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Title: (Photo: CCTV-9, July 28, 2009) EFL Teacher Education 09:


1
(Photo CCTV-9, July 28, 2009) EFL Teacher
Education 09 Strategic Interaction - ST
2
Strategies Success
  • (Photo China Daily, July 28, 2009)

3
Strategic interaction in the Senior EFL
classroom Teachers perspectives
??????????????
  • ????? ???
  • August 20, 2009
  • junsheng.huang_at_gmail.com

4
Biodata
  • Research
  • 1. Interactive integration English language
    learning strategies, styles and tasks at the
    senior secondary level in China (at the
    University of Hong Kong, August 2004 October
    2008)
  • 2. Understanding successful university students
    English learning strategy use (at the University
    of Hong Kong, December 2007 onward)
  • Research interests
  • Second language acquisition (SLA), specifically,
    language learner knowledge, strategies and
    self-regulation
  • Contact at
  • E-mail junsheng.huang_at_gmail.com Tel.
    13509321692

5
Orientation
6
Todays topics
  • Rationale for strategic interaction
  • Understanding language learning strategies
  • Exploring the interactive integration
  • Learning strategies in the ECS
  • Learning strategies integrated in textbooks
  • Learner knowledge strategy use
  • Strategies as goal-driven actions
  • Strategies as task-focused actions
  • Strategies as situated actions
  • Conclusion

7
  • Elements involved in todays seminar
  • Theme Strategic interaction
  • Elements
  • Language learning strategy (LLS) theories
  • The English Curriculum Standards (ECS) (MOE,
    2001, 2003)
  • Research data
  • Textbook analyses
  • My interpretations based on research, practice,
    and experience
  • My suggestions for the Junior EFL instruction

8
  • A story of a strategic learner
  • (A successful English learner)
  • Initial stage Interest is my best teacher.
    (The learner recalled)
  • Compared with Chinese, English is in reverse
    order. (Father)
  • Junior A chant taught in his first English
    lesson
  • One two three four five, once I caught a fish
    alive.
  • Three four five six seven, but this fish
    slipped off my hand. (Teacher)
  • Findings (1) Not always in reverse order
  • (2) Rhymes (e.g., five, alive)
  • (3) Fun and interesting like Chinese.

9
  • Strategies used by the teacher and the student
  • Imitating e.g., Its none of your business.
    This is a private conversation!
  • Repeating ( until the teacher smiled.)
  • Making Chinese work for English learning
  • Chinese and English are the same at the
    deepest level
  • Chinese can be used as a bridge (Learner)
  • Inducing grammar e.g., Xiao Ming is driving a
    car. (is driving is the grammar)
  • Guessing Guessing is like playing a jigsaw
    game. (Learner)
  • Taking the first risk Challenging an expert
    interpreter from an oil company
  • Whats this in English? (Pointing to a
    mirror on the wall)
  • Oh, it is a mirror.

10
  • Senior Strategies used by the teacher and the
    student
  • (Knowledge-based learning)
  • Taking notes (T wrote all language points on
    the board S made a grammar book by pooling
    together all the notes)
  • Studying grammar e.g., The Ts 12-verb rule
    (5 see 2 hear 1 feel let, make,
    have, and help)
  • Summarizing Adding bits and pieces to build
    up my own English mansion.
  • Setting grammatical questions Grammar is
    dead, but language is alive. (T)
  • Understanding changes in English English
    changes at 2 levels words and sentences.
    (The learner)
  • Understanding grammar e.g., the principle of
    simplification
  • A feel for the language the ability to
    internalize grammar into a habit
  • The essential difference between Chinese and
    English is grammar, which reflects the
    differences in thinking and cultures. (Learner)
  • Imitating A good English learner is a smart
    imitator.
  • I learned English in the way of studying
    science and technology.

11
  • Tertiary Strategies used by the learner his
    peers
  • (Self-access study the way to G T CET46,
    GRE, TOEFL)
  • Memorizing vocabulary in any possible ways
  • - Word formation 500 roots/affixes/stems
  • - Keyword strategies e.g., conundrum ????
    issue ???????
  • - Using an English dictionary (to understand
    accurate meanings)
  • - Memorizing the Red Book (Red Book MP3)
  • - Listening to MP3
  • English corner (to improve oral English
    greatly)
  • Failure in the dorm success in the English
    corner.
  • Topic discussions
  • English debates
  • Creating an environment for English learning
  • Using podcast to sit in university seminars
    in the U.S.
  • Im honored to be given a nickname, Mr.
    Dictionary.

12
  • The story tells us that
  • - the learner has his own story of strategy use
    for English learning.
  • - he uses strategies at different stages
    (Junior, Senior, and Tertiary)
  • - his learning strategies involve not only
    actions but also knowledge and beliefs about
    himself and his learning process.
  • - his story of strategy use is a mental journey
    situated in particular learning cultures and
    communities and related to others.
  • - he starts with interest, sustains progress
    through strategy use, and achieves the
    self-regulation,
  • and his story will go on and on

13
1. Rationale for strategic interaction
  • An example for strategic interaction
  • Stick with your friends through thick and thin
  • (Key to success SEFC, B3, U11, p.91)
  • T This is an interesting idiom, isnt it? Who
    can explain it?
  • (Asking questions)
  • S1 May I say it in Chinese?
  • (Asking for permission)
  • T OK. Go ahead, please.
  • S1 ????????A stick is a piece of wood. Its
    straight, pushing continuously through to the
    bottom. So it means continue to stay .
  • (Association a process of metaphorical
    cognition)

14
  • T A good explanation! What about through thick
    and thin?
  • S1 Sorry, I know its an idiom, but I have no
    idea how it works in this sentence.
  • (Asking for clarification)
  • T OK, thick and thin implies both good and
    bad times. When you stay with your friends
    through both good and bad times, how can you
    describe the friendship?
  • (Paraphrase)
  • (Association)
  • S1 A true friend!
  • T Yes, we can say you are good/true/real/faithfu
    l friends, as a saying goes, A friend in need is
    a friend indeed ??????????.
  • (Collocation)
  • (Quotation)
  • (Oral translation)
  • (Based on Huang, 2008 196)

15
  • A question for discussion
  • Do you have any other interpretations for the
    classroom interplay between the teacher and the
    student?

16
  • The strategic interaction makes teaching
    learning more meaningful and enjoyable
  • facilitating classroom communication
  • enabling Ss to learn how to learn and use
    English
  • allowing Ss to become more self-directed
  • making Ss undertake more responsibilities for
    learning
  • adding to Ss knowledge and skills
  • expanding the role of teachers (e.g.,
    co-constructor, cooperator, participant,
    facilitator, catalyst, counselor, evaluator,
    mediator )
  • Why?
  • - Contributing to communicative competence

17
  • Communicative competence
  • The ability to make language relevant to the
    context and, in turn, sustain the context through
    language use (Hymes, 1971, 1972).

18
  • Four components of communicative competence
  • Possibility the ability to produce grammatical
    sentences
  • Feasibility the sentences can be decoded by
    the human brain
  • Appropriateness the ability to use correct
    language forms in a specific sociocultural
    context
  • Performance the fact that the utterance is
    completed
  • (Hymes, 1971)

19
Another model
  • Grammatical competence
  • What Chomsky (1957) calls linguistic
    competence
  • Sociolinguistic competence
  • An understanding of the social context in
    communication
  • Discourse competence
  • The ability to achieve cohesion in form and
    coherence in thought
  • Strategic competence
  • The ability to use strategies to compensate for
    limited language knowledge.
  • (Canale Swain, 1980 Canale, 1983)

20
  • Strategic interaction
  • Human interaction, in essence, is strategic
    interaction, which starts with the premise that
    learning takes place only when the internal mind
    can be linked to the external world. (Di Pietro,
    1987 10)
  • Strategic interaction is a communicative and
    learner- centered approach to language teaching
    and learning that recognizes that students
    learning is under their own control (Wenden,
    1993 568)

21
2. Understanding learning strategies
  • Good language learner (GLL) studies
  • Successful learners strategic approaches to
    language tasks could provide teachers with
    guidance in transferring them to less successful
    learners (Rubin, 1975 Stern, 1975 Naiman et
    al., 1978) .

22
  • 7 major GLL strategies
  • An active task approach
  • An awareness of learning styles and strategies
  • Willingness to use or practice the language
  • A concern for language form
  • A concern for meaning
  • Monitoring of the learning process
  • Management of emotions.
  • (Based on Rubin, 1975 Stern, 1975 Naiman et
    al., 1978)

23
  • A key question
  • Does strategy use result in learning or does
    learning increase learners ability to employ
    more strategies? (Ellis, 1997)
  • ?

24
  • Defining learning strategies
  • Definition 1 as specific actions taken by the
    learner to make learning easier, faster, more
    enjoyable, more self-directed, more effective,
    and more transferable to new situations.
    (Oxford, 1990 8)
  • Definition 2 as complex procedures that
    individuals apply to tasks consequently, they
    may be represented as procedural knowledge which
    may be acquired through cognitive, associative,
    and autonomous stages of learning.
  • (OMalley Chamot, 1990 52)

25
  • Definition 3 as (1) language learning
    behaviors learners actually engage in to learn
    and regulate the learning of a second language
    (2) what learners know about the strategies they
    use (3) what learners know about aspects of
    their language learning
  • (Wenden, 1987 6-7)
  • Definition 4 as actions and steps taken by
    students to enhance their learning and
    development.
  • (MOE, 2001 23 2003 18)

26
  • Main characteristics of LLS
  • Both actions and knowledge/beliefs
  • Steps taken by Ss to enhance learning
  • Both general and specific approaches
  • (Strategies, tactics or techniques)
  • Both direct and indirect procedures
  • Goal- and problem-orientated (Proficiency in L2
    10 words a day word lists / dictionary use)
  • Task- and context-dependent

27
  • Classifications

Oxford (1990) OMalley Chamot (1990) ECS (MOE, 2001, 2003)
Memory strategies Cognitive strategies Cognitive strategies
Cognitive strategies Cognitive strategies Resource strategies
Metacognitive strategies Metacognitive strategies Controlling strategies
Social strategies Social/affective strategies
Affective strategies Social/affective strategies
Compensation strategies Communication strategies
28
  • Memory strategies (for storing and retrieving
    information)
  • e.g., using phonological rules using word lists
  • Cognitive strategies (for reasoning, analyzing,
    summarizing, practicing)
  • e.g., rehearsal elaboration
  • Compensation strategies (for overcoming
    limitations in knowledge)
  • e.g., guessing gestures code-switching
  • Metacognitive strategies (for organizing and
    evaluating learning)
  • e.g., goal-setting attention monitoring while
    performing a task
  • Affective strategies (for managing emotions and
    attitudes)
  • e.g., relaxation reward
  • Social strategies (for learning with others)
  • e.g., asking for correction asking for
    slowness/repetition self-talk
  • Resource strategies (for obtaining resources
    needed in learning)
  • e.g., using resource and reference books using
    audio-video materials

29
  • A question for discussion
  • Should we overtly teach our students learning
    strategies in our classroom instruction? Why?

30
  • My interpretation
  • Strategy instruction can be a useful way in
    terms of the strategic interaction between
    teachers and students.

31
3. Exploring interactive integration
  • Learning strategies in the ECS
  • Overall ECS goal
  • To develop students comprehensive competence
    of language use. (MOE, 2001 2003)

32
  • Five specific objectives
  • Language knowledge
  • Pronunciation, vocabulary, grammar, functions,
    topics
  • Language skills
  • Listening, speaking, reading, writing
  • Learning strategies
  • Cognitive, controlling, communicative,
    resource strategies
  • Cultural awareness
  • Cultural knowledge and cross-cultural
    communication
  • Affective attitudes
  • Interest and motivation, confidence and
    consistency, cooperation,and international
    outlook

33
  • EFL teachers training needs
  • (Huang, 2009)

No. ECS Objectives Mean SD Agree/Strongly agree (N 111)
N17a Language knowledge 4.16 .72 83
N17b Language skills 4.34 .72 87
N17c Learning strategies 4.32 .72 89
N17d Cultural awareness 4.23 .80 87
N17e Affective attitudes 4.17 .77 85
34
  • A question for discussion
  • To what extent are these data presented above
    true of you?

35
  • My interpretation
  • EFL teachers training needs are
    multidimensional, going beyond the traditional
    double-bases to involve the new innovations of
    learning strategies, cultural awareness and
    affective attitudes in the ECS.

36
  • The strategy list in the ECS
  • Level-5 strategy list (29 items)
  • Cognitive strategies (11 items)
  • Controlling strategies (8 items)
  • Communicative strategies (6 items)
  • Resource strategies (4 items)
  • (MOE, 2001 24)

37
  • Level-8 strategy list (18 items)
  • Cognitive strategies (6 items)
  • Controlling strategies (6 items)
  • Communicative strategies (5 items)
  • Resource strategies (1 item)
  • (MOE, 2001 25)

38
  • Learning strategies integrated in textbooks
  • Strategies in NSEFC series (PEP)
  • Embedded in the textbook series
  • Related to the learning goals in the unit
  • Integrated with the text
  • e.g. Developing cultural understanding (by
    means of going to a museum and looking at some
    real cultural relics) (Cultural relics, U1, SB2)
  • Presented in terms of learning tips
  • Inserted in the given task
  • e.g. Taking notes (Task Organizing an informal
    class debate) (Cultural relics, U1, SB2)
  • Associated with learner difficulties
  • e.g. Using body language (to overcome language
    limitations in communication) (Body language,
    U4, SB4)

39
  • My interpretation
  • Learning strategies emerge from learning goals,
    learner needs and difficulties, task performance,
    and varying situations.

40
  • Eight high-use strategies in the SILL (Huang,
    2008 95 N 305)

Item Brief Statement Mean SD Rank
MEM05 Use phonological rules 3.98 1.02 1
COM29 Use synonyms 3.83 .87 2
AFF42 Notice tension 3.77 .93 3
COG10 Say or write new words several times 3.68 .97 4
MET33 Find out how to learn better 3.68 .96 4
COG19 Look for similar words in my native language 3.64 1.01 6
COM24 Guess the unknown 3.56 .90 7
SOC45 Ask for slowness or repetition 3.55 .99 8
41
  • Thirteen low-use strategies in the SILL (Huang,
    2008 96 N 305)

Item Brief Statement Mean SD Rank
MEM03 Connect sounds and images to remember words 2.42 1.03 39
MEM06 Use word lists or flashcards 2.05 1.17 46
MEM07 Act out words physically 1.77 .91 49
MEM09 Remember new words by location on the page 2.25 .98 42
COG14 Start conversations in English 1.91 .75 47
COG16 Read for pleasure 2.42 .93 39
COG17 Write notes, messages, or letters in English 2.42 1.07 39
COM25 Use gestures 2.25 .96 42
COM26 Make up new words 2.43 1.19 38
MET35 Look for conversation partners 1.79 .75 48
AFF43 Write a learning diary 1.61 .73 50
AFF44 Talk about feelings 2.04 .87 45
SOC47 Practice with others 2.20 .86 44
42
  • Distribution of three-level strategy users
  • (Huang, 2008 97 N 305)

43
  • Learner knowledge strategy use
  • A case of the use of the self-talk strategy
  • FGP8 Whenever I come back from school, I lock
    myself in my room starting self-study. Studying
    alone has both advantages and disadvantages. It
    means that you are yourself completely. Nobody
    knows the mistakes you make. Nobody discusses
    questions with you. You may feel dull and bored.
    However, studying alone, I enjoy a quiet place,
    where I can do whatever I like to (laughing), and
    try whatever I think. For instance, I can make up
    an English story in my mind, but I may not have
    enough courage to say it out in public. But when
    I stay alone, I can say it out baldly to my
    audience of dolls, tables, and chairs. I like
    literature and tried to make up stories in
    English. I moved tables and chairs over as my
    audience, and I was the speaker, speaking to
    them. Im the only child in my family, having
    nobody and nothing to play with. In so doing, I
    just treat it as a recreation as well. (Huang,
    2008 127)

44
  • Rosas knowledge and strategy use

Knowledge beliefs Strategy use
As we can see, English native speakers pay less attention to grammar in their daily lives ... However, our teachers and students show a great deal of concern for it (grammar). Why? Because it is chiefly tested in exams. Now we still want to strive for prospects of success through exams. (Huang, 2008 149) Exercise-stuffed methods
A good memory is not as reliable as a broken pen. Note-taking strategy
Finding errors, I try to classify them, making clear why I get them wrong either in thinking or in types its also possible to be wrong in the usage of a phrase or in grammar. I mark, copy, and finally make them an error-notebook. Ill use it in the future revision. (Huang, 2008 150) Error-notebook making
Gain the new knowledge by reviewing the old (Confucius, The Analects) Reviewing
45
  • Strategies as goal-driven actions
  • What goal?
  • - The grade-getting goal
  • Terms marked in the discourse grades,
    marks, scores exams, tests, quizzes,
    dictations (as a quiz), mock tests
  • Im learning English for the sake of exams.
  • (Huang, 2008 128)

46
  • Test-taking strategies
  • Question-focused reading
  • Question-focused listening
  • Taking practice tests beforehand
  • Rule out irrelevant choices
  • Guessing the unknown
  • Imitating the model compositions
  • (Huang, 2008 129)

47
  • Impact of grade-getting goal on strategies
  • Strategy changes
  • e.g., Less risk-taking
  • Unwilling to ask for help from the teacher
  • Unwilling to ask questions for clarification
  • Why?
  • The teacher is too grade-centered (FGP2) ---
    (Goal)
  • I got lower marks (FGP1) --- (Goal)
  • The lower scores, the weaker self-confidence
    (FGP7) --- (Affective)
  • Worry about making errors (FGP7) --- (Affective
    ability)
  • Classmates laugh at me (FGP3) --- (Social)
  • Id like to save face for myself (FGP47) ---
    (Social)
  • No enough words to express ideas (FGP6) ---
    (Ability)
  • (Huang, 2008 129-130)

48
  • Strategies as task-focused actions
  • The same strategy for different tasks
  • Strategy Guess meanings from the context
  • Tasks Reading comprehension
  • Listening comprehension
  • Cloze
  • (Huang, 2008 132)

49
  • Different strategies for the same task
  • Task goal setting strategy use for reading
    comprehension

Student Task goal setting Strategy use
FGP8 To understand the meanings of words, sentences, paragraphs, and the text Bottom-up reading approaches Figure out sounds words phrases sentences paragraphs passage
FGP25 To know about Western cultures Understand different text forms (genres), such as stories, scientific articles, news reports, advertisements, biographies, etc., as reflections of Western cultures (the strategy transferred from Chinese learning)
FGP38 To improve reading ability Scan for the information needed Skim for general ideas Intensive reading
FGP46 To know what the passage tells us about Preview the headings Mark key points and key words Guess meanings from the context Use dictionaries after reading (Huang, 2008 131)
50
  • Strategies for non-communicative exercises
  • Example Strategies for grammar exercises
  • Memory Memorize grammar rules
  • Resource Use grammar/reference books
  • Cognitive Learn grammar through teachers
    instruction
  • Learn grammar through peer discussions
  • Understand grammar by reading model sentences
  • Consolidate knowledge by doing exercises
  • Learn grammar by reading and accumulation
  • Note-taking
  • Analyze and use grammar knowledge
  • Metacognitive Find out weaknesses and missing
    points in learning
  • (Huang, 2008 133)

51
  • Strategies for communicative tasks
  • Example Strategies for role play
  • Functional practice strategies
  • Act out words
  • Practice oral English
  • Find as many ways as possible to use English
  • Social Ask for help from the teacher
  • Ask for error correction
  • (Huang, 2008 133)

52
  • Strategies as situated actions
  • Strategic interaction between teachers and
    students

The teachers instructional impact Lenas strategy use
Ts teaching method of sentence making Using new words in a sentence
T strictly required students to take notes in class Note-taking
T recommended CCTV9 for listening practice Watching English TV programs
Ts instruction of language points Trying to find patterns in English
Feeling anxious and nervous in Ts classes Relaxing when fearful
T asked me questions almost every lesson Noticing tension
Asking T and peers for help with unknown Asking for help from others
Collecting some questions to ask T for help Asking for clarification or verification
Attending Ts elective courses on English culture Learning about L2 culture
Trying to be more active in Ts lessons Using reference books
53
  • Lena never concealed her fondness for the
    teacher, saying, Love the teacher, and believe
    in the way she teaches.
  • (Huang, 2008 262)

54
  • Another students comments on her teachers
    methods
  • FGP2 Our teacher always teaches us in the same
    way teaching new words and expressions,
    explaining the text, and then listening to the
    text recording, always the same, rarely asking us
    to perform actively in class. In my impression,
    everything could be smoothed out in class in the
    same way memorizing! Dwelling so much on
    grammar is but useless. We dont have that much
    time for it. Weve got piles and piles of
    assignments to do in maths, physics, and
    chemistry every day. Plus English vocabulary, we
    really cant spare time for reading grammar. From
    my point of view, just no need for teachers to
    talk that much about grammar. More examples are
    welcome, and its easier for us to understand
    examples.
  • (Huang, 2008 133)

55
  • Strategic interaction among students
  • FGP39 My partners impact on me was so great
    that the learning methods used by us were always
    almost similar. In particular, both of us seemed
    to take notes in class in similar ways.
  • (Huang, 2008 134)

56
  • In class, Lena tried to take every possible
    opportunity to listen to other students. Below,
    she explained the rationale
  • They speak English only in class. Listening to
    others, I follow them and speak to myself. This
    is equally the same as listening to myself once
    again, so as to check where is my weakness.
    (Huang, 2008 261)

57
  • Reading aloud in a dormitory learning community
  • FGP2 Speaking of reading aloud, to be honest,
    I like that pleasant feeling of reading texts
    aloud very much. Every time we felt utterly
    exhausted from working on maths, physics and
    chemistry, we always put all our hopes for
    refreshing ourselves on our chorus recitation
    next morning though we all slept very late tired
    at midnight. Next morning, all of our 8 roommates
    had a lot fun to recite English or Chinese texts
    together, fighting to see who was able to read
    loudest and most fluently, until hoarse
    voices (Huang, 2008 135)

58
  • Strategic interaction between family and students
  • FGP6 Im always feeling I havent learned
    enough vocabulary to express myself whenever I
    stand up to speak English. Im just afraid of
    making mistakes.
  • FGP3 Oh, thats not my case. Ive never been
    afraid of making errors. This might be attributed
    to my family education practice. My mum always
    said to me that your classmates might laugh at
    your English mistakes youve potentially made
    when you stand up to speak English. However, if
    you were reluctant to stand up, you would have
    already completely been defeated by yourself
  • (Huang, 2008 135)

59
  • Conclusion
  • (1) Learning strategies are integrated into the
    ECS as a curriculum goal, and strategy use
    contributes to the development of students
    comprehensive competence of language use.
  • (Strategic interaction with the curriculum)
  • (2) Learning strategies are explicitly or
    implicitly embedded in different textbook series,
    and strategy use makes classroom teaching and
    learning more meaningful and enjoyable.
  • (Strategic interaction with textbooks)

60
  • (3) Strategy use is based on the learners
    knowledge and beliefs, and in turn enhances the
    development of knowledge and skills.
  • (Strategic interaction within the learner)
  • (4) Strategy use is motivated by learning goals,
    aiming to achieve learning goals in the process
    of English teaching and learning.
  • (Strategic interaction with learning goals)

61
  • (5) Learning strategies are the learners
    specific approaches to L2 tasks in particular
    situations, and the nature of tasks has crucial
    impact on strategy choice and use.
  • (Strategic interaction with learning tasks)
  • (6) Strategic interaction occurs between
    teachers and students, students and their peers,
    and students and their family members in
    ever-changing contexts.
  • (Strategic interaction with others)

62
  • A quotation
  • Studying hard is not the same thing as studying
    smart.
  • (Weinstein Hume, 1998 67-68).

63
  • Thank you!!!

64
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  • Oxford, R. L. (1990). Language learning
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    York Newbury House Publishers.
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    learner" can teach us. TESOL Quarterly, 9 (1),
    41-51.
  • Stern, H.H. (1975). What can we learn from the
    good language learner? Canadian Modern Language
    Review, 31 (4), 304-318.
  • Weinstein, C. E., Hume, L. M. (1998). Study
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    C. American Psychological Association.
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    utility. In A. Wenden J. Rubin (Eds.), Learner
    strategies in language learning (pp. 313). New
    York Prentice Hall.
  • ???(MOE),(2001),??????(???),????????????
  • ???(MOE),(2003),??????????(??),??????????

66
For further reading
  • ??????????? (SEAMEO RELC PORTFOLIO SERIES)
  • Chandrasegaran, A. (2002). SEAMEO RELC portfolio
    series 7 Intervening to help in the writing
    process. Singapore SEAMEO Regional Language
    Centre. ??????????
  • Cotterall, S., Reinders, H. (2004). SEAMEO RELC
    portfolio series 12 Learner strategies A guide
    for teachers. Singapore SEAMEO Regional Language
    Centre. ?????????
  • Farrell, T. S. C. (2002). SEAMEO RELC portfolio
    series 6 Planning lessons for a reading class.
    Singapore SEAMEO Regional Language Centre.
    ??????
  • Field, M. L. (2003). SEAMEO RELC portfolio series
    10 Text features and reading comprehension.
    Singapore SEAMEO Regional Language Centre.
    ?????????
  • Goh, C. C. M. (2002). SEAMEO RELC portfolio
    series 4 Teaching listening in the language
    classroom. Singapore SEAMEO Regional Language
    Centre. ??????????
  • Hadley, G. (2003). SEAMEO RELC portfolio series
    8 Action research in action. Singapore SEAMEO
    Regional Language Centre. ????????
  • Lewis, M. (2002). SEAMEO RELC portfolio series 1
    Giving feedback in language classes. Singapore
    SEAMEO Regional Language Centre. ????????
  • McKay, S. L. (2002). SEAMEO RELC portfolio series
    3 The reflective teacher A guide to classroom
    research. Singapore SEAMEO Regional Language
    Centre. ?????

67
  • Richards, J. C. (2005). SEAMEO RELC portfolio
    series 13 Communicative language teaching today.
    Singapore SEAMEO Regional Language
    Centre.??????????
  • Tomlinson, B., Masuhara, H. (2004). SEAMEO RELC
    portfolio series 11 Developing language course
    materials. Singapore SEAMEO Regional Language
    Centre. ?????????????

68
  • Questions answers ?

69
A proposed topic for next seminar
  • Vocabulary myths and vocabulary learning
    strategies
  • ?
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