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Occupational Health and Safety Program Powered Industrial Trucks Operator Training


Occupational Health and Safety Program Powered Industrial Trucks Operator Training 29 CFR 1910.178 For More Information Contact Richard T. Owen, Safety Coordinator or ... – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: Occupational Health and Safety Program Powered Industrial Trucks Operator Training

Occupational Health and Safety
Program Powered Industrial Trucks Operator
  • 29 CFR 1910.178

For More Information Contact
  • Richard T. Owen, Safety Coordinator
  • or Kentucky Occupational Safety and Health

  • OSHAs Office of Training and Education
    acknowledges the following for contributing some
    of the graphics used in this presentation
  • Caterpillar Lift Trucks
  • Mason Contractors Association of America
  • Industrial Truck Association
  • State of Utah Labor Commission - Occupational
    Safety Health Division
  • Steamship Trade Association of Baltimore
  • Taylor Machine Works, Inc.
  • UAW - Ford National Joint Committee on Health and
  • Appearance of products does not imply
    endorsement by the U.S. Department of Labor.

Powered Industrial Truck - Definition
  • A mobile, power-propelled truck used to carry,
    push, pull, lift, stack or tier materials.
    American Society of Mechanical Engineers (ASME)
  • Excluded are vehicles used for earth moving and
    over-the-road hauling.
  • Commonly known as forklifts, pallet trucks, rider
    trucks, forktrucks, or lifttrucks.
  • Can be powered through electric or combustion

Scope of OSHA Standard
  • The scope provisions of 1910.178(a), which are
    based on ANSI B56.1 - 1969, remain in effect and
  • ... fork trucks, tractors, platform lift trucks,
    motorized hand trucks, and other specialized
    industrial trucks powered by electric motors or
    internal combustion engines.
  • It does not apply to compressed air or
    nonflammable compressed gas-operated industrial
    trucks, farm vehicles, nor vehicles intended
    primarily for earth moving or over-the-road
  • Standard covers general industry, construction
    and shipyards.

Reasons for the Standard
  • Powered industrial truck accidents result in
    approximately 100 fatalities and 36,340 serious
    injuries in general industry and construction
  • It is estimated that 20 - 25 of the accidents
    are, at least in part, caused by inadequate

Performance-Oriented Requirements
  • The powered industrial truck operator training
    requirements are performance-oriented to permit
    employers to tailor a training program to the
    characteristics of their workplaces and the
    particular types of powered industrial trucks

Operator Training
  • The employer shall ensure that each powered
    industrial truck operator is competent to
    operate a powered industrial truck safely, as
    demonstrated by successful completion of the
    training and evaluation specified in the OSHA
  • Prior to permitting an employee to operate a
    powered industrial truck (except for training
    purposes), the employer shall ensure that each
    operator has successfully completed the required
    training (or previously received appropriate

Training Program Implementation
  • Trainees may operate a powered industrial truck
  • Under direct supervision of a person who has the
    knowledge, training, and experience to train
    operators and evaluate their competence and,
  • Where such operation does not endanger the
    trainee or other employees.

Training Agenda
Training shall consist of a combination
of Formal instruction (e.g., lecture,
discussion, interactive computer learning,
written material), Practical training
(demonstrations and exercises performed by the
trainee), and Evaluation of the operators
performance in the workplace by knowledge tests.
Training Program Content
  • Operators shall receive training in the
    following topics
  • Truck-related topics,
  • Workplace-related topics,
  • The requirements of the standard.

Refresher Training
  • Refresher training, including an evaluation of
    the effectiveness of that training, shall be
    conducted to ensure that the operator has the
    knowledge and skills needed to operate the
    powered industrial truck safely.

Refresher Training
  • Refresher training required when
  • Unsafe operation,
  • Accident or near-miss,
  • Evaluation indicates need,
  • Different type of equipment introduced,
  • Workplace condition changes.

  • An evaluation of each powered industrial truck
    operators performance must be conducted
  • After initial training,
  • After refresher training, and
  • At least once every three years.
  • 29 CFR 1910.178(i)(4)(iii)

  • The employer shall certify that each operator
    has been trained and evaluated as required by the
  • Certification shall include
  • Name of operator,
  • Date of training,
  • Date of evaluation,
  • Identity of person(s) performing the training or

Four Major Areas of Concern
  • The general hazards that apply to the operation
    of all or most powered industrial trucks.
  • The hazards associated with the operation of
    particular types of trucks.
  • The hazards of workplaces generally.
  • The hazards of the particular workplace where the
    vehicle operates.

Types of Powered Industrial Trucks
  • There are many different types of powered
    industrial trucks covered by the OSHA standard.
  • Commonly used types include
  • High lift trucks, counterbalanced trucks,
    cantilever trucks, rider trucks, forklift trucks,
    high lift trucks, high lift platform trucks, low
    lift trucks, motorized hand trucks, pallet
    trucks, straddle trucks, reach rider trucks, high
    lift order picker trucks, motorized hand/rider
    trucks, and counterbalanced front/side loader
    lift trucks.

Unique Characteristics of Powered Industrial
  • Each type of powered industrial truck has its
    own unique characteristics and some inherent

Components of a Forklift
Classes of Commonly-Used Powered Industrial Trucks
  • The Industrial Truck Association has placed
    powered industrial trucks into 7 classes.
  • Class I - Electric motor rider trucks
  • Class II - Electric motor narrow aisle trucks
  • Class III - Electric motor hand trucks or
    hand/rider trucks
  • Class IV - Internal combustion engine trucks
    (solid/cushion tires)
  • Class V - Internal combustion engine trucks
    (pneumatic tires)
  • Class VI - Electric and internal combustion
    engine tractors
  • Class VII - Rough terrain forklift trucks

Class I - Electric Motor Rider Trucks
  • Counterbalanced rider type, stand up
  • Three wheel electric trucks, sit-down
  • Counterbalanced rider type, cushion tires,
    sit-down (high and low platform)
  • Counterbalanced rider, pneumatic tire, sit-down
    (high and low platform)

Class I - Electric Motor Rider Trucks
Class I - Electric Motor Rider Trucks
  • Counterbalanced Rider Type, Stand-Up

Class II - Electric Motor Narrow Aisle Trucks
  • High lift straddle
  • Order picker
  • Reach type outrigger
  • Side loaders, turret trucks, swing mast and
    convertible turret/stock pickers
  • Low lift pallet and platform (rider)

Class II - Electric Motor Narrow Aisle Trucks
Class II - Narrow Aisle Trucks
Class III - Electric Motor Hand or Hand/Rider
  • Low lift platform
  • Low lift walkie pallet
  • Reach type outrigger
  • High lift straddle
  • High lift counterbalanced
  • Low lift walkie/rider pallet

Class III - Electric Motor Hand or Hand/Rider
Class III - Hand Hand/Rider Trucks
Class IV - Internal Combustion Engine Trucks -
Cushion (Solid) Tires
Class IV - Internal Combustion Engine Trucks -
Cushion (Solid) Tires
Class V - Internal Combustion Engine Trucks -
Pneumatic Tires
Fork, counterbalanced (pneumatic tires)
Class V - Internal Combustion Engine Trucks
(Pneumatic Tires)
Class VI - Electric Internal Combustion Engine
Sit-down rider
Class VII - Rough Terrain Forklift Trucks
  • Straight-mast forklift
  • Extended-reach forklift

All rough terrain forklift trucks
Rough Terrain Straight Mast Forklifts
Rough Terrain Extended-Reach Forklifts
Stability Triangle - Figure 1
Vehicle Center of Gravity (Unloaded)
Center of Gravity of Vehicle and Maximum
Load (Theoretical)
1. When the vehicle is loaded, the combined
center of gravity (CG) shifts toward line B-C.
Theoretically the maximum load will result in the
CG at the line B-C. In actual practice, the
combined CG should never be at line B-C. 2. The
addition of additional counterweight will cause
the truck CG to shift toward point A and result
in a truck that is less stable laterally.
Stability Triangle - Figure 2
Load CG
Load CG
Vertical Stability Line (Line of Action)
Combined CG
Combined CG
Vertical Stability Line (Line of Action)
Truck CG
Truck CG
This vehicle is unstable and will continue to
tip over
The vehicle is stable
Inspecting the Vehicle
  • Daily before each shift.
  • Defects, when found, must be immediately reported
    and corrected.

Driving the Truck
  • Maintain a safe distance from the edge of ramps
    or platforms.
  • Assure sufficient head room.
  • Observe all traffic safety rules.
  • Yield right-of-way to pedestrians.
  • Slow down and sound the horn at cross aisles and
    areas of obstructed vision.

Driving the Truck
  • Look in the direction of, and keep a clear view
    of, path of travel.
  • Travel with the load trailing if the load being
    carried obstructs forward view.
  • Ascend or descent grades slowly.
  • Operate at a speed that will permit the forklift
    to be brought to a safe stop.

Driving the Truck
  • Slow down for wet and slippery floors.
  • Properly secure dock boards or bridge plates.
  • Approach elevators slowly and squarely.

Driving the Truck
  • Do not operate under the influence.
  • Do not drive forklifts up to anyone standing in
    front of a fixed object.
  • Do not run over loose objects.
  • Do not allow persons to stand or pass under the
    elevated forks-loaded or empty.
  • Do not allow any person to ride on the forklift.

Driving the Truck
  • Do not use forklift for opening or closing doors.
  • Do not block exits or emergency equipment.
  • Do not participate in stunt driving or horseplay.
  • Do not push or tow other forklifts.

Load Handling
  • Know the weight of the load prior to moving the
  • Do not stand on a forklift or add counterweights
    to compensate for an overload.
  • Do not operate an overloaded forklift.

Load Handling
  • Approach to within a foot or so of the load.
  • Stop forklift and raise load slowly while inching
  • Position load so load lines up squarely.
  • When load reaches desired height, tilt backward.
  • Lower the load slowly when it is resting solidly
    and the forks are free, back away slowly.

Load Handling
  • The heavier the load, and the higher it is
    raised, the higher the forklifts center of
    gravity, reducing stability.
  • When lifting a load, always check for any
    overhead obstruction.

Stacking Height
  • Stacking to the ceiling will block the sprinkler
    system (where installed) and may overload the
  • Allow 18 inches clearance below sprinkler heads
    or piping.
  • Allow 24 inches clearance below roof if not
    equipped with sprinklers.
  • Never allow other workers to stand nearby when
    materials are stacked.
  • Do not stack materials in aisles or roadways.

Unattended Forklift Precautions
  • A forklift is left unattended when
  • The unit remains in view of the operator, or
  • Operator leaves the unit and it is not in view.

Unattended Forklift Precautions
  • When a forklift is left unattended
  • Fully lower front forks
  • Neutralized controls
  • Shut off power
  • Set brakes
  • Block wheels if the forklift is parked on an

Operator Dismounted and Within 25 Inches of the
  • Remains in the view of the operator.
  • Front fork must be fully lowered.
  • Controls neutralized.
  • Brakes set.
  • If the load must remain elevated, the operator
    must remain on the forklift at the controls.

Hazardous Environment
  • Concentration levels of carbon monoxide gas
    created by forklifts do not exceed the levels
    specified in 29 CFR 1910.1000.
  • Operate in well ventilated areas.
  • In low lighted areas, forklift must have
    directional lighting.

Refueling or Recharging Operations
  • Battery charging and installation must be located
    in areas designated for that purpose.
  • Facilities must be provided for
  • Flushing and neutralizing spilled electrolyte
  • Fire protection
  • Protection from other forklifts
  • Adequate ventilation for battery gasses.

Refueling or Recharging Operations
  • Reinstalled batteries must be properly positioned
    and secured in the forklift.
  • Forklift shall be properly positioned and brake
    applied before changing or charging battery.
  • Vent caps must be functioning.
  • No smoking.
  • No open flames, sparks or electric arcs in
    battery charging areas.
  • Keep tools and metallic objects away from
    uncovered batteries.

Thank You For Your Participation
  • For additional assistance contact
  • Richard T. Owen
  • Education Cabinet Safety Coordinator
  • 601 East Main Street
  • Frankfort, Kentucky 40601
  • 502-564-7346
  • Richard.Owen_at_ky.gov
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