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The Basics of Chemical


The Basics of Chemical & Biological Safety for Radiation Safety Professionals Robert Emery, DrPH, CHP, CIH, CSP, RBP, CHMM, CPP, ARM Vice President for Safety, Health ... – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: The Basics of Chemical

The Basics of Chemical Biological Safety for
Radiation Safety Professionals
  • Robert Emery, DrPH, CHP, CIH, CSP, RBP, CHMM,
    CPP, ARM
  • Vice President for Safety, Health, Environment,
    Risk Management Quality Assurance
  • The University of Texas Health Science Center at
  • Associate Professor of Occupational Health
  • The University of Texas School of Public Health

Public Health Significance Chemicals
  • Over 30 million American workers are exposed to
    hazardous chemicals in their workplaces. That is
    equivalent to 1 out 5 workers http//
  • Approximately 20,000 cancer deaths and 40,000 new
    cases of cancer each year in the U.S. are
    attributable to occupational exposure -
  • In 2001, out of 14,500 reported cases of
    occupational respiratory conditions due to toxic
    agents, 2,800 (19) of them were reported from
    Health Services Industry. - http//

Public Health Significance Bloodborne Biological
  • Approximately 1,000 accidental needlesticks occur
    per day nationwide.
  • The probability of contracting HBV from a
    needlestick injury is anywhere between 22 and 40
  • HBV can survive a week outside a living organism.
  • http//
  • http//

Industrial Hygiene
  • The art and science devoted to the anticipation,
    recognition, evaluation and control of all
    workplace environmental factors which may cause
    sickness, impaired health or significant
    discomfort among workers or the citizens of the

Elements of a Chemical Safety Program
  • Hazard Communication
  • 29 CFR 1910.1200
  • Laboratory Standard
  • 29 CFR 1910.1450
  • Occupational exposure monitoring
  • 29 CFR 1910.1000
  • Respiratory Protection
  • 29 CFR 1910.134
  • PPE
  • 29 CFR 1910.132
  • Emergency spill preparation and response
  • 29 CFR 1910.120

Hazard Communication / Laboratory Standard
  • Performance standards
  • Development and implementation of Chemical
    Hygiene Plan
  • Primary emphasis on administrative controls to
    protect workers
  • Readily accessible

Chemical Hygiene Plan
  • Plan should include
  • Responsibilities
  • Standard Operating Procedures
  • Plans for Controlling Chemical Exposures
  • Engineering Controls
  • Medical Consultation and Review
  • Chemical Hygiene Officer
  • Special Provisions for Hazardous Chemical Use

Who Should Be Trained and When?
  • Any employee that is assigned to a work area
    where hazardous chemicals are present.
  • At the time of an employees initial assignment
  • Prior to assignments involving new exposure
  • Refresher information and training
  • ...shall be determined by the employer.

What Must be Included?
  • The contents and appendices of the standard
  • The location, availability, and details of the
    written Chemical Hygiene Plan
  • The PELs for OSHA regulated substances or OELs
    for other hazardous chemicals
  • Signs and symptoms associated with exposure
  • Location and availability of reference material
    on the hazards, safe handling, storage, and
  • Material Safety Data Sheets (MSDS) availability
    and location
  • Methods to detect presence or release of
    hazardous chemicals

Material Safety Data Sheets
  • Standard 16 section ANSI format
  • Provided by manufacturers and distributors
  • Required by 29 CFR 1910.1200(g)
  • Contains specific information of chemical
    properties, hazards, storage, ...etc.
  • Periodically updated by manufacturer

Dose-Response Relationships
  • Paracelsus (1493-1541) All substances are
    poisons there is none which is not a poison.
    The right dose differentiates a poison.

Evaluation of Toxicity
  • Lethal dose 50 or LD50 usually in mg/kg
  • Lethal concentration 50 or LC50 usually in ppm
    or mg/L or mg/m3
  • Lowest concentration to cause death in test
    animals LDlo and LClo
  • The lower these values the more toxic the chemical

Risk Assessment for Hazardous Chemicals
  • Identify chemicals and how used
  • Consult sources of information
  • Evaluate toxicity type
  • Consider routes of exposure
  • Evaluate quantitative toxicity information
  • Decide how to minimize exposure
  • Prepare for possible accidents/emergencies

Working with Hazardous Chemicals
  • Hazards are not always known
  • New chemicals are often generated
  • Be prepared for accidents
  • Limit access to areas with chemicals
  • Wash hands before leaving work area
  • Assume mixtures are more toxic than individual

Minimize Chemical Exposures
  • Wear eye protection glasses, goggles, face
  • Use laboratory hoods
  • Be careful when handling syringes filled with
  • Wear appropriate gloves
  • Keep body covered pants, lab coat, appropriate
  • Use respiratory protection as a last resort

  • Instrumentation
  • Air Sampling
  • Active
  • Passive
  • Direct reading
  • Ventilation
  • Noise

Sampling Strategy
  • Determine what types of exposure hazards are
  • Assess the sources and degree of exposure to each
    significant hazard
  • Select methods and equipment, perform
    calibrations and assure that adequate quality
    control exists
  • Evaluate and interpret the sampling data
  • Apply results to minimize the hazards that might
    be present

Permissible Exposure Limit (PEL)
  • Published by OSHA
  • Legally enforceable
  • Originally extracted from the 1968 TLVs
  • Typically slow to change

Threshold Limit Value(TLV)
  • Published annually by ACGIH
  • Threshold Limit Value-Time Weighted Average
  • Time weighted concentration for a conventional
    8-hour work day and a 40-hour work week, to which
    nearly all workers may be exposed, day after day
    without adverse effects

Threshold Limit Value (TLV)
  • Threshold Limit Value-Short Term Exposure Limit
  • 15 minute TWA, maximal concentration to which
    workers can be exposed for a period of up to 15
    minutes without suffering from any adverse
  • lt 15 minutes not be repeated more than four
    times daily with at least 60 minutes between
    successive exposures in this range
  • Threshold Limit Value-Ceiling (TLV-C)
  • Concentration that should not be exceeded during
    any part of the working exposure

  • Engineering
  • Design specifications
  • Isolation
  • Ventilation
  • Administrative
  • Scheduling
  • Location
  • Substitution

  • Personal Protective Equipment
  • Respirators
  • Chemical barriers
  • Gloves, lab-coats, boots
  • Safety goggles or glasses

Hazardous Chemical Waste
  • Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (EPA)
  • Waste Characterization
  • Mixed waste

  • Prudent Practices in the Laboratory, Handling and
    Disposal of Chemicals. National Research
    Council. Washington, D.C. National Academy
    Press, 1995.
  • Hall, Stephen K. Chemical Safety in the
    Laboratory. Boca Raton, FL CRC Press, 1994.
  • Threshold Limit Values for Chemical Substances
    and Physical Agents and Biological Exposure
    Indices. Cincinnati, OH ACGIH, 2009.
  • CRC Handbook of Laboratory Safety. A. Keith Furr,
    CRC Press.
  • OSHA Hazard Communication Standard 29
  • OSHA Laboratory Standard 29 CFR 1910.1450
  • OSHA Hazardous waste operations and emergency
    response 29 CFR 1910.120

The Basics of Biological Safety for Radiation
Safety Professionals
  • Robert Emery, DrPH, CHP, CIH, CSP, RBP, CHMM,
    CPP, ARM
  • Vice President for Safety, Health, Environment,
    Risk Management Quality Assurance
  • The University of Texas Health Science Center at
  • Associate Professor of Occupational Health
  • The University of Texas School of Public Health

What Is Biological Safety?
  • The field of biosafety promotes infection
    control, safe laboratory practices, procedures,
    and proper use of containment equipment and
    facilities and provides advice on laboratory
    design as it relates to biological and infectious

Where HPs May Encounter Biological Hazards
  • Healthcare institutions
  • Research institution
  • Bioassay samples
  • Emergency response
  • Mixed waste
  • Other duties as assigned
  • Etc.

Areas of Biosafety
  • Bloodborne pathogens (BBP)
  • OSHA Bloodborne Pathogens Standard 29 CFR
  • Biological waste disposal
  • State regulations concerning biological waste
  • Laboratory Safety
  • Biosafety in Microbiological and Biomedical
    Laboratories 5th ed. CDC/NIH
  • Infectious substance and diagnostic specimen
  • IATA, DOT, USPS Dangerous Goods Regulations

Areas of Biosafety
  • Recombinant DNA (rDNA)
  • NIH Guidelines on Recombinant DNA Molecules
  • Respiratory Protection
  • 29 CFR 1910.134 (139 TB standard repealed)
  • Bioterrorism
  • Select Agents, 42 CFR 73 (human), 9 CFR 121
    (animal) 7 CFR 331 (plant)
  • Mold and indoor air quality
  • Mold Assessment and Remediation 25 TAC 1 295 J
  • Indoor Air Quality 25 TAC 1 297 A
  • Occupational safety and health in the use of
    research animals

Risk Assessment
  • Process to determine the appropriate containment
    level and procedures
  • Factors include
  • Pathogenicity, route of transmission,
    concentration, origin, availability of
    prophylaxis, experience, rDNA work, genes of
    interest, replication competence, etc

Hazard Classifications of Microbial Agents (1-4)
  • Risk Group 1
  • Minimal hazard to humans, not known to cause
    disease in healthy adults
  • Risk Group 2
  • Agents associated with disease which is rarely
    serious or there is treatment available,
    generally oral or inoculation hazards

Hazard Classifications of Microbial Agents (1-4)
  • Risk Group 3
  • High individual risk, associated with serious
    disease which may or may not have treatment,
    generally aerosol transmission hazard
  • Risk Group 4
  • Serious or lethal disease for which there is not
    usually a therapeutic intervention, generally
    dangerous and exotic viruses

Biosafety in Microbiological and Biomedical
Laboratories (BMBL)
Download 5th Ed HHS Publication No. (CDC)
93-8395 at and search BMBL 5th
BMBL Contents
  • Principles of Biosafety
  • Laboratory Biosafety Level Criteria
  • Animal Biosafety Level Criteria
  • Risk Assessment
  • Recommended Biosafety Levels
  • Biological Agent Summaries

Biological Safety Levels
  • Biosafety levels are combinations of facilities
    and practicesLevel 1 basic lab, good lab
  • Level 2 limited lab access, specific training
    and practices
  • Level 3 containment (biosafety cabinet),
    specific training and practices
  • Level 4 full containment, specific facility,
    training and practices

Biosafety Level 3 Facility
Biological Safety Cabinets (BSC)
  • BSC Class I negative pressure ventilated
    cabinet no product protection
  • BSC Class II HEPA filtered exhaust provides
    product and personnel protection. 2 types A
  • BSC Class III fully contained glove box

Biological Safety Cabinets
  • Class II Biological safety cabinet

Figure courtesy of CDC/NIH BMBL
BBP Standard 29 CFR 1910.1030
  • Exposure Control Plan
  • Exposure determination
  • Work practices
  • Standard / Universal Precautions
  • HBV vaccination
  • Labeling
  • Potentially infectious waste handling
  • Medical evaluation
  • Training

Microbial Sampling
  • Not routinely done or recommended
  • Source
  • Air
  • Bulk
  • Culturable versus Non-culturable
  • Building should be evaluated under normal
    operating conditions
  • Note conditions during sampling
  • Results generally reported in CFU (colony forming
  • No standards for results comparison

The Select Agent Rule
Emerging Issue - Select Agents and Bioterrorism
  • Antiterrorism and Effective Death Penalty Act of
    1996 (PL 104-132)
  • Invoke transport requirements, and prohibited
    possession as weapons
  • USA PATRIOT Act (PL 107-56)
  • Effective 10/16/01
  • Outlawed the possession of 49 Select Agents for
    any use peaceful, research, or intentional
  • Outlawed use if a restricted person
  • Public Health Security and Bioterrorism
    Preparedness and Response Act of 2002
  • Effective 6/12/02
  • Select Agent regulations

  • Biosafety is much more than the bloodborne
    pathogens standard
  • Risk assessment process is the key to properly
    classifying and reviewing work with infectious
    agents or rDNA
  • Sampling not routinely recommended
  • Emerging field!

  • American Biological Safety Association
  • Biosafety in Microbiological and Biomedical
    Laboratories, 5th ed. CDC/NIH 2007.
  • Guidelines for Research Involving Recombinant DNA
    Molecules (NIH Guidelines) April 2002.
  • OSHA, Occupational Exposure to Bloodborne
    Pathogens 29 CFR 1910.1030
  • ABSA risk group classifications
  • Health Canada MSDS for Biological Agents
  • Biological Safety Principles and Practices 3rd
    Edition. Diane Fleming Debra Hunt. ASM Press.

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