CONSTRUCTION TECHNOLOGY - PowerPoint PPT Presentation

Loading...

PPT – CONSTRUCTION TECHNOLOGY PowerPoint presentation | free to download - id: 3e2b70-Y2M3M



Loading


The Adobe Flash plugin is needed to view this content

Get the plugin now

View by Category
About This Presentation
Title:

CONSTRUCTION TECHNOLOGY

Description:

construction technology & maintenance cem 417 sources from : mohd amizan mohamd mohd fadzil arshad siti rashidah mohd nasir fka, uitm shah alam. – PowerPoint PPT presentation

Number of Views:66
Avg rating:3.0/5.0
Slides: 53
Provided by: Roh57
Learn more at: http://ec221cem417.files.wordpress.com
Category:

less

Write a Comment
User Comments (0)
Transcript and Presenter's Notes

Title: CONSTRUCTION TECHNOLOGY


1
  • CONSTRUCTION TECHNOLOGY
  • maintenance

CEM 417
SOURCES FROM slide MOHD AMIZAN MOHAMD MOHD
FADZIL ARSHAD SITI RASHIDAH MOHD NASIR FKA, UiTM
Shah Alam.
2
WEEK 2
  • Stages for construction
  1. Building
  2. Retaining walls, Drainage
  3. Road, Highway, Bridges
  4. Airports, Offshore/Marine structure

3
RETAINING WALLS
4
WEEK 2
  • At the end of week 2 lectures, student will be
    able to
  • Identify the different types of retaining walls
    and their respective functions. (CO1 CO3)

5
RETAINING WALL
  • Basic function to retain soil at a slope which
    is greater than it would naturally assume,
    usually at a vertical or near vertical position

6
(No Transcript)
7
  • Retaining wall failure at the Shin-Kang Dam

8
Design of retaining wall
  • retaining walls have primary function of
    retaining soils at an angle in excess of the
    soils nature angle of repose.
  • Walls within the design height range are designed
    to provide the necessary resistance by either
    their own mass or by the principles of leverage.
  • Design consideration
  • Overturning of the wall does not occur
  • Forward sliding does not occur
  • Materials used are suitable
  • The subsoil is not overloaded

9
Factors which designer need to take account
  • Nature and characteristics of the subsoil's
  • Height of water table the presence of water can
    create hydrostatic pressure, affect bearing
    capacity of the subsoil together with its shear
    strength, reduce the frictional resistance
    between the underside of the foundation
  • Type of wall
  • Materials to be used in the construction

10
(No Transcript)
11
  • Failure of retaining wall (dam) due to water
    pressure..

12
Types of walls
  • Mass retaining walls
  • Cantilever walls
  • Counterfort retaining walls
  • Precast concrete retaining walls
  • Precast concrete crib-retaining walls

13
Mass retaining walls
  • Sometimes called gravity walls and rely upon
    their own mass together with the friction on the
    underside of the base to overcome the tendency to
    slide or overturn
  • Generally only economic up to 1.8 m
  • Mass walls can be constructed of semi-engineering
    quality bricks bedded in a 13 cement mortar or
    of mass concrete
  • Natural stone is suitable for small walls up to
    1m high but generally it is used as a facing
    material for walls over 1 m

14
Typical example of mass retaining walls
BRICK MASS RETAINING WALL
15
Brick retaining wall
Stone retaining wall
16
Typical example of mass retaining walls
MASS CONCRETE RETAINING WALL WITH STONE FACINGS
17
Cantilever walls
  • Usually of reinforced concrete and work on the
    principle of leverage where the stem is designed
    as a cantilever fixed at the base and the base is
    designed as a cantilever fixed at the stem
  • Economic height range of 1.2 m to 6 m using
    pre-stressing techniques
  • Any durable facing material can be applied to the
    surface to improve appearance of the wall

18
Cantilever wall
19
  • Two basic forms-
  • A base with a large heel
  • A cantilever with a large toe

Cantilever L
Cantilever T
20
(No Transcript)
21
Cantilever walls
22
(No Transcript)
23
(No Transcript)
24
Counterfort retaining walls
  • Can be constructed of reinforced or prestressed
    concrete
  • Suitable for over 4.5 m
  • Triangular beams placed at suitable centres
    behind the stem and above the base to enable the
    stem and base to act as slab spanning
    horizontally over or under the counterforts

25
(No Transcript)
26
(No Transcript)
27
(No Transcript)
28
Precast concrete retaining wall
  • Manufactured from high-grade pre cast concrete on
    the cantilever principle.
  • Can be erected on a foundation as permanent
    retaining wall or be free standing to act as
    dividing wall between heaped materials which it
    can increase three times the storage volume for
    any given area
  • Other advantages- reduction in time by
    eliminating curing period, cost of formwork, time
    to erect and dismantle the temporary forms
  • Lifting holes are provided which can be utilized
    for fixing if required

29
application
30
(No Transcript)
31
Precast concrete retaining walls
32
Pre cast concrete crib-retaining walls
  • Designed on the principle of mass retaining walls
  • A system of pre cast concrete or treated timber
    components comprising headers and stretchers
    which interlock to form a 3 dimensional framework
    or crib of pre cast concrete timber units within
    which soil is retained
  • Constructed with a face batter between 16 and
    18
  • Subsoil drainage is not required since the open
    face provides adequate drainage.

33
(No Transcript)
34
SUBSOIL DRAINAGE
35
  • At the end of week this lecture, student will be
    able to
  • Identify the functions of various subsoil
    drainage system. (CO1 CO3)

36
Drainage
  • Effluent- can be defined as that which flows out.
    In building drainage terms, there are three main
    forms of effluent
  • Subsoil water water collected by means of
    special drains from the earth primarily to lower
    the water table level I the subsoil clean, no
    need to treat.
  • Surface water effluent collected from the
    surfaces such as roofs, paved areas- clean
  • Foul or soil water effluent contaminated by
    domestic or trade waste and require treatment

37
Source of water
38
Building Regulation C2-Resistance to moisture
  • Subsoil drainage shall be provided if it is
    needed to avoid-
  • The passage of ground moisture to the interior of
    the building
  • Damage to the fabric of the building
  • Needed for sites with a high water table (level
    at which water occurs naturally below the ground)
  • Objective of subsoil drainage to lower the
    water table to a level such that it will not rise
    to within 0.25 m of the lowest floor of a
    building
  • Advantages improve the stability of the ground,
    lowering the humidity of the site and improve its
    horticultural properties

39
  • The water collected by a subsoil drainage system
    has to be conveyed to a suitable outfall such as
    a river , lake or surface water drain and sewer.

40
The ideal site
41
Typical subsoil drainage details
42
Materials of subsoil drainage
  • Porous - absorb water through their walls and
    thus keep out fine particles of soil or silt
  • Perforated Holes in pipe of different pattern
    which allow water to enter into the pipe and
    channels to a collection points and discharged
    into the designated outlet.

43
Suitable pipes
  • Perforated clayware BS EN 295-5
  • Porous concrete BS 5911part 114
  • Clayware field pipes BS 1196
  • Profiled and slotted polypropylene or uPVC BS
    4962
  • Perforated uPVC BS 4660

44
  • POLYETHYLENE PIPE

45
Perforated pipe
Perforated pipes for footing drains ABS pipe
for downspout drains
46
  • Subsoil drainage

47
Subsoil drainage systems
  • The layout of subsoils drains will depend on
    whether it is necessary to drain the whole site
    or if it is only the substructure of the building
    which needs to be protected

48
Model of subsoil drainage
49
Subsoil drainage systems and drains
  • The pipes are arranged in a pattern to cover as
    much of the site as is necessary
  • Water will naturally flow towards the easy
    passage provided by the drainage runs

50
Herringbone drainage
51
Moat drainage
52
Outfall to stream or river
  • The system is terminated at a suitable outfall
    such as a river, stream or surface water sewer
  • In cases, permission must be obtained before
    discharging a subsoil system
About PowerShow.com