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The Mayan Culture Maya Civilization Brief History 2600 B

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Title: The Mayan Culture Maya Civilization Brief History 2600 B


1
The Mayan Culture
2
Maya Civilization
3
Brief History
  • 2600 BC
  • Derived from the Olmecs
  • First calendar and writing system of the Americas
  • Mayapan was the capital until the mid fifteenth
    century
  • Did have blood sacrifices but not as prominent as
    the Aztecs
  • Instead Blood Letting was popular

http//www.mayanbeachgarden.com/Images/MayapanObse
rvatory.jpg
4
www.crystallinks.com/maya.html
  • Chichen Itza extremely important city
  • Conquered by the Toltec's after 500 years
  • Columbus will be the first to come into contact
    with them in 1503
  • The Mayans fought the invaders for 20 years, but
    eventually lost.
  • The Mayans were slaughtered during the battles
  • European diseases decimated the population
  • The Mayans were moved into villages and paid
    heavy taxes to the Spanish government

5
Mayan Agriculture and Diet
  • The Mayans had many different ways to farm
  • Slash and burn, Terracing, forest gardens and
    wild harvesting
  • Where they could not find water they dug huge
    reservoirs
  • Their main food supply was Maize
  • The Maya farmer cultivated corn, beans, cacao,
    Chile, maguey, bananas, and cotton,
  • Used bees for wax and honey

http//www.lawrencelab.org/Outreach/2006/project/m
aize.jpg
6
  • Chocolate was created out of the Cacao beans
  • Very little meat was eaten
  • Drank much, especially the wealthy, was hardly
    seen as unacceptable

http//www.babble.com/CS/blogs/strollerderby/2008/
Chocolate.jpg
http//www.babble.com/CS/blogs/strollerderby/2008/
Chocolate.jpg
7
Mayan Art and Architecture
  • The stepped Pyramids
  • The most pyramids out of any other culture
  • Were extremely elaborate and well thought out
  • Ex. Castillo- 91 steps in each of its four stair
    ways, ads to 364 steps, the length of a year
  • Each side was stepped nine terraces divided by a
    stairway when split up, it equals 18 the amount
    of months in a year
  • The Pyramids were also used for Observatories
  • Colorful Murals
  • The walls of the houses were made of clay and
    mortar these were painted with elaborate murals

8
Castillo
http//www.great-adventures.com/images/mexico/El2
0Castillo.jpg
9
The Observatory - Carocal and Moon Temple
www.crystallinks.com/maya.html
www.crystallinks.com/maya.html
10
Chichen Itza
www.crystallinks.com/maya.html
11
The Temple of the Warriors and Sun Temple
www.crystallinks.com/maya.html
www.crystallinks.com/maya.html
12
www.crystallinks.com/maya.html
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13

Pyramid of Cholula
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www.crystallinks.com/maya.html
14
  • Cities were laid on a grid
  • At the heart of these cities lies plazas
    surrounded by religious structures
  • These cities were built with no metal tools or
    beast of burden

15
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16
  • Ball courts
  • The most valuable sport to any civilization at
    this time
  • Ball courts have been found in every major Mayan
    city
  • Enclosed on two sides by stepped ramps that led
    to ceremonial platforms or small temples, the
    ball court itself was of a capital "I" shape

17

www.crystallinks.com/maya.html
www.crystallinks.com/maya.html
18
Art
www.crystallinks.com/maya.html
  • Considered to be the most sophisticated art in
    the ancient world
  • Most Maya art depicts gods, great rulers,
    legendary heroes, religious scenes and,
    occasionally, daily life
  • Often religious ceremonies like blood letting or
    human sacrifice was involved

www.crystallinks.com/maya.html
19
  • They painted Frescos
  • Developed a large amount of clay pottery and
    Vessels

www.crystallinks.com/maya.html
www.crystallinks.com/maya.html
20
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21
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22
Astronomy
  • The Maya believed the earth was flat with four
    corners
  • Each corner represented a cardinal direction,
    these directions had a color
  • East-red/ north-white/ west-black/ south-yellow
    and green was the center
  • The Mayans were the first to observe the Milky
    Way/ they considered it the World Tree
  • The Milky Way was looked as a spiritual highway
    spirits walked along

23
  • The Mayans used Astronomy to predict the events
    of the future/ including the end of the world
  • The date is December 21, 2012 (13.0.0.0.0 in the
    Long Count) as projected by Jose Arguelles and
    others. I have been taught that 134closure or
    the end of linear time.

24
www.crystallinks.com/maya.html
25
Geography
  • Southern Mexico and the Yucatan Peninsula
  • Highlands are in the south and lime stone steppes
    in the south
  • The southern lowlands were predominantly
    rainforest/ 160 inches of rain fall per year
  • The north is made up of high mountains and
    valleys, Much cooler and dryer then that of the
    low lands

26
Religion
  • Polytheistic
  • Popol Vuh- the creation story of the Mayans
  • Hunahpu (Junajpu) and Xbalanque (XbŒalanke)
    twins who defeat the gods in the ball game

27
  • Part 1
  • Gods create world.
  • Gods create first "wood" humans, they are
    imperfect and emotionless.
  • Gods destroy first humans in a "resin" flood
    they become monkeys.
  • Twin diviners Hunahpu Xbalanque destroy
    arrogant Vucub-Caquix then Zipacna Cabracan.
  • Part 2
  • Diviners Xpiyacoc and Xmucane beget brothers.
  • HunHunahpu Xbaquiyalo beget "Monkey Twins"
    HunBatz HunChouen.
  • Cruel Xibalba lords kill the brothers HunHunahpu
    VucubHunahpu.
  • HunHunahpu Xquic beget "Hero Twins" Hunahpu
    Xbalanque.
  • "Hero Twins" defeat the Xibalba houses of Gloom,
    Knives, Cold, Jaguars, Fire, Bats.
  • Part 3
  • The first 4 "real" people are made Jaguar
    Quiché, Jaguar Night, Naught, Wind Jaguar.
  • Tribes descend they speak the same language and
    travel to TulanZuiva.
  • The tribes language becomes confused and they
    disperse.
  • Tohil is recognized as a god and demands life
    sacrifices later he must be hidden.
  • Part 4
  • Tohil affects Earth Lords through priests but
    his dominion destroys the Quiche.
  • Priests tried to abduct tribes for sacrifices
    the tribes tried to resist this.

28
Mathematics
  • Golden Proportion/ Ratio
  • Discovered the number 0
  • Used the base number of 20 instead of 10
  • called the long Count
  • Write your Birthday in Long
  • Count

29
Mayan Society
  • The Mayan empire was not a unified empire but a
    lot like the Polis of Greece
  • Over 60,000 square miles were occupied
  • The most important tribes or nations, after the
    Maya proper, were the Quiche and Cakchiquel of
    Guatemala
  • Social Class system- distinct with the ruler on
    top

30
  • Clothing Men wore- loin clothes
  • Women wore a skirt belted at the waist
  • Both wore sandals and were tattooed

http//www.bluecorncomics.com/pics/apclypt9.jpg
31
  • Ruled as a Hereditary absolute monarchy
  • Children were their parents property until
    marriage (usually around 20)
  • Crime was more often punished harshly without
    imprisonment
  • Marriage- could marry only in your social class
  • Divorce was permitted
  • Slavery was enforced on prisoners

32
Tattoos
  • Mayan tattooing reveal tattoos to be a sign of
    courage
  • When Cortez and his conquistadors arrived on the
    coast of Mexico in 1519 they were horrified to
    discover that the natives not only worshipped
    devils in the form of statues and idols, but had
    somehow managed to imprint indelible images of
    these idols on their skin
  • The Spaniards, who had never heard of tattooing,
    recognized it at once as the work of Satan.
  • Only one Spaniard was tattooed, His name was
    Gonzalo Guerrero

33
Crystal Skulls
www.crystallinks.com/maya.html
  • Mitchell-Hedges Skull, for at least two reasons.
  • First, it is very similar in form to an actual
    human skull, even featuring a fitted removable
    jawbone.
  • Second, it is impossible to say how the
    Mitchell-Hedges skull was constructed. From a
    technical standpoint, it appears to be an
    impossible object which today's most talented
    sculptors and engineers would be unable to
    duplicate
  • Discovered in 1927 debris from atop a ruined
    temple at the ancient Mayan city of Lubaantum,
    located in Belize

34
www.crystallinks.com/maya.html
35
Sources
  • Ancient Farm Discovery Yields Clues to Maya Diet
    National Geographic - August 20, 2007
    http//news.nationalgeographic.com/news/2007/08/07
    0820-maya-crop.html
  • http//www.crystalinks.com/mayanarch.html
  • http//www.crystalinks.com/mayancalendar.html
  • www.mesoamerica.com
  • http//www.mayanbeachgarden.com/Images/MayapanObse
    rvatory.jpg
  • http//www.lawrencelab.org/Outreach/2006/project/m
    aize.jpg
  • http//www.great-adventures.com/images/mexico/El2
    0Castillo.jpg
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