the British redcoats,
    from a cactus insect
  • Achiote reddish yellow from the annatto tree,
    still colors our margarine

59
Professor Richard W. Franke ANTH 140 Nonwestern
Contributions to the Western World
  • Dyes
  • Peruvians had 109 hues in 7 different color
    categories
  • Native American dyes used in
  • Glass making
  • Wood staining
  • Leather processing
  • Ink for printing

60
Professor Richard W. Franke ANTH 140 Nonwestern
Contributions to the Western World
  • Sisal
  • Made from agave plant
  • Cords, ropes, bags, rugs
  • Belts for machines such as lathes
  • Important in harvesting machines to bind the wheat

61
Professor Richard W. Franke ANTH 140 Nonwestern
Contributions to the Western World
  • Rubber
  • Caoutchoc in Quechua, language of the Inca
  • Quechua word used in French etc.
  • Native Americans taught Europeans how to extract
    and cure it
  • Raincoats, shoes, bottles, tires
  • Hoses, rollers, electrical insulation

62
Professor Richard W. Franke ANTH 140 Nonwestern
Contributions to the Western World
  • Tar and Asphalt
  • Roads
  • Waterproofing
  • Petroleum
  • Pennsylvania Indians showed whites how to find
    and use it

63
Professor Richard W. Franke ANTH 140 Nonwestern
Contributions to the Western World
  • The industrial revolution did not begin in
    villages such as Kahl, in the workshops of
    skilled urban craftsmen, or even in the factories
    of Manchester and Liverpool it began in the
    mines and on the plantations of America.
  • Weatherford, page 49 second edition page 64

64
Montclair State University Department of
Anthropology Anth 140 Nonwestern Contributions
to the Western World Professor Richard W. Franke
  • End of Slides for
  • Native Americans in the History of the World
    Economy
  • Week 02
  • Weatherford, chapters 1 3
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